Semantic radicals are components which are related with Chinese characters in view of meaning. Semantic radicals’ research is the unique field of Chinese characters study. There has been a long history in semantic radicals’ research from the point view of linguistics. Linguists have investigated the properties of semantic radicals’ expressing meaning, the rate of semantic radicals’ expressing meaning and the frequency of semantic radicals’ constructing Chinese character from the aspects of quality and the statistics mainly. Cognitive psychologists have mostly explored the influences of semantic radicals to word recognition, semantic extraction, grammar classification and perceptual processing from the view of sub-lexical processing of Chinese characters, also discussed subjective familiarity, family size and consistency of semantic radicals. They found semantic radicals is not only the “chuck” of Chinese character’s structure, the “chuck” of Chinese character’s recognition, but also the “chuck” of semantics and the “chuck” of Chinese character’s grammar.Based on the previous studies, researchers have proposed processing models of semantic radicals impacting Chinese characters cognition, these models conform to the results of semantic research to some extent and deliver new blood into the Chinese characters cognition theory, and also lay a solid foundation for following researches.
The processing of a target speech under noisy environment is influenced by the presence of concurrent sounds, this phenomenon is referred to as auditory masking. Previous research showed that there are two kinds of masking, energetic masking and informational masking. Energetic masking originated from auditory periphery, where the masking sound overlaps with the target sound in time and frequency, resulting in an incomplete representation of the latter. On the other hand, informational masking is believed to occur in the central auditory system. However, for a long time, the concept of informational masking has been used as a “suitcase” or “catchall” word. All the influencing effect that can not be explained by energetic masking is attributed to informational masking, though its underlying mechanism is still largely unknown. In this article, a new conceptual framework of informational masking is proposed. In this framework, informational masking is divided into two subcomponents, perceptual informational masking and cognitive informational masking. Perceptual masking is caused by the competition between the sound stream/object, while cognitive informational masking is caused by the higher cognitive information included in the masking sounds, which could be automatically processed by the auditory or linguistic system. Psychophysical and neural imaging studies are proposed to test the above hypothesis. In behavioral studies, the perceived spatial separation between the target and the masker, the intelligibility and the voice number in the masking sound, as well as the perceptual similarity between the target and masker streams are manipulated to demonstrate that perceptual masking and cognitive masking could be double-dissociated. In the neural imaging study, fMRI technique is used to show that perceptual and cognitive informational masking may have different neural mechanism.
Three longitudinal studies are incorporated to explore the dynamic and interactive processes of organizational socialization. First, the communication process between employees and their supervisors will be captured through ESM cell phone data collection design, for a period of one week during the first three months. Second, the dynamics of organizational socialization will be explored through three months, one-week interval longitudinal study which will record information from both employees and their supervisors. Third, impact factors on organizational socialization as well as the effect of organizational socialization will be explored in a one year, three-month interval study. Findings from these longitudinal studies will provide greater insights on the dynamics and interactional perspective of the socialization process.
Dialecticism refers to a set of folk knowledge maintained in Eastern Asian people’s ideology characterized by holistic cognition, change expectation and contradiction tolerance. In this paper, we developed an implicit measure of dialecticism to test how dialectical concept was linked with Eastern Asian participants’ self-concept. In two studies, we found that Chinese participants associated “dialectical” words with “self” words and “non-dialectical” words with “other” words significantly faster than the opposite association. Furthermore, they associate “friend” words with “dialectical” words and “enemy” words with “non-dialectical” words with faster response. These results demonstrated that Eastern Asian participants would more likely to link self-concept together with dialectical concepts.
Functional blindness involves the reported loss of visual awareness in the absence of organic reasons to explain the impaired vision, such as change blindness and attention blink, etc. Emotion-induced blindness (EiB) refers to a phenomenon in which the brief appearance of a task-irrelevant, emotionally arousing image captures attention to such an extent that individuals cannot detect target stimuli which present with high speed after the emotional stimulus. The EiB differ from attention blink, especially from emotional attention blink in term of the process being measured and the results. Emotional stimulus is critical distraction in the EiB research and so we can explore how emotional stimulus capture attention and interfere with the process of target stimulus by bottom-up processing. Therefore, blindness induced by emotional stimulus has its own characteristics, such as the EiB has no lag1 sparing, no strict time window as attention blink, not influenced by the similarity between distraction and target stimulus, and the mental mechanism is a competition of perception in early stage. The EiB is a kind of unique research method which could be used to explore the influence of emotion on attention not only in the process of time but also in the position of space. We need do more work for an in-depth study of EiB in the future, including investigating it’s neural mechanism and influential factors.
Based on the reconsolidation theory of memory, the retrieval-extinction paradigm employ the extinction training within the reconsolidation window to rewrite fear memory of subjects and reduce their fear response by decreasing the valence of fear stimulus. The Ret+Ext paradigm is an innovation and development of traditional exposure therapies and drug treatment. It provides a new non-invasive model for trauma treatments and a new theoretical perspective for the rewriting human memory and the exploring human well-beings on the Positive Psychology.
Inhibitory control deficit is the core aspect of impaired cognitive function of heroin addicts and the key influencing factor of relapse. A number of studies confirmed that the inhibitory control function of heroin addicts were damaged, and the abnormal brain activity was found in the frontal lobe, anterior cingulate cortex, ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and insula of chronic heroin users. Previous studies have shown that the inhibitory control deficit of heroin addicts was permanent and irreversible brain damage. However, some recent studies have provided evidence of inhibitory control function recovery of abstinent drug abusers. Besides, the researchers should pay more attention to the inhibitory control function of heroin addicts under the multiple conflict situations, and implement different treatment in the rehabilitation practice according to their own characteristics of abstinent heroin abusers in the future.
The research of the neural mechanism of adult attachment style contributes to a the deeper understanding of attachment behaviors and attachment types: The differences in N1, N200, N400 and P300 reflect that people with different attachment styles may differ in encoding, retrieving, and the allocation of attentional resources. The activities of brain areas, such as frontal cortex, cingulate cortex, temporal pole, amygdala, and hippocampus, might reflect the fact that people with different attachment styles have different cognitive mechanisms and ways to allocate attentional resources in the information processing. So far there is only a consistency between fMRI studies and the attachment theories on the effectiveness of secure and insecure attachment strategies, and studies other than that are still in dispute. Future researches can focus on developing higher quality questionnaires to measure adult attachment styles, exploring the neural mechanism of the processing of implicit stimulus affected by attachment styles, and refining how attachment styles influence the neural activities and brain images of different stages of the information processing, and examining the application of attachment styles’ impact on brain mechanisms of information processing in clinical treatment.
Due to the chilling examples of ethical scandals and management malfeasance, research has paid more attention to authentic leadership. Based on theoretical and 67 quantitative empirical studies published in last 10 years, this article reviewed the scientific status of authentic leadership. The review indicated that: (1) Either trait/behavioral perspective or process perspective was utilized to conceptualize authentic leadership; (2) Specific measures, coupled with rating sources and methods were developed to assess authentic leadership; (3) Antecedents of authentic leadership consisted of both individual and situational variables; (4) Authentic leadership was found to bring positive outcomes for individuals, teams and organizations through mechanisms of positive organizational behavior, social learning, social identity and social exchange. We concluded with an agenda for future research on the conceptualization, measurement, nomological network, and cross-cultural/indigenous investigation of authentic leadership.
Trickle-down model is newly developed approach in leadership areas, which examines how leaders’ behaviors and their cognition trickle-down from upper-level leaders to lower-level followers. By exploring the systematic effects of multilevel leadership, the model fills the gap of prior studies which focus on single-level leadership. It is necessary to systematically summarize the definition, characteristics, theoretical foundations, effects and future research of trickle-down model in leadership areas, which will contribute to integrating leadership and broadening our understanding of Chinese leadership.
The planning fallacy refers to people’s overoptimistic tendency to underestimate the time required to complete a future task. Researchers have provided theories to explain the psychological mechanism of planning fallacy, planning fallacy theory and memory bias theory. Evidences show planning fallacy could be influenced by some factors, such as cognitive factors, motivational factors, individual experience level and task property. Previous research findings show that planning fallacy could be avoided by coping strategy. The directions for further researches of planning fallacy are discussed. Future researches are expected to clear up the delicate relationship among planning fallacy, strategic misrepresentation, optimistic bias and overconfidence and explore its original source, cross-cultural significance and practical application values.
Regarding the impact of life events on individual’s emotional reactions and behavior options, all the studies have tried to explain the mechanism of life events impacting on individuals from the perspective of relation between different life events and behavior decision-making, while different theories have different interpretations. Behavior/Economic Model regard people as “absolutely rational”, while Averaging/Summation Model, Peak-End Rule and Mental Accounting Model regard people as “bounded rational”. By detailed comparison of the latter three theories, we find that they are different from the exploring perspectives, the definition of life events and the choice of research methods. Future research should expand on the following aspects, such as discrimination and integration of different models, the interaction between different attributions of life events and individuals’ as well as the diversification of research methods, etc.
The two fundamental dimensions of social cognition are warmth and competence of Stereotype Content Model (SCM). Compesation effect is a tendency to differentiate two social targets in a comparative context on the two fundamental dimensions by contrasting them in a compensatory direction. There are two means of measuring the compensation effect, that is, direct measurement and indirect measurement. In addition, there are two basic categories in the compensation effect, one is the mutual compensation between competence and warmth, the other contain compensation of competence for warmth and compensation of warmth for competence. The psychological mechanisms of the compensation effect could probably be contrast effect, system justification theory and mixed stereotypes. Admittedly, the compensation effect, which was widely applied in interpersonal and intergroup social cognition, needs further deepening and expansion in respect of theoretical research and practical applications.
Relationship remedy occurs when a transgression causes the positive state to disappear and the negative state to arise, then actives by one party, both parties, or the third party return the relationship to a positive state. Previous researches focus on two types of relationship remedy, namely, interactional and individual-organizational remedy. Interactional remedy includes four stages, namely, challenge, offering, acceptance, and thanks. Different remedy strategies should follow the different relationship violation types and culture backgrounds. The underlying mechanisms of individual-organizational remedy are trustworthiness demonstration and distrust regulation. Adhere to the Principle of Congruence, the underlying mechanisms should be systematically and dynamically. Based on the embedded perspective, future studies should refine instrumental variables, make analysis of multi-factors with synergistic and integrated across-level methods, and promote the local empirical researches.
Intergroup forgiveness is the psychological process characterized with a reduction of feelings of revenge, anger, and mistrust towards the past perpetrator group, together with an increase of intentions to understand, approach, and engage with its members. Recent studies mainly concentrated on influencing factors of intergroup forgiveness, including infra-humanization, competitive victimhood, group identification, anger, empathy, apology, and group contact. Different intervention strategies have been proposed to enhance the level of intergroup forgiveness and thus mitigate intergroup tensions. Further studies should explore the underlying psychological mechanism of intergroup forgiveness and construct indigenous intervention strategies htat are compatible with the groups’ own cultures.
In recent years, multilevel models (MLM) have been frequently used for studying multilevel mediation in social sciences. However, there still exist sampling errors and measurement errors even after separating the between-group effects from the within-group ones of multilevel mediation. To solve this problem, a new method has been developed abroad by integrating MLM with structural equation models (SEM) under the framework of multilevel structural equation models (MSEM) to set latent variables and multiple indicators. That method has proved to rectify sampling errors and measurement errors effectively and obtain more accurate mediating effect values. And it is applicable to a larger variety of multilevel mediation analysis and able to provide fit indices of the models. After introducing the new method, we proposed a procedure for analyzing multilevel mediation by using MSEM, with an example illustrating how to execute it with the software MPLUS. Directions for future study on multilevel mediation and MSEM were discussed at the end of the paper.
Item response theory (IRT) is a modern measurement theory for accurately estimating individuals’ ability, and latent class analysis (LCA) is a statistical technique used to identify subtypes of individuals, which is based on statistic models. Mixture item response theory (Mixture IRT) combining LCA and IRT is able to classify the subjects as well as quantifying their traits. The concept and principle of Mixture IRT is elaborated in this paper. Besides, several common mixed models are introduced here, such as the mixed Rasch model (MRM), a mixture version of the nominal response model (mNRM) and a mixture version of the partial credit model (mPCM). Furthermore, different parameter estimation methods are described and the application traces in psychological test of Mixture IRT is evaluated from the perspectives of classifying psychological or behavioral traits, detecting differential item functioning and estimating test validity.
The conventional scoring method of forced-choice personality tests produces the ipsative data to which reliability and validity analysis, factor analysis, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) can not apply. In order to overcome these problems, some researchers have come up with item response theory-based (IRT-based) models for the scoring and analysis of forced-choice tests. These models, such as Thurstonian IRT model and Multi-Unidimensional Pairwise-Preference Model (MUPP), can avoid the disadvantages of ipsative data. On one hand, Thurstonian IRT model can be easily used for parameter estimation and it is flexible in model specification, while MUPP has poor expansibility and still needs improvement in parameter estimation method. On the other hand, MUPP has been used to develop forced-choice tests against faking but Thurstonian IRT model is still far from this kind of application. More empirical studies are needed to test the applicability and effectiveness of both models.
Automatic item generation is a principled approach to item design that is grounded on cognitive theory of item solution, of which a key step is to identify and extract task features systematically via principled structure analyses of the items. The current study aims to develop such a principled structure analysis method of algebra story problems that serves the purpose of automatic item generation by synthesizing four structure analysis methods that are currently available in the literature, that is, propositional analysis, network language analysis, relation-functional analysis and task analysis map. It is shown that task features extracted from the first three methods correspond to the three types of interim mental representations formed during algebra story problem solving, that is, semantic structure, situational model and problem model, respectively, whereas those from the fourth reveal the cognitive demands at various stages of problem solving. However, further studies are required to investigate the psychological reality, thoroughness, and the range of applicability for such methods before an integrated method of structure analysis of algebra story problems can be formulated for automatic item generation.