Cognitive control, the higher cognitive function essential for goal-oriented behavior, is currently a hot topic in cognitive neuroscience research. Researchers have frequently examined various stimulus-response-compatibility (SRC) effects and conflict adaptation (CA) effects to elucidate mechanisms of cognitive control. This article reviewed recent empirical studies utilizing these SRC and CA paradigms. Based on the universal framework of dimensional overlap theory and conflict monitoring theory, we proposed a unique theory on modular organization of cognitive control, in which different types of conflicts are detected by distinct conflict monitoring nodes and then resolved by a common module of executive control.
This study aims to explore the dimensions of resonant leadership under Chinese context, and develop the according resonant leadership questionnaire. Then test this questionnaire’s reliability and validity using empirical data. Furthermore, this study will empirically explore the impact of resonant leadership on leader’s job performance and well-being, and contagious effect of resonant leadership which is the impact of resonant leadership on followers’ job performance and well-being. Lastly, this study will explore the mechanism of resonant leadership, which is leader’s self psychological state’s mediated effect between resonant leadership and job performance, well-being of leader; leader-member exchange’s mediated effect between resonant leadership and job performance, well-being of followers. We expect these findings will help improve our understanding on resonant leadership, the mechanism of resonant leadership and make contributions to leadership practice.
Formulaic language is composed of multi-word sequences that are form-meaning pairings stored in the mind of language users as a result of long-term language contact and extensive language experience. Psychological experiments focused on reading and auditory processing provide support for the existence of formulaic language; these studies show that formulaic language is stored and processed as a whole in our mental lexicon in the same way that words are. Future research should involve the following topics related to formulaic language: the identification of formulaic language, the relationship between formulaic language and the component words, and finally, the dynamic development of formulaic language, second language speakers and their formulaic language.
Irony refers to a phenomenon in which people say something they do not really mean. Numerous empirical studies have been conducted focusing on the processing models of irony and the factors which influence its processing. Relevant literature indicates that the understanding of ironic expressions complies more with the constraint-satisfaction model, a parallel model of language processing, in which all different stages are affected and restricted by such factors as types of irony, intonation, contexts and individual cognitive differences. Future research may be directed to issues like the unique nature of irony differentiating from other forms of non-literal language, the interactions between various influencing factors in irony processing, the combined use of different experimental paradigms, and the characteristics of Chinese irony compared with irony in other languages.
Executive functions are believed to be a prerequisite for complex human behavior. Dual-task performance is one classical paradigm to investigate executive functions. The localization of executive functions in dual-task performance identified the prefrontal cortex (PFC) as related to dual-task performance. Behavioral dual-task paradigms and over lapping dual tasks were included in the classical dual-task paradigms. The prefrontal cortex was a novel area specialized involved in dual-task executive processes, which including two opinions: additional activation in the PFC and a different magnitude of activation between dual- and single task. The three sub-regions of PFC - frontopolar cortex (FPC), medial frontal cortex (MFC), lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) - were played different role in dual task performance. FPC is relation to cooperate subtasks; MFC code for the reward expected according to motivation clues; LPFC are involved in selecting and maintaining action selection rules. Meanwhile, a neurocomputational model was introduced, showing that how the PFC involved in dual task executive processing. Further research should adopt more suitable paradigm according to experimental purposes and improve the existing analysis methods, and further discussion on executive function of dual-task performance should be employed.
It was a key issue how people did get and store information during scene perception, but there were debates whether visual memory existed and affected scene perception. Earlier studies believed that visual representations were impoverished in the process of scene perception, and visual memory systems did not accumulate scene information which had been searched. However, related researches showed that visual memory affected visual searching and scene learning, which indicated visual memory systems played important roles in the scene perception. Future research should focus on information acquisition, the interaction of different visual memory stores in the process of scene perception, as well as explicit and implicit learning for scenes.
Previous researches suggested two assumptions about the influential factors of facial attractiveness, the owner hypothesis and the observer hypothesis. However, most researches focused on the owner hypothesis. Concentrating on the observer hypothesis, a narrative review was performed on previous related researches, elaborating on influential factors of facial attractiveness, including biological factors, psychological and behavioral factors and social factors of observers. The owner hypothesis was explained by evolutionary, social cultural and cognitive factors. The direction of future researches in the field was also discussed.
The processing of emotion faces reflects the coping styles of individuals with different attachment styles during social interaction. Attachment styles are now often being conceptualized by researchers in terms of a two-dimension model or a four-category model. Regarding the emotion face processing of people with different attachment styles, there are four new experimental paradigms, namely, morph task, perceptual threshold task, RMET and spatial cueing task. The findings of these studies all indicate that people with different attachment styles tend to have different ways in processing emotional information from the outside. Researches centered on the neurophysiological mechanism have further confirmed the conclusions from behavioral studies, and they have also found that the brain’s reaction to emotion faces is influenced not only by the features of the faces, but also by the meaning of the faces in social context. Linking threatening information to one’s sense of security might be a way to alter one’s insecure attachment style. Based on the limitations of the existing researches, future studies may have multiple research possibilities.
Adolescents have a higher susceptibility to drug addiction. According to the previous studies in rodents, the rewarding effects of addictive drugs can be affected by social interaction that includes contacting with conspecifics, social isolation and living with cage-mates in different pharmacological states. Two mechanisms may be involved in the impact of social interaction, one being related to social rewarding properties, and the other concerned with social learning like the transmission of emotions and perceptional information. Therefore, further study is needed to clarify the mechanism of the interaction between social factors and addictive drugs.
Previous studies have shown that heroin dependence exhibit an attentional bias toward heroin- related cues. In present article, we reviewed evidence regarding theoretical explanation, paradigm and researches in this field. Incentive-sensitization model, cognitive processing model, integration model may explain the attentional bias in heroin dependence. The paradigms include stroop task, probe-detection and so on. It was found that heroin-related stimuli have acquired attention-grabbing properties. Furthermore, those cues are selected for sustained attentive processing. Although several studies now reveal that attentional bias is related to heroin craving, it is still unknown the causal role of attentional bias and drug craving. The characteristic of attentional bias in heroin dependence become very complicated during detoxification treatment. Further research in this area should concentrate on the neural mechanisms of attentional bias, the relationship between attentional bias and executive cognitive functioning, and the clinical effectiveness of attentional bias training in heroin dependence.
Hoarding disorder is a condition in which a person has persistent difficulty in discarding or parting with possessions, which is caused by strong urges to save items and characterized by information processing deficits, irrational beliefs, emotional dysregulation and hoarding behaviors. Hoarding disorder is highly prevalent and is likely associated with childhood experiences, neural dysfunctions and genetics. The diagnosis of hoarding disorder is generally based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), Saving Inventory-Revised, and medical history and concomitant symptoms. The treatment of hoarding disorder mainly includes cognitive behavior therapy, pharmacotherapies and multi-modal treatments. Future studies should pay attention to improve diagnostic standard and assessment tools, efficacy of various therapies, explore hoarding disorder characteristics and underline neurobiological mechanisms from a cognitive neuroscience perspective, especially combining eye-tracking with ERP and fMRI.
Social anxious individuals usually show an important cognitive bias－interpretation bias, which refers to the tendency to interpret social situations in a more negative or threatening way. The present paper firstly introduced the paradigms usually used in this research field: homophone and homograph paradigm, ambiguous vignettes paradigm, reaction time paradigm and word sentence association paradigm. Then it summarized the characteristics of the interpretation bias in social anxiety, and expounded how attentional bias, attachment relationships, developmental experiences and reinforcement sensitivity of personality influenced interpretation bias. Finally, it proposed future directions: (1) the applicability of research paradigms; (2) the specificity of interpretation bias in social anxiety; (3) neurobiological researches of interpretation bias in social anxiety; (4) the different effects of positive and negative interpretations on social anxiety; (5) the effect of interpretation modification in socially anxious participants.
The Dunning-Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which people mistakenly evaluate their ability in a given task. This is especially true for unskilled individuals, who often overestimate their ability, and sometimes even falsely rate their ability much higher than average. On the other hand, more competent individuals often underestimate themselves. For unskilled performers, the inability to recognize their incompetence is due to the metacognition deficiency, while for the most competent performers, the false-consensus effect makes them unable to perceive their ability precisely. Different explanations for this phenomenon have been given from different perspectives, such as regression to the mean and better-than-average heuristic, nature of the task and motivational factors. Besides, factors like egocentric nature, anchoring and insufficient adjustment heuristic, social feedback, and chronic self-concept may also affect one’s self-evaluation. The future research about Dunning-Kruger effect should focus more on research scope, experimental paradigm, error control, cultural difference, its influence on psychological adaption and performance, and so on.
Team cognition is a result of emergence from individual cognition. The emergence of team cognition is determined by the sum of individual-level cognitive properties, together with the interactions between team members. We first elaborated the concept of team cognition, and described three key features of emergence — namely, organization-dependence, the absence of intentional design and multiple realizability — as well as two ideal forms of emergence, including composition and compilation. Then, according to the perspective of collective information processing, the paper built up a model of team cognition emergence that covered four phases of individual knowledge base, the distribution of team knowledge, communication and interaction, and the emergence of team cognition. Finally, as a phenomenon of emergent team cognition, transactive memory system was discussed in order to provide further explanation.
Social exchange plays an important role in human group living. However, cooperating individuals risk being exploited by cheaters who only benefit from but do not contribute to the cooperative work. Identifying and punishing cheaters have become a recurrent challenge in human group living so that cognitive functioning to solve this problem is modularized. Such cognitive functioning is referred to as the cheater-detection module. Ample evidence suggests that the cheater-detection module enables automatic perceptual awareness and identification of cheaters even without actual contact with or sufficient knowledge about them. People can also easily detect cheaters by analyzing social exchange scenarios. This higher cognitive reasoning also seems to be domain-specific. Another higher cognitive functioning potentially selected or evolved from cheater detection of group living is source memory. Although still being debated about its domain specificity, there is evidence showing superior source memory of violators of social contracts than that of other things. This debate about the source memory provides an important direction for future research. Other issues requiring further research include what cues people use to identify and memorize cheaters and why people punish social contract violators without apparent benefits. This article reviews these and other central issues of evolutionary cognitive and social psychology and provides directions for future research in this area.
Regardless of moral personality development, moral personality and virtue research can be categorized by two dimensions. The first dimension is structure–process, which respectively represent the “what” and the “how” of personality, or personality’s “having” and “doing”. The second dimension is actor–observer, which respectively represent the nature of personality and the folk belief about personality. There are four paradigms according to the interaction of these two dimensions. The first paradigm is moral prototype approach, which seeks to identify the structure of moral personality based on folk belief. The second paradigm is moral exemplar approach, which aim to explore the dynamics of moral personality from moral figures. The third paradigm is moral information processing approach, which seeks to explore the cognitive processes underlying real moral or unmoral people. The fourth paradigm is folk virtue concept approach, which seeks to identify the thinking processes underlying virtuous person based on folk beliefs. Four paradigms aims to explore different aspects of moral personality.
Social class is a context rooted in both the material substance of social life (income, education, occupation status) and the individual’s construal of his or her class rank. Academics hold different ideas on the question that how lower social class individuals consider the social system. The system justification theory points out lower-class individuals consider the social system as justified more often than the higher. The social dominance theory and the social cognitive perspective, however, hold that lower-class individuals are more likely to be dissatisfied with the social system compared to the higher-class. Both of these opposing views have been supported by relevant studies. Individual factors, social properties and the relationship between an individual and society may moderate this process. Moreover, several researches show that the relation between social class and system justification may be nonlinear. The future research can be based on nonlinear hypothesis, and should deeply explore this question in term of concept identification, theory integration and research methods.
Cognitive Diagnostic Theory (CDT) has a history of more than fifty years. CDT is the wedding of cognitive psychology and psychometrics. One of the cores of CDT is the development of Cognitive Diagnostic Models (CDMs). This paper firstly indicates at least four aspects of shortages including fitting the individual cognitive processes, data processing, operable data types, and analysis of the whole test using a unique CDM. Then, to make up for aforementioned deficiencies, the detailed introduction on the new CDMs and their theoretical thoughts are proposed. These new CDMs are multiple-choice CDM, multiple- strategy CDM, continuous response CDM, and log-linear CDM. Finally, based on the new models, the development tendency of current cognitive diagnosis is summarized and some inspirations are offered to cognitive diagnostic researcheres and practitioners.
A testlet is a cluster of items that share a common passage, stimulus, or other context, and the dependence between testlet-based item responses that caused by the common stimulus called testlet effect. This article introduced and combed the concepts of testlet, local independence and local dependence, and proposed the concepts of testlet effect in accordance with previous research. Applying standard item response models to testlet responses leaded to many problems such as biased parameter estimation and overestimation of test reliability, hence, testlet response model was introduced to deal with testlet effect better. 6 testlet response models were described in detail including Higher-order testlet model and Multilevel testlet model, and two issues were discussed: (a) the connotation of slope parameter in testlet response model is different from that in standard item response theory which is inappropriate to contrast the two directly; (b) testlet response model belongs to general multidimensional item response model and the main distinction with special multidimensional item response model is the latent factors needed to control to satisfy general local dependence hypothesis.