Word spacing is an important indicator of word boundary in most alphabetic writing system such as English, as it can not only help readers to successfully segment each word from successive character strings in text but also help readers to word acquisition and recognition. However, there is no clear word boundary information in Chinese reading, it is interesting to investigate whether it can facilitate word recognition or help readers to learn new word when providing word boundary information (i.e. word space) in Chinese reading. We reviewed the effect of word spacing on eye movement control during Chinese reading in adults, children and second language learners of Chinese. Based on the current findings reviewed in this paper, we provided some implications for constructing models of character and word recognition and eye movement control in Chinese reading, as well as prompting Chinese teaching proficiency.
Automatic emotion regulation (AER) is defined as any process that modifies any aspect of one's emotions without the need for conscious supervision or explicit intentions and without engaging in deliberate control. Research has gathered ample evidence that AER is effective in down-regulating negative emotions with low cost. The mechanism underlying AER, however, has not been studied. In four studies, we aim to examine the neural mechanism of AER, and to anchor the place where AER starts to affect emotion processing. Study 1 examines whether AER affect behavior intendancy in preparatory phase by recording EEG and analyzing AER's effect on frontal alpha laterality. In study 2 and study 3, we examine whether AER affect selective attention of facial expressions as well as the evaluation and behavior reaction stage. Furthermore, in study 4, a training of regulation goal was conducted to explore the plasticity of brain activity in AER. We expect to get a preparation-attention-evaluation-reaction model to explain the mechanism of AER based on the four studies, so as to provide theoretical and empirical evidences to control and intervene in emotion disorder.
Auditory brainstem response (ABR) provides a noninvasive and objective way to understand how complex sounds are processed in human brain. Recently it has been used in the field of auditory cognitive neuroscience to investigate: (1) brainstem response to speech sounds in adults and normally developing children and (2) the neural basis of perceptual and phonological deficits in dyslexia and other developmental disorders. By discussing these new findings, we suggest that the relationship between basic auditory processing and high-level cognitive processes in speech perception and the neural basis of dyslexia will be the main directions for future studies.
Understanding false belief is considered the hallmark of theory of mind (ToM). However, estimates of the onset of this ability vary substantially depending on the way it is measured. On explicit response assessments of false beliefs, children usually do not succeed until about four years of age. However, on more recently developed spontaneous-response tasks they are able to succeed by as early as 15-months of age. Three possible explanations for this discrepancy in performance on these different types of tasks are discussed: the competence-masking account, the implicit-knowledge account, and the perspective-tracking account. In order to distinguish between these accounts it is recommended that future research focus on testing special populations of children, such as individuals who are deaf and those with ASD.
Observer-rating is efficient in assessing people’s personality, and even more efficient than self-rating in certain circumstances. Based on realistic accuracy model (RAM) and weighted-average model (WAM), the focal observation summarized factors that might influence the accuracy of observer’s rating such as familiarity, quality of relationship with the target, the visibility of a trait, and assumed similarity. Moreover, we suggested several ways that might help in solving the problems of the current investigations. For instance, sampling in a wide range, enhancing the ecological validity in different circumstances and adopting multiple strategies to assess personality should be considered in future research.
Standard economic models of decision-making draw on the self-interest hypothesis, which indicates that people are rational and motivated by personal benefit. However, in situations of interdependence, individual’s social motives are more complex and feature larger individual differences. Social Value Orientation (SVO), referring to a preference for particular patterns of outcomes for oneself in relation to others in interdependent situations, is a concept that characterizes individual differences in the level of concern an individual has for others. The current study reviews three types of existing measurement methods of SVO (Triple-Dominance Scale, Ring Measure, and Slider Measure), highlights their strengths and weaknesses, and briefly summarizes recent research on SVO in decision making, social cognition, empathy, and prosocial behavior. Future research on SVO needs to investigate the interactions of SVO and social factors, as well as the neural mechanisms associated with different SVOs.
Optimism bias is the tendency for individuals to believe that his or her chances of experiencing a positive event were higher or a negative event were lower than that to one's peers (Weinstein, 1980). The main behavior paradigm of exploring optimism bias contained social comparative paradigm, past-future imaging and information updating task. Researches by fMRI showed that the neural mechanisms of optimistic bias were associated with rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), amygdala, prefrontal cortex (PFC)and dopamine system. Considering the paradigm of optimism bias, we could combine social comparative paradigm to information updating task for exploring it; the cognitive mechnisms of optimism bias will be researched by ERP method particllarly; and the brain region mediating subtype of optimism bias will also be clarified; and then the neural mechnism of mental health impacted by optimism bias will be demonstrated, in future direction.
Perceptual category learning is a process in which human beings classify perceptual stimulations and acquire categories. Feedback is an indispensable part of perceptual category learning. Investigators conducted extensive researches by manipulating different characteristics of the feedback, such as feedback delay (immediate vs. delay), feedback nature (positive vs. negative), feedback type (rich vs. simple), on how feedback affects perceptual category learning, trying to give a reasonable explanation from the physiological or neural perspective. However, there are still many shortcomings on the researches about the influences of feedback on perceptual category. Specifically, few researches focus on the influence in terms of time refinement of the feedback delay, unrelated factors of masking, feedback trial. In addition, there are considerable different opinions on the feedback mechanism. More studies should concern the cognitive feedback mechanism in the future.
Novelty seeking behavioral trait refers to a heritable tendency toward intense exhilaration or excitement when responding to novel stimuli or cues of potential reward, which results in frequent exploratory activity in pursuing potential reward. Extensive studies indicate that high level of novelty seeking behavioral trait is associated with increased susceptibility to drug addiction. Dopamine, serotonin, glutamic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid, cholecystokinin, fibroblast growth factor and corticosterone may be involved in the effect of novelty seeking behavioral trait on susceptibility to drug addiction. In the future, further studies will be focused on neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effect of novelty seeking behavioral trait on susceptibility to drug addiction.
Human individual acquires knowledge largely via communication, i.e., others’ testimony. That is especially true during childhood. Developmental psychologists have recently devoted to whether and how preschoolers trust other’s testimony. On the one hand, preschoolers tend to accept what others tell them, a phenomenon called credulity bias. However, on the other hand, children show great competence in selectively learning from others. They are able to use numerous cues to guarantee more reliable information, including epistemic cues and social cues. As with controversy over infants’ theory of mind, there are two approaches to underlying mechanisms of epistemic trust, concerning whether children can appreciate informants’ mental states. Although the research of epistemic trust has made substantial progress, there are lots of topics that are worthy further investigation.
The metacognitive model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) emphasizes that metacognitive beliefs are a key factor in OCD pathology. OCD patients have a series of metacognitive problems, such as incorrect metacognitive knowledge beliefs, negative metacognitive experiences and inappropriate use of metacognitive strategies. Metacognitive therapy for OCD has a good treatment efficacy in the individual intervention and group intervention study, with a focus on the importance of thinking processes (such as self-focused attention, perseverative thinking styles of worry, attention strategies of threat monitoring and so on) rather than the content of thoughts. Future research should examine the memory and other metacognitive characteristics for OCD from the perspectives of cognitive neuroscience and replicate and extend metacognitive model of OCD.
The consequences of forgiveness involve two aspects. The first is the consequence to the victims, and the secend is to the offenders. From the aspect of the victims, the positive role of forgiveness has been well confirmed, but from the aspect of the offenders, there are several inconsistencies among previous studies. Some studies showed that forgiveness would deter repeat offenses, while other studies revealed that forgiveness would encourage them. The conflicting of views on the relationship between forgiveness and reconciliation, on the inner experience of offenders, and on the interaction between the victims and offenders may contribute to the inconsistencies. However, further analysis shows that the viewpoint of deterring further offenses is more reasonable, and forgiveness is an effective way in dealing with interpersonal hurt. Finally, when the victims decide to forgive or the offenders accept the forgiveness, some issues are of note.
Decision-making style (DMS) is the learned habitual response pattern exhibited by an individual confronted with a situation requiring a decision. DMS is an important concept in empirical literature on decision making, management, consumer behavior, counseling, and vocation behavior. The recently developed DMS models were based on information processing strategies, such as dual-processing theory and regret theory, and focused on the effects of decision strategies, biases, emotions, and unconscious processing on decision making. The DMS field has also made significant progress in theoretical constructions, such as definitions, measurements, and theoretical examinations. Future research should integrate DMSs and behavioral decision-making theories, such as dual-processing theory, and construct DMS models from the perspective of evolutionary psychology.
Leaders’ affect influences subordinates’ performance and team performance. However, the mechanisms for effect of leaders’ affect are not clear. Drawing on affective events theory and emotional contagion theory, this paper develops a multi-level theoretical model to explain effect of leaders’ affect at different levels. Firstly, at the individual level, leaders’ affect influences subordinates’ performance through subordinates’ affect. In particular, emotional contagion and leader behaviors account for the relationship between leaders’ affect and followers’ affect. Secondly, at the team level, individuals’ affect converge and form group affective tone through emotional contagion processes. Group affective tone in turn influences team process and thereafter shapes team performance. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
Organization-Based Self-Esteem (OBSE) was defined as one’s appraisal of his/her ability and value in the organizational context, which had significant impact on his/her work-related attitudes, behavior and performance. Based on the review of the existing literature, this study illustrated the contextual definition, structure and measurement of OBSE. Integrating the extant theories implemented in the studies of OBSE, we established the nomological framework of contextualized researches on OBSE. Then, given the different findings in the OBSE studies from Western and Chinese context, we discussed literal differences, construct equivalence and generalizability of OBSE in Chinese context. Finally, we provided the implications for the future contextualization research of OBSE and its development in Chinese context.
As one of the fundamental characteristics of human society, power has been paid attention by social psychologists for a long time. Power was converted from a structural concept to a psychological one. As a psychological concept, power, whose core element is the sense of control, can be implicit or explicit. In the field of social psychology, three most representative theories of power are “the approach/inhibition theory” “the situated focus theory” and “the social distance theory”, which have distinctive theoretical bases but common predictions. Further researches on power can be improved in the following aspects, including 1) distinguishing social and personal power, 2) considering how culture, motivation and self-involvement moderate power effects, 3) integrating viewpoints from different perspectives, and 4) enriching research methods of power.
There is no shortage of uncivil behavior in the workplace. Workplace incivility occurs frequently and has a lasting negative impact on workers and the organization. An unfortunate aspect of incivility is that it can occur at a low relative frequency and is particularly difficult to extinguish. We summarize the existing research and developed a model of workplace incivility to provide a framework for furthering theoretical and methodological developments. To build the model we first clarified the conceptual boundaries incivility and other deviant behaviors emitted in the workplace. Second, the model of workplace incivility was integrated and grounded in the theories of: cognitive appraisal of emotion, affect events, and emotional reactions. Finally, our work constructs a more integrated model of workplace incivility, in which a cognitive and emotional reaction functions as a mediating variables while personality and organizational factors serve as moderating variables. Our results advance workplace mistreatment theory and research while providing practical strategies for organizations to employ in order to maintain a civil working environment. We conclude that future studies should make use of longitudinal experimental designs to determine the causal trend among variables while attending to culture differences.
Study on manipulation of punishments in public-goods dilemmas demonstrates that punishment on free-riders can maintain the cooperation behavior among the community. Previous researchers found that the building up of social cooperation norms benefit from the punishment system, in which costly punishment, altruism punishment and third party punishment, etc., provide reasonable explanations to indirect reciprocal. Recent empirical researches illustrate some new forms of punishment, such as selfish punishment and antisocial punishment. However, it was presumed in these researches that revenge from punished free-riders will prevent cooperators to punish them anymore, which would decrease or even dispel cooperation behavior. The necessity of the existence and the value of punishment have been validated by justness theory, moral sentiment model, and culture-gene co-evolutionary model, however, framing effect still exists in the function of punishment. The positive and negative effect of punishment should be further explored by introducing some mediating variables, such as altruism, trust, reputation, culture, and reputation, etc., which could also provide new vision to psychological mechanism of cooperation.
Sexual self-disclosure is one of the most intimate forms of self-disclosure. It is the degree to which a member of a romantic dyad discloses sexual aspects to his or her partner. Surprisingly, there is little research on this type of disclosure, compared to the voluminous research on other topics in self-disclosure. This is particularly surprising since past literature has found that sexual self-disclosure is correlated with people’s sexual satisfaction. Past research has not looked into whether culture shapes people’s willingness to engage in sexual self-disclosure. In different cultures, people should sexually disclose to different levels and with different content. Current theories on the influence of culture on self-disclosure provide possible directions for studying the interplay between sexual self-disclosure and culture differences.
Frugality is a belief about the lifestyle, which makes individuals control spontaneous desires and behaviors voluntarily, acquire goods and services in a restrained manner, and use economic goods and services resourcefully, to achieve some long-term goal. Frugality is rich in connotation; it can be analyzed from the means-ends perspective, and further subdivided as maintenance means and goals, developmental means and goals. Social-adapting theory, driving theory and traits theory give their own explanations for the formation and developing of frugality, focusing in external resource constraint, internal needs and individual characteristics respectively. Frugality is determined by the combined effects of demographic variables, personality traits, motivations and environmental factors, and influences people’s cognition, feeling, will and behavior broadly. Future research could explore theories about conditions and possible ways to cultivate frugality in both individual and social levels, and make empirical studies on the psychological, behavioral and cognitive neural mechanisms corresponding to different types of frugality.