Interactive display has become a popular information presentation technology in Human-computer interface development. This technology modifies presentation information and/or its layout according to users’ current operation or their personal habits. The interactive display can be classified into two major categories: the simple (e.g., the fisheye display) and the intelligent interactive displays (e.g., the speed-coupled flattening and the bubble targets display). Interactive display has three features: dynamicness, realtimeness, and intelligence. Most of the current interactive display technologies were far from perfect. For example, they were limited in the number of interactive methods, most of which were still lack of intelligence. Thus, future studies should focus on developing interactive displays with multiple interactive methods, and with advanced intelligence.
Anxiety is one of the most important kinds of negative emotions in our daily life. The potential influence of anxiety on personal life and cognitive ability is an important topic in the area of physiology. Previous studies reveal that anxiety significantly dampens social skills, for instance, high-anxious people are more likely than low-anxious people to choose avoidance strategy during social decision-making. Nevertheless, the research on this behavioral pattern has only developed for a few years and many questions remain unsolved. Particularly, previous studies selectively focus on social decisions with the economic factor, while those without the factor are largely ignored. This paper highlights the following issues which are unexplored: on individual level, whether high-anxious people are more likely to be affected by social information, and show the willingness to be conformity and obey authority; whether the motive to be involved in social comparison and social competition would be weakened among high-anxious people; on group level, whether anxious people are more likely to show interpersonal trust and collectivism. The answers to these questions would prove beneficial to the cognitive and clinical studies on anxiety.
As an effective approach for employees' socialization and career development, mentoring has been widely used in various organizations. However, both outcomes and behaviors of mentoring are influenced by the changes from employee work needs and work style in organizations respectively. On the one hand, the previous mentoring research pay much attention to career outcomes of employees; On the other hand, the majority of mentoring research has only considered the dyadic mentor-protégé relationship and overlooks group-level mentoring. According to previous research, we firstly proposes a new concept named multiple-level mentoring behaviors, including providing group-level mentoring for all protégés and individual-level mentoring for one protégé. Moreover, this research examines the mediating role of self-efficacy and group identification in the relationships between multiple-level mentoring and protégés outcomes. And finally develops a cross-level modeling by examining the interaction of different level of mentoring on protégés outcomes. The present research will not only fill in the gaps in the mentoring outcomes (limited to career outcomes) and mentoring behaviors (neglecting group-level mentoring), but also give valuable implications for mentoring practice.
Approximate number system (ANS) refers to a system with which an individual can represent a set of numbers approximately without calculation and numerical symbols. We firstly sum up the recent development in heredity, neural basis and the intervention training of ANS at home and abroad within the last decade. Then we point out that, basing on the genetic and brain physiological researches, further researches should reveal the nature and inherent developing mechanism of ANS by means of cognitive neuroscience, and apply the findings into teaching. For example, our findings can help children poor in math to improve their mathematical skills and ability to adapt to the society.
Recently, increased emphasis has been placed on the investigation of gender differences in the human brain. Neuroimaging techniques have broken new ground in studying the effects of gender on both brain structure and function. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging, current research discusses gender differences and their changes with age in gray matter and white matter within three levels: focal brain region, brain subsystem and brain network. Moreover, current study also explores gender differences and their changes with age in the baseline brain activity, within above-mentioned three levels by electroencephalogram, positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, to better understand the evidence of gender influences on the brain, it is also helpful to discuss some common misconceptions about the topic. Although much progress has been made in the field of gender differences in the brain, significant controversy remains and more work should be done in the future. On the one hand, we should increase studies of brain mechanism about gender-specific mental disorders, and focus on the interaction effects of gene and environment on gender differences in the brain. On the other hand, we should also consider the dynamic characteristics of brain functional activity and combine multimodal neuroimaging techniques to further reveal gender differences in the brain.
Memories are consolidated through the information encoding process during waking and the re- processing consolidation during sleeping. Memory reconsolidation theory claims that memory consolidation process needs to be repeated for many times. More specifically, it states that consolidated memories transiently return to a labile state upon each retrieval process and must be restabilized to persist further through a reconsolidation process involving new protein synthesis. At this labile state, memories are easily amenable to enhancement or disruption. Memory reconsolidation is also a time-dependent process, it occurs after memory consolidation and persists for about 6 hours, including the protein degradation destabilization phase and the protein synthesis stabilization phase. Re-exposure of the retrieval trial can trigger either memory reconsolidation or extinction, which depends on the duration of retrieval stimulus presentation.
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is considered to be a major neuroendocrine system related to physiological responses to stress. Cortisol, an end product of HPA axis, is often used as one of the biological indexes to reflect individuals’ stress levels. Previous studies have mostly employed diurnal cortisol to reflect the characteristics of HPA activity, and diurnal cortisol has become one of the best indexes to evaluate children’s physical health due to its stability and reliability. Because of children’s rapid development in the early stages of their life, the secretion of cortisol not only interacts with children’s behaviors but it is also influenced by a variety of psychological and social factors. Past research has mainly focused on the relations between diurnal cortisol patterns and children’s problem behaviors or psychosocial factors. Future studies should consider the risk and protective factors in child development and explore the endocrinal mechanisms concerning how environment can influence children’s behaviors.
Neuroticism is a trait of personality, and its core feature is the tendency to experience negative emotions. Highly neurotic individuals had more intense emotional reactions as well as poorer performances on emotion perception and coping. Thus, these individuals tended to experience more negative emotions, leading them to be more vulnerable to a series of mental and physical disorders. Due to these factors, neuroticism has become one of the most important risk factors in development of psychopathology. Evidence from studies concerning autonomic nervous system, endocrine system, and the brain showed that highly neurotic individuals had reduced cardiovascular flexibility, enhanced HPA baseline activity, increased EEG activity, and enhanced amygdala activity induced by negative emotions. More importantly, there was evidence that the top-down and bottom-up pathway of amygdala may be the key to explain these associations. Future research is strongly encouraged to integrate methods from genetics, electrophysiology, biochemistry, and brain imaging technology, so as to construct a neuro-physiological model of neuroticism.
The concept of projective identification was originated from the work of Freud, but was given a specific name and definition by Melanie Klein. After that, the leaders of the Klein Group such as Bion, Rosenfield and Grotstein described, developed, and modified it in different aspects. This paper suggests that the connotative evolution goes through three diversions: from unilateral projection to bilateral communication; from inner fantasy to real exchange; from maternal-child relationship to consultation relationship. The projective identification can be seen as a more sophisticated mechanism than the projection, and the differences between the transference and the projective identification can be seen in aspects of the origin, content and result. In recent years, the rise of neuropsychoanalysis and the discovery of mirror neurons give support to the projective identification in the aspect of neuroscience.
To better understand the psychological theory system of Carol S. Dweck, who is the contemporary American psychologist, we have analyzed her academic achievements systematically, then we divide her theories into four successive themes by the time dimension: (a) Theme of the relationship between learned helplessness and attribution; (b) Theme of achievement goal theory; (c) Implicit theories of intelligence theme; (d) Theme of implicit theories. These themes have promoted the development of psychological theories of attribution, intelligence, motivation, personality, etc. and have been widely used in practice in the field of health, education, interpersonal relationships and management, and have had a profound impact in academia and society.
Affective adaptation is a psychological processes that causes a weak affective when exposures to a repetitive and successive stimulus. Empirical researches suggested that the adaptation to positive and negative emotions is asymmetric in speed and degree. We explain the mechanism of asymmetric affective adaptation from views of evolutionary psychology, cognitive psychology and positive psychology. There are many questions should be further explored: (1) The different adaptation between affective well-being and cognitive well-being; (2) The moderate effect of personality traits in affective adaptation process; (3) Investigate the interventions of affective adaptation; (4) Promote the precision of the temporal localization of the adaptation trajectory.
The general factor of personality (GFP) is the summit factor of personality hierarchy, a basic personality disposition that integrates most non-cognitive dimensions of personality. People with high score on GFP are more adaptive and successful in directional selection. After Musek (2007) introduced GFP to the theoretical center of the personality research, it has attracted academic interest worldwide. In this article, the history of GFP research was briefly reviewed. A set of comprehensive statistical and genetics evidences of GFP and its relations with other psychological constructs were reported. Critiques on GFP and their responses were presented. Researches demonstrated that GFP can be extracted from most personality scales, and the existence of GFP is supported by behavioral genetic researches and GFP is associated with social adaptability. Finally, implications and prospects of GFP research were discussed.
Presenteeism refers to attending work while ill. Being harmful to personal health of employees and bringing extra costs to organization, presenteeism in the workplace has got attention of organization managers and management and psychology researchers. By reviewing and summarizing previous studies, this paper summarized the concepts and measures of presenteeism in the workplace. We also delineated the antecedents of presenteeism in the workplace from individual, work-related, organizational and group perspectives, and the consequences from individual health-related, individual work-related, and organizational outcomes. Finally, we concluded with an agenda for future research on presenteeism in the workplace.
Happiness at work could be defined as feelings and pleasure that an individual experienced after attainment of individual purpose and the full realization of his/her potential at work. It is also a dynamic process which requires continued effort and the organizational and individual investment, including broad structures such as work engagement, flow experience, thriving at work, job satisfaction and positive emotions at work. Given its complexity, it is necessary to simultaneously measure happiness at work at transient, person and unit level. With the methodological advances, the research in this area has now displayed a tendency to combine both inter-personal and intra-personal differences. Integrating the organization and work environment, individual characteristics as well as the interaction between person and the environment, the dynamic multilevel model of happiness at work highlighted the dynamic characteristics of happiness at work and postulated that the satisfaction of human basic psychological needs are the mechanism underlying happiness at work. The dynamic Spillover-Cross model suggests that happiness spills over in different life domains and transfers between work teammates or couples, and thereby helps to promote effect research of happiness at work at different levels. More empirical studies are needed to test the dynamic causal models of happiness at work, and to explore the psychological mechanism of how the happiness at work at different levels influences the performance. Specifically, future studies may focus on the specific indexes of happiness at work such as flow experience, thriving at work, happiness, pride, as well as on intervention procedures.
Health-enhancing behaviors refer that consumers through healthy lifestyle buy healthy products to achieve health. Health-enhancing behaviors can be influenced by a multiplicity of different factors, including proximate cause and ultimate cause. Proximate cause can be explained as follows: ultimate cause shows the tendency of seeking benefits and avoiding disadvantages from evolutionary psychology, proximate cause is a reflex of the impact of current conditions, life course theory pay attention to accumulated effect of childhood family experiences on subsequent consumer behavior, the orientation of ecological approach emphasize osmosis of ecosystems from outside to inside, dynamic mechanism explains the internal driving force of health how to form. Finally, the paper constructed a comprehensive model, and pointed out the future research direction.
Customer mistreatment refers to the low-quality interpersonal treatment that employees receive from customers, such as Customer Verbal Aggression, sexual harassment. Previous studies have investigated the definition, construct and outcome of customer mistreatment in depth. Customer mistreatment is founded to be influenced by subject and object factors, and affect individuals and organizations through theories of resource conservation, social exchange, affective events and organizational justice. We concluded with an agenda for future research on the conceptualization, construct, measurement, nomological network, and cross-cultural investigation of customer mistreatment.
Workplace gossip is widespread in various organizations and becomes an influential non-official information channel. Workplace negative gossip consists of three parties: senders, receivers, and targets. Previous research on workplace gossip has focused on senders or receivers by using laboratory and small sample size data. Lack of attention has been paid to the gossip victims by using large sample data. The present study reviewed the literature of the antecedents and outcomes of workplace negative gossip according to the victim perspective and provided a framework for future studies.
Apology refers to relationship remedial behavior which happens when the offender realizes his offence, and it aimed to remedy the relationship by admitting his offence, taking the responsibility, expressing regrets, and asking for the forgiveness. The apology behavior has involved a great number of factors, such as offender’s gender, attribution tendency, offending intention and perceived effectiveness. Also, the perceived effectiveness has been influenced on the expression and content of the apology and the offender’s gender. Apology promotes forgiveness, relationship reconciliation, as well as ethnic harmony. Future research need to be clarified the concept of apology, extended the research mode and measurement tools. Besides, researchers should attach importance to constructing apology theory and promoting its practical application which based on the systematic and in-depth examination of the apology mechanism and its results.
From the traditional psychological perspectives of human development, it was generally taken for granted that individual biological development was a fixed routine, rarely had experiences in childhood been taken into consideration systematically. However, life history theory, as a branch of evolutionary biology, focusing on how organisms allocate time, energy as well as resources to various activities over their life cycle, pointed out that childhood experiences could influence individual’s somatic development and then reproductive strategy. Such an understanding implied an interaction, especially with a developmental perspective, between body and mind. Thus, the timing of sexual maturation (i.e., puberty) was a core variable distinguishing other theories of human development from life history theory.