Abusive supervision refers to subordinates' perceptions of the extent to which leaders engage in the sustained display of hostile verbal and nonverbal behaviors, excluding physical contacts. On one hand, the characteristics of the supervisor, subordinate, context and the superior-subordinate relationship are important antecedent variables of abusive supervision; On the other hand, abusive supervision usually results in a series of negative consequences at the individual, organizational, and interpersonal levels. Moreover, the interaction of cognitive and emotional factors explains the mechanism of abusive supervision and negative outcomes. It should further discuss the interactive effect of the characteristic factors on abusive supervision and carry out studies on the cross-level and dual effect of abusive supervision in future. It also should further discuss the practical consequences and mechanism of abusive supervision in Chinese context.
Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to slower responses to targets appeared at previous attended locations than to those at control locations. Here we shall review the cognitive mechanism theories of IOR and discuss how IOR is generated and expressed. We have classified the theories into two broad categories: the first category of theories focus on how IOR affects different stages of information processing, which includes perceptual inhibition theory, motor/response inhibition theory, dual components theory and inhibitory tagging theory; The second category of theories tend to focus more on how the top-down factors, such as task set, modulate the expression of IOR, which includes integration-segregation theory and three factors theory.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients usually show deficits in facial expression processing. The present review first summarizes the general characteristics of facial processing deficits in SAD patients. We then discuss studies that probed the processing deficiency of positive facial expressions and the bias for negative facial expressions in SAD patients. Because threatening facial expression might be an important stressor for social anxiety, studies addressing the bias for threat-related facial expressions in SAD patients are particularly analyzed. Inconsistent findings in the literature, as identified in the present review, are probably caused by the variation of methodological features across studies, such as subject heterogeneity, inconformity of facial stimuli and different choices of experimental tasks and parameters. For future studies, researchers are encouraged to control trait anxiety and state anxiety and to conduct experiments in simulated (thus more ecologically valid) social situations.
Rejection sensitivity is the disposition to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and intensely react to rejection. Relative to low rejection sensitive individuals, high rejection sensitive individuals show a heightened perception of social rejection, an attentional bias for cues related to social rejection, and more intensely response to the same level of perceived rejection. Considerable fMRI studies have shown that social rejection versus acceptance activated regions of limbic system and prefrontal cortex, high rejection sensitive individuals displayed significantly less activity in lateral prefrontal cortex and superior frontal gyrus, which may regulate response to social rejection. Previous researchers viewed rejection sensitivity from social cognitive and neurocognitive perspective in a micro level, which focused on individual differences in the responses to social rejection. Future research should explore the rejection sensitivity under intrapersonal processes.
Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and alterations of the neuronal plasticity are hypothesized to be the etiology underlying depressive disorders. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR), as an important part of the HPA axis negative feedback circuit, regulates the responses of HPA axis to stress stimuli. The dysfunction of the GR induces the hyperactivity of the HPA axis and excessive glucocorticoid production, which lead to damages in neuronal plasticities and finally result in depression. The function of GR is regulated by its single nucleotide polymorphisms and the molecular chaperones. This review will focus on the possible mechanisms of GR dysfunction caused by the single nucleotide polymorphisms of GR gene and the alterations of molecular chaperones.
Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. With the rise of neuroendocrinology of social cognition, there is now substantial research interest on the role of testosterone in human social behavior. Previous research evidenced the important role of testosterone in a variety of human social behaviors, including aggression, dominance, bonding, and decision making. A large body of studies showed that, on the one hand, testosterone increased aggression, dominance, mating motivation, risk tolerance, and preference for fairness; on the other hand, it decreased cognitive empathy and interpersonal trust. Future research could be extended to neuroimaging and genetics studies, and focus on the clinical implication.
DSM-Ⅳ is one of the most widely used diagnostic criteria for the assessment of mental illness. However, in clinical practice, the DSM-Ⅳcriteria of somatoform disorders have several problems, which include poor applicability, imprecise standard, and overlapping classification. These aspects have been improved in the newer version of DSM, the DSM-5. The equivalent subcategory has been renamed as somatic symptom disorders in the DSM-5 criteria, with the language concerning “medically unexplained symptoms” removed, psychological criteria included, and subtypes combined or simplified. In this article, we analyze the major changes of DSM-5 somatic symptom disorders criteria. We also discussed a few potential problems with the new criteria and the possibilities to further develop the diagnosis criteria.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized mainly by symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance and hyperarousal as a consequence of catastrophic and traumatic events that are distinguished from ordinary stressful life events. The incidence of PTSD is one of the important public health care in this century. Translational medicine is intended to facilitate the transition of basic science results to clinical practice, and thereby sharing major aspects of clinical studies. Under the background of translational medicine, Previously studies found that in biological field hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) played important roles in the pathophysiological of PTSD, and the level of cortisol in PTSD patients was decreased; Hippocampus, amygdala, and the medial prefrontal cortex were involved in the fear response of neural circuits and played a key role in fear extinction underlying the mechanism of brain function. theoretically biological preventive approaches of PTSD are emerging. However, the treatment of PTSD still encounters with various difficulties. The translation from basic science research into practice clinical applications would become a focus in the future studies of PTSD.
Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of noncompliant, argumentative, angry, hostile and defiant behavior. According to previous studies regarding family factors affecting ODD, these factors can be broken down as follows: whole family interaction including socioeconomic status of family, family environment, family interaction factors including parenting, couple relationship, and individual psychological factors including parents’ stress, mental health, psychological control, child’s intelligence, personality, and other behavioral and emotional problems highly related to ODD. For effective prevention and intervention, previous studies have suggested Parent Management Training programs (PMT) and its variations. These variations programs included: Helping the Noncompliant Child, Parent–Child Interaction Therapy, Incredible Years Training Series and Triple P-Positive Parenting Program. Future research can be conducted from an integrated perspective that also utilizes observational methodology and considers the special characteristics of Chinese families, such as only child, grandparents as main caregivers, etc.
As one important kind of positive emotions, awe has been overlooked by psychologists in the past. In recent years, researchers proposed a prototypical model of awe and have started to investigate the psychological benefits of awe empirically. Awe has been found closely related to time perception, prosocial behaviors, spiritous delight, self-consciousness and information processing. Future research shall focus on clarifying the definition of awe, overcoming negative influence of awe, and cultivating people’s feelings of awe in life, etc.
Consumer neuroscience, as an interdiscipline subject combines psychology, decision, marketing and neuroscience to explain consumer decision making and mental process.This subject gives significant attention to the (consumer) preference, willingness to pay and value evaluation of consumer. Recently, researchers such as Knutson used purchase task paradigm to study product preference, while Plassmann et al used the BDM to discuss the problems such as willingness to pay. Brain-imaging study has found that consumers' purchase behavior relate to the cortex and brain regions that involves MPFC, the insula, OFC and Nucleus accumbens. Most researchers believe that MPFC indicates products preference and value evaluation of consumer, functioning in purchase prediction; The insula activation is closely related with the price; OFC can coding consumer experienced pleasantness and willingness to pay. Meanwhile, Nucleus accumbens plays the same role as MPFC’s and insula’s partial work. However, the buying behavior under the influence of multiple complicated factors such as personal traits, emotion, society and small sample make this simple laboratory research results were questioned in both validity and reliability. Therefore, future research can focus on the following aspects: 1) on technological means, through the integration of ERP and fMRI and other related data to drawing more accurate conclusion; 2)on variable control, focus on the negative emotions, personal characteristics of consumer and other product factors such as price to test their influence on)purchase decision-making; 3)on theoretical study, verify the existing economic theory to better interpret and develop the psychological mechanism of human's daily consumption decision.
Workplace bullying is a form of negative behavior at workplace. It refers to the repeated and enduring actions and involves an imbalance of power between the perpetrator and the victim. The integrative model explains the key antecedents, process and consequences of workplace bullying, and its ripple effect on the bystanders and the organization. In addition, suggestions about the contents, participants and paradigms for future research are provided.
The better-than-average effect refers to the tendency for people to evaluate themselves more favorably than the average peer. The effect exists widely in judgment and decision making. Now two psychological mechanisms of the effect are introduced: motivational theory and nonmotivational theory. And then, we introduce influential factors of the better-than-average effect, including the attributes of evaluative dimensions, research methods, feedbacks, the knowledge of referents and cultural differences. In addition, the deficiencies existing in current research and the directions for future research are discussed.
When people make decisions, they systematically prefer information that is consistent with their choices, attitude, belief and value over those inconsistent information. This decision behavior is known as selective exposure to confirmatory information, and it has severely decreased decision quality and hindered the revision of incorrect initial judgment. The significant preference of confirmatory information has been explained by multiple theoretical approach for instance cognitive dissonance theory, accuracy motivation, impression motivation and cognitive coherence accounts. In this paper, we review some recent findings on selective exposure and research paradigm, elaborate the four theoretical perspective and their integrated models, and as well propose a multiple theoretical integration framework about selective exposure research. Future research should pay much more attention on controlled and automatic processes underlying confirmation bias, and should improve research about contextual effects and mixed motivation in the theoretical integration models.
Ethical temptation is defined as moral judgment situations in which unethical decisions are made due to failure of self-control especially in inter-temporal choices. According to the construal level theory, individual difference in construal level may impact decision-making under ethical temptation. When facing ethical temptations, individuals with a high construal level are likely to aware the ethical principles imbedded in the decision-making process, form ethical judgment, and behave in ways that are consistent with ethical principles through the mechanism of self-control. On the other hand, individuals with a low construal level may pay attention to short-term instrumental outcomes by deliberative thinking, overlook the ethical principles, and behave unethically. Therefore, we argue that the construal level theory is a theoretical tool with practical implications in understating decision-making under ethical temptation.
Cooperation means that selfish individuals help one another at the cost of some of their own reproductive potential. However, cooperation has been observed in several levels of biological organization and among animals and humans. From the point of view of evolutionary psychology, a series of theories was proposed to account for the evolution of cooperation, such as kin selection, direct benefits, reciprocation, and culture adaption. To avoid free riding or defection, some systems, such as communication channels and social sanctioning, need to be set. Furthermore, strong group identification could promote cooperation, while dominance hierarchy formed in selection had complex effects on cooperation. Future research could further investigate the effects of social status of an individual within a group, social interaction of individuals within a group or between groups, or changing social norms on the evolution of cooperation.
Implicit prejudice is often distinct from explicit prejudice when social norms are at work. With the rise of the research on implicit cognition, researchers begin to inspect the implicit part of racial prejudice. Intervention strategies of implicit racial prejudice have become a hot topic of racial prejudice research. The intervention strategies that reduce prejudice formation include evaluative conditioning, attribution training, intergroup contact, boundary reconstruction and the guidance of moral conviction. The intervention strategies that reduce prejudice expressing include providing counter-stereotypical exemplars, interference of egalitarian goals, improving perspective taking ability, mimicry of the discriminated and inducing positive affect. In the future, the research on motivation to control prejudice needs to be enhanced. Efforts should be made to improve the effectiveness of implicit racial prejudice intervention and ecological validity of experimental paradigm need to be emphasized.
Political ideology is a psychological concept by its very nature. It can therefore be defined as an interrelated set of attitudes and values about the proper order of society and how this order can be achieved. In this review, we examined recent theoretical and research studies concerning the structure of political ideology, the factors that influence an individual’s political ideology, and its relationship with political behavior and mental health. Parallel investigations in eastern or socialist cultural contexts will need to be conducted in the future. These research efforts should focus on the influence of education, values and the type and frequency of access to news media on political ideology. Additional areas of focus for future research include the mediating variables that affect these political views, and the cognitive process involved in the formation of such thoughts. Similarly, it will be important to explore the relationship of political ideology with political participation and political administration.
Grandparenting which is an important part of alloparenting for the prolonged development of human children has been practiced in both traditional and modern societies. We review the relevant evolutionary psychology literature to highlight some of the characteristics of human grandparenting. Among some of the well observed characteristics are the lineage differences in grandparenting. Specifically, maternal grandparents seem to invest more than paternal grandparents, and female grandparents seem to invest more than male grandparents. This observation is in line with the paternity uncertainty hypothesis whereby paternal parenting is regulated by paternity doubt a male parent has over his offspring. Less widely observed are emerging evidence suggesting grandparental investment differences due to the grandchild’s sex. This observation is explained by the sex-chromosome hypothesis in that a woman is least related to her paternal grandson, equally related to her maternal grandson and granddaughter, and most related to her paternal granddaughter. Other variables such as residential proximity and patrilocality may also shape the grandparental investment. Future studies should take the intergenerational conflict perspective to investigate inclusive fitness of grandparents and their grandchildren.