Risky decision making is a complex process that involves weighing different options in terms of their likelihood of potential rewards and risks. It is one of the most important cognitive functions of the human brain. People differ significantly in their everyday risky decision making, partly influenced by genetic and environmental factors. In this article, we first review recent studies investigating the effect of genetic factors on risky decision making, including twin studies and molecular genetic studies. Candidate genes included dopamine-related genes (e.g., COMT and DAT), serotonin-related genes (e.g., SLC6A and TPH1), and other genes (e.g., BDNF). We then discussed the contribution of environment as well as gene-environment interaction to risky decision making. Recent studies have also incorporated brain anatomy and functions as endophenotypes of risky decision making in molecular genetic research. In the final section, we outline directions of future research that should emphasize gene-environment interactions and brain structure and functions as the mediators between genes and risky decision making.
Decision making under risk is vital to human survival and development. How to make a risky choice is a compelling question facing scientists today. Mainstream theories of decision making under risk hold that risky choices are based on a compensatory expectation-maximizing process. Some researchers, however, argued that risky choice is based on a non-compensatory process, foregoing weighting and summing. People rely on only one (or a few) key dimension (s) rather than integrating information from all dimensions of an option for making a decision. To tackle this question and further our knowledge of the mechanism underlying human decision making, concrete and convincing evidence based on psychological process is required. Therefore, over the past decade, we designed and conducted a series of behavioral and neural experiments to systematically investigate the process of risky decision making. We organized and presented our experiments in line with the computation steps assumed by the expectation rule, that is, from the process of deriving probability functions, to weighting process, to weighting and summing process, and then to maximizing overall values. This review illustrates how these “independent” studies can help us to gradually understand the global process underlying risky choices, thereby providing psychology- and neuroscience-based theoretical foundations for establishing and stipulating risk related policies, laws, and regulations.
The plasticity of working memory ability in children was demonstrated. The study adopts double-blind controlled experimental design. Researchers trained the working memory ability of normal children and special children by remodeled working memory span, N-back, running memory and GO-NOGO tasks from 15-30 days, moreover 15-25 minutes per day. The study found that working memory Training not only improve the children’s working memory ability, but also transfer to other higher cognitive functions. It even can improve clinical symptoms of ADHD children. The researchers also found that training effect can be maintained for 3-6 months. The study to investigate Whether Central executive function training can promote children cognitive function, does children cognitive function training promote cognitive development or transitory improved and how to effect the development of children cognitive process by traning will become the new trends in this field..This can provide effective clinical intervention and treatment tool for working memory deficit children.
The potential negative effects of destructive leadership behaviors on the organization can not be ignored. However, little research and theory development has addressed such behaviors. The purpose of this research is twofold: (1) to explore the construct of destructive leadership and develop a corresponding measure of it using simultaneously qualitative methods and quantitative methods in the Chinese organizational context, and (2) to explore the antecedents of destructive leadership behaviors with longitudinal research which collected “supervisor-employee” paired data and analyzed data with several statistical methods including structural equation modeling, multiple regression analysis and hierarchical linear modeling technique. Three sub-studies are conducted in this research: (1) scale development and construct clarification of destructive leadership in the Chinese organizational context; (2) the antecedents of destructive leadership: a cross-level longitudinal research based on double perspectives of individual characteristics and organizational context; (3) the antecedents of destructive leadership: a longitudinal research based on perspective of subordinates’ characteristics. The results of this research are not only helpful to clarify the connotation and construct of destructive leadership, and recognize and measure the destructive leadership behaviors in the Chinese organizational context, but also beneficial to reveal the effects of individual characteristics on destructive leadership behaviors, and find out the factors of organizational context and subordinates’ characteristics which induce destructive leadership behaviors.
Rapid development of cognitive neuroscience makes scientists have a deep understanding about human brain function. In recent years, the deactivation phenomenon in some brain areas was commonly observed when participants were required to execute external demanding tasks, and hence the concept of “Default Mode Network (DMN)” was put forward, and has attracted more and more attention from cognitive neuroscientists. Current review mainly focused on the history of DMN research, the relevant concepts and theories, ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, the diseases associated with and its clinical application. It suggests that future studies comprehensively investigate DMN from development trajectory, individual and species differences, the relationships with other brain networks (e.g., attention network, visual network, executive control network), and its associations with diseases.
Social status hierarchy is one of the basic principles in human society. N200 was found to be activated in the recognition of social status hierarchies, face recognition and visual attention. The recognition of social status hierarchies also at different levels involved brain regions of emotional expressions (e.g. prefrontal cortex, PFC), social and monetary rewards (e.g. striatum), empathy traits (e.g. anterior cingutate cortex, ACC), and numerical magnitude (e.g. bilateral intraparietal sulci, IPS). Social status hierarchy was founded dynamic by nature, and complicatedly interacted with genetic and environmental factors, such as serotonin neurotransmitter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), glucocorticoid (GC), basal testosterone (T) and other factors of neuroendocrine system. These issues constituted the main focus points, and it would be an important approach to explore social status hierarchies by means of comprehensive research and system analysis in future.
Search asymmetry of emotional faces is defined as the condition in which it is faster to detect a negative emotional target face among positive emotional distractor faces than a positive target face among negative distractor faces. There is a lot of controversy regarding how this effect can be explained. Based on the latest behavioral and neurocognitive research, search asymmetries could possibly be explained by the emotional factors of threat capture and disengagement from emotion hypothesis, and the perceptual factors of closure, perceptual grouping and other facial features. Through the comparison of the two perspectives and corresponding experimental evidence, further research can integrate emotional and perceptual factors to explain the search asymmetry effect.
Involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) are memories of personal experiences that come to mind spontaneously—that is, pop into one’s mind with no preceding attempt at retrieval. As a basic, universal mode of remembering, IAMs may serve directive and self functions. In contrast to voluntary autobiographical memories (VAMs), the characteristics of IAMs are: being based on associations and direct retrieval in a bottom-up manner, involving more positive events and rehearsing less. Meanwhile, IAMs differ from VAMs by being more specific. Several theories about retrieval mechanisms of IAMs were presented, such as theories of Episodic Reminding, Cue-priming, Direct Retrieval and Conceptual Associations. Future research should focus on the following aspects: to test and verify the directive and self functions of IAMs, to systemize the research, to integrate the theories of IAMs into those of autobiographical memories, and to develop the cross-cultural research.
The enhancing effect of retrieval practice on memory retention gained great attention and recognition of researchers in the last decade. To take a step further, researchers have begun to shift their research focus from the impact of retrieval practice on memory retention to its impact on meaningful learning, which is of greater value for teaching practice. This paper firstly makes a review of the supporting evidences from experiments for the enhancing effect of retrieval practice on meaningful learning. The review is centered on three themes: retrieval practice promoting meaningful learning; the advantages of retrieval practice as an evaluation indicator for meaningful learning; the comparison between retrieval practice and other ways of meaningful learning. It then gives an introduction to and contrast between two theoretical hypotheses accounting for the positive impact of retrieval practice on meaningful learning. Next, it makes a summary and analysis of the empirical researches in real classroom on the promoting effect of retrieval practice on meaningful learning. Lastly, it concludes that retrieval practice has more advantages in promoting meaningful learning over repetitive learning and elaborative learning, and that it is worth of and feasible for wide-spread application in educational practice. However, previous studies are subject to the following shortcomings: the evaluation indicator system for meaningful learning adopted in the studies is still singular; the types of knowledge involved in the studies are limited; the other meaningful learning methods chosen to be compared with retrieval practice are not diverse; the theoretical explanations for the internal mechanism of retrieval practice are still of dispute. Therefore, further studies need to be conducted to address the above-mentioned issues.
Internet has changed the way people interact with each other, especially the young people, by making them favor online interaction rather than face-to-face interaction. Previous studies have already provided evidences for a lower social anxiety in online interactions. They proved that people felt less social stress online than face-to-face interactions. Psychological explanations of above conclusion are offered from four aspects: self-disclosure, fears of evaluation, achievement motivation and behavioral inhibition system. However, those explanations still need supports from more integrated theories and objective experimental results.
Aging has become a worldwide issue. Researchers have gradually realized the positive impacts of video games on older people as the considerable development of digital technology and the rapid popularization of video games. In the gaming, cognitive functioning can be trained, which may delay cognitive aging; mental health can be improved by experiencing positive emotions and interacting with others. Online video games can also enhance social functioning and capability of older people by increasing social interaction and expanding social network. Moreover, interactive video games can also provide older people more chances for their physical exercises. On this basis, future research should further explore the following issues: more comprehensive impacts that video games bring to successful aging; gender differences of older players in video gaming; the Chinese cultural context should also be taken into consideration in the research. Our research should also provide advices for the video game design particularly suitable for older users.
Post-traumatic Growth (PTG) means positive changes experienced as a result of the psychological struggle with highly challenging events or major life crises. This article summarized the relevant study about PTG and also discussed the factors enhancing the coping processes that were identified to be significantly associated with PTG, such as personality traits、social support、benefit finding and meaning making. In addition, we summarized those models of PTG proposed by psychologist in different perspectives. Some innovative strategies were put forward in order to improve PTG. At last, we proposed some suggestions to overcome the limitations in some variables. Future studies should emphasized on longitudinal research which has many assessment points and construct different PTG models fit to different groups of people.
As an interdisciplinary research area, leadership is an important research issue in the disciplines like psychology, sociology, and political sciences. Leaders play a key role in the development of team, organization, and society. However, due to cultural differences, leadership theories vary in western countries and in China. Thanks to the unremitting efforts of many scholars, indigenization of leadership theory has won a significant progress. The authors provide a systematic review of moral leadership theory which is considered as the most typical Chinese theory in the leadership research over the past four decades. They reviewed the state of art at home and abroad, involving the aspects of research tracks, concept evolvement, structure, measurement, and effectiveness of moral leadership. Based on this review the authors reflected the existed studies of moral leadership from the perspectives of origins, integration, comparative studies on China and foreign countries, and latest development trends. Moreover, suggestions and prospects for future research were also included.
The latest progresses and achievements of deep-level diversity from six aspects has been reviewed, including its dimensions, mechanism, context factors, the interactions between the surface-level diversity and the deep-level diversity, the team faultlines and the cross-level study. Based on our review, we propose an integrated framework to present a number of future researches. We describe these directions to further exploration as follows: the antecedents of deep-level diversity, the cross-level study, team faultlines and its interactions with team outcomes, the relationship between deep-level diversity and team performance regarding to the social network backgrounds.
This report is based on the original data of 16400 articles from the “ISI Web of Science” database (including SCI-E、SSCI), using the term “Military Psychology” as their topics. Timespan is between 2004 to 2013. Data were downloaded on August 12st, 2013. Using the Knowledge Mapping software CitespaceⅢ, we described the framework and development of international military psychology, filtering only high-impact journals, authors and articles, and then depicted hot issues and trends across different periods in military psychology researches. Results of the scientific knowledge mapping showed that military psychology highlights the roles of clinical psychology and combat operations. Among those subdivisions, researches in operational performance, battle-field decision-making, combat stress prevention, post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health of veterans are shaping what military psychology will look like in the near future.
Contemporary psychology was not only divided in research object, but also on the orientation theory and methodology, so it is difficult to use a kind of logical criteria to classify the various theories. Western psychology often used the classification criteria of theory with time, This classification criteria of theory can help us to handle the development of the theory of sequence, but e are often unable to catch the main characteristics of the theories, due to it difficult to comparison. In recent years, western psychologists put forward on a theoretical classification standard of psychology based on the causality. They think that psychology theory can be divided into organocentrism, envirocentrism, sociocentrism and noncentrism, this classification standard can make us understand the causality between theories, but often easily confused some relevant theories (such as ecological psychology and environmental psychology). This paper proposes a theoretical classification standard of psychology based on the content directivity, including the orientation for consciousness, behavior, mechanisms, and meaning. This theoretical classification standard pay more attention is not the time sequence, also is not causality, but theory content directivity. In causality classification system, the most problems are that the multidirectional attribution and no attribution, due to definition is not clear of causality. This theoretical classification standard can make up for insufficient of other two kinds of classification criteria.
Structural Interview has become one of the most widely used methods in personnel selection. Several theories, such as Social Interaction Theory, Dramaturgy Theory, Behavioral Consistency Paradigm, and Trait Activation Theory, have been trying to explain the behaviors and response of interviewers and applicants in structural interviews. An integral structural interview can be divided into three phases: rapport-building, questioning / responding, and rating of applicants by interviewers. During the interview, interviewers would experience a series of mental activities, including observing, acquiring, analyzing and responding to applicants′ performance, forming the initial impression, then completing rating by referring to rating standard. The major factors that may influence an interviewer′s judgment involve two types of factors, the first type is internal ones, including designing factors and interviewer factors; the second type is external ones, including applicants′ factors and environmental factors. The future breakthrough in this field of research should include the exploration of psychological mechanism of interviewer′s rating combined with the applicants′ reactions in the interviews.
The accelerated longitudinal design (ALD) is a method used to conducts several short-term longitudinal studies of adjacent age cohorts simultaneously, producing temporally overlapping measurements of the adjacent age groups, and then linking the segments of limited longitudinal data from different age cohorts and creating a common long-term developmental trend or growth curve. The method manages to combine true longitudinal and cross-sectional design, which can maintain most of the advantages for true longitudinal design, reducing problems of retest effects and attrition, but may also be able to separate aging effects from period and cohort effects, and thus has been commonly applied in developmental psychology researches. Existing researches focus on data analysis methods, effectiveness and design features of ALD. Future research should study the flexibility when extending design features, and explore data analysis methods under nonlinear hypothesis or when cohort effects exist, and methods for missing data.