According to prospect theory, decision makers’ gain or loss determined by their current states has a profound effect on decisions under risk. In the current paper, the status quo of decision makers is defined as individual reference point, which determines the context as individual gain or loss. Individual reference point is direct, actual, and absolute given that it affects the actual payoffs of decision makers. However, as social comparison theory goes, decision making is also a matter of social comparison. Thus, the status of others is defined as social reference point, which determines social gain or loss. Social reference point is indirect, hypothetical, and relative because it does not influence the actual payoffs of decision makers directly. Risky decision making is affected by social reference point through self-concept, emotion, and cognition. More importantly, both individual and social reference points exist in risky decision making. They have similar impacts on decision makers, both psychologically and behaviorally, thus affecting risky choice jointly. Therefore, the paper proposes the effects of double reference points on risky decision making. However, further research is needed on the mechanisms of double reference points.
The existing studies on self-other differences in decision-making still have many inconsistencies in the used tasks, the related findings and theoretical explanations, and lack of exploration of psychological mechanisms and neural basis of this phenomenon. Although some researchers have used psychological distance hypothesis to explain their research results, the manipulation of psychological distance in their experiment are still too simple to form a general theoretical model. In recent years, we have found in a series of studies that: The asymmetry in self-other differences in decision-making exist under gain and loss situations; Manipulation of psychological distance is more effective in inducing self–other differences in decision-making than manipulation of social distance and decision-makers’ roles; Self-esteem levels of decision-makers affect self-other differences in decision-making. Future studies should further explore the essence of psychological distance, the change in psychological distance caused by reversal of decision-makers’ role, as well as the brain mechanisms of self-other differences in decision-making.
People’s perception of social justice affects their political trust, which influences their cooperation with government. Mass incidents, which refer to the conflicts between certain civilians and local administration, are typical non-cooperative behavior in China. However, for the lack of empirical research on the relationship between cooperation and social justice or political trust, there is no investigation on the process and condition on mechanism of cooperation. In this research, social justice is divided into distributive justice and procedural justice, and political trust is divided into instrumental trust and affective trust. This study will focus on social psychological mechanism of social justice and cooperation with the methods of laboratory experiment, field experiment and questionnaire survey, and it aims to construct the dual-pathway model of cooperation by instrumental trust and affective trust. Furthermore, this study will also explore the moderating roles of outcome dependence on the relationship between social justice and cooperation. An important theoretical implication of this study is that it will construct the dual-pathway model of cooperation and its moderate mechanism. Regarding practical implications, this research will examine the social psychological mechanism underlying cooperation with government in China by examining motivation, thus informing administrators and policy makers on how to promote intergroup cooperation in response to public administration.
Because of their different weight in people's mind, various sources of wealth can lead to diverse attitudes and ways of consumption. By carrying out a series of experiments, predecessors have found out that windfall gains are spent more readily than hard-earned money. Base on the theory of implicit social cognition and mental account, use the implicit association test (IAT) and ERP technology to explore the difference made on people's mind by windfall gains and hard-earned gains, thus give an indirect test for its implicit attitudes and brain processing mechanism. The IAT result shows that windfall gains is more closely connected with easy consumption, while hard-earned money is more closely connected with the difficult consumption, which verifies the predecessors' conclusion in the implicit level; The ERP technology also found hard-earned money and windfall gains may base on different brain processing mechanism, and reflected in P3 and LPC composition, P3 could be the direct ERP’ components which reflects the hard-income group’s preference to consumer consumption patterns, while LPC components reflects people’s preference to consumption under an accidental income condition.
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is considered to be a major neuroendocrine system for understading physiological repsonses to stress. Dysfunction of HPA axis under resting and stressful conditions have been associated with stress-related disorders. However, the specific cause and feature of HPA dysfunction remains unclear. Cortisol, an end product of HPA axis, is believed to directly reflect the characteristics of HPA activity. Specifically, the salivary cortisol is considered to be an ideal biolgoical sample to index HPA activity. Thus, identifying suitable salivary cortisol markers to reflect HPA regulation under the resting and stressful conditions may help uncover the neuroendocrin basis of stress-related diseases. Recent research has commonly measured cortisol awakening response (CAR) and implemented the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) procedures. Future research should combine the physiolgoical and psychological indices as well as investigate the brain networks of HPA axis, thus to elucidate the brain-neuroendocrine biological pathways for stress response.
Fairness is regarded as the core of morality. Equality sensitivity refers to individual’s stable and individualized response to perceived fairness or unfairness, while it also remains malleable during development. The paper firstly reviews the theoretical concept and research methods of equality sensitivity, with a conclusion that the third party task (i.e. individual as an evaluator of distribution fairness in tasks) is a more positive approach. Then the paper examines the factors influencing equality sensitivity in distribution condition including social situation, social relations, and distribution resources. Finally, the paper calls for future research to operationalize the concept of equality sensitivity and integrate all factors influencing perceptions of fairness under allocation condition.
Over the last decade, there has been a growing body of research suggesting that recognition of a manipulable object not only involves analysis of visual information input, but also entails processing of action information associated with grasping or using it. Accumulating evidence from behavioral, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies has suggested that action information automatically evoked in the process of object identification is an essential part of object representation. Research on object manipulability has shed new lights on the phenomenon of category specificity effect, including living/nonliving and noun/verb dissociations. It will also bring a new perspective for the better understanding of object representation as well as provide theoretical implication to further research on neural pathways of visual object recognition.
Oculomotor inhibition of return (IOR) refers to delayed saccadic latency and decreased fixation duration to probe targets presented at the previously fixated locations or objects compared to the novel ones. Recently many studies have focused on the phenomenon of oculomotor inhibition of return during scene search. The present article introduced the experimental paradigms, classical findings of oculomotor inhibition of return during scene search and the theoretical explanations for them. In addition, the controversial issues in the following areas were involved: capacities of oculomotor inhibition of return, whether IOR is specific to the visual search, and whether IOR is a foraging facilitator. We also discussed the neural bases underlying IOR. Finally, the article summarized controversial issues in previous studies and pointed out the directions and methods for future research.
Music temporal dimension plays a critical role for music. It has been reported that the temporal processing in music is affected by many factors. On the one hand, music structural elements influence the temporal processing in music, such as rhythm, meter, tempo, and harmonic accompaniment; on the other hand, individual differences including age, attention, working memory, familiarity, and musical training also affect listeners’ temporal processing in music. Further research should determine the relative importance among these influencing factors, and examine the effects of gene and environment on the temporal processing in music. It should be also needed to identify the sensitive period of the development of temporal processing in music in future.
The primary goal of neuroeconomics is to explore the cognitive and neural basis of economic decision-making. With the development of brain imaging technology, there are more advanced techniques used to explore the mechanism of economic decision-making. As an important branch of economic decision-making, inter-temporal choice can provide new insight into the economic decision-making. In this review, we first summarized the neural mechanisms of inter-temporal choices and the four theories of the intertemporal choice, including single-system valuation theory, dual-system valuation theory, self-control theory and self-referential processing theory. Then, we reviewed the evidences for inter-temporal choice from recent brain lesion studies. In addition, the neural basis of inter-temporal choice uncovered by VBM-based and DTI-based studies were reviewed and discussed in detail. The frontal gray matter and white matter volume played a large role in the impulsivity of decision-making. The dorsolateral prefrontal-striatal white matter fibers also influenced the impulsivity of decision-making. Finally, we addressed the limitations in current studies and future research direction including research methods, cognitive processes, decision impulsivity and assessment models.
The world is aging at its fastest rate ever. There are raising concerns on older adults’ cognitive declining. The effects of aging on decision-making becomes one new focus recent years. Recent studies on decision-making from the aspects of physiological aging, pathological aging and its brain mechanisms showed that normal aging demonstrated impaired decision-making under ambiguity but intact decision-making under risk, whereas the pathological aging individuals, like Alzheimer’s disease patients, demonstrated impairment of both kinds of decision-making on behaviors and brain functions. Future research needs to use multiple measures of decision-making in the same study and to combine both peripheral and central measures to investigate the aging effect on the behavior and neuro-circuits of decision-making.
Although antisocial behavior is a complex condition with environmental and genetic etiologies, the single susceptibility gene such as the Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTT) and the catechol O-methyltransferase gene, can’t completely interpret the molecular genetics mechanism of the antisocial behavior. The genome-wide association study (GWAS) methodology from molecular genetics views millions of large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variation (CNVs) as genetic markers to search the genetic locus related to external phenotype on the level of entire genome by high-throughput genotyping technology and so it can provide important clues for the further understanding of hereditary factors of antisocial behavior.In order to achieve the analysis for the gene-psychology-environment mechanism of complex traits or behavior, future studies should combine the accurate genotyping techniques with mental and environment factors.
Material reward is anywhere and everywhere. However, can it always result in working enthusiasm of people? As the cognitive evaluation theory suggests, reward has two facets, information and control, which influence intrinsic motivation in different ways. The former often helps to sustain intrinsic motivation while the latter may decrease the motivation. The latter’s effect, namely, undermine effect, has been confirmed in many studies. Moreover, researches have also found several factors that may mediate or moderate this undermine effect, including reward conditions, competence, causality orientations, feedback, freedom to choice, etc. Recent social neurological studies further observed the neural representations and mechanisms of undermine effect.
Narrow sense of overconfidence means people believe they are better than their actual selves, and generalized overconfidence means the mis-calibration in judgment and decision-making. Based on the theory of evolutionary psychology and ecological rational hypothesis, Johnson and Fowler (2011) put forward the evolution model of overconfidence. They hold overconfidence, as a rapid heuristic cognitive strategy and the result of evolutionary selection, owes an advantage in the adaptation and survival. According to the different assumptions of individual perceptual bias, evolution model is divided into binomial model and normal model, both of which lead to the consistent conclusions. Compared to the self-enhancement theory, differential weighting theory and the theoretical model of differential information, Evolution model, in spite of many advantages, is still restricted to some deficiencies. Hence, to go beyond those deficiencies, further empirical researches remains to be conducted to test and develop the evolution model.
Embodied cognition has gained more and more attention, Social psychologists have come to realize embodied cognition is not only appropriate for individual-level cognitions but also extend to social relations. The most directly relevant framework for addressing this topic is the relational models theory developed by Fiske (Smith, 2008). Fiske holds that there are four fundamental types of social relationships: Communal Sharing (CS); Authority Ranking (AR); Equality Matching (EM) and Market Pricing (MP); CS, AR and EM relations are embodied in a distinctive modality. This present paper reviewed empirical researches of embodied clues, and examined shortcomings in researching embodied social relations. In addition, future researches should focus on the development study of infancy and so on.
Intergroup threat can increase the negative stereotypes and prejudices, even lead to intergroup conflict and violence. This article discusses the contributing factors of intergroup threat (including individuals’ perceptions and experiences, group characteristics, social policies and regulations) and suggests some strategies to reduce intergroup threat (including changing social categorization, blurring intergroup boundaries and increasing the opportunity of intergroup contact). To provide theoretical basis for improving intergroup relations, future research will need to furnish theoretical model of intergroup threat in different social contexts and examine the mechanism that underlies the interactions of pertaining variables interactions to promote the intergroup relationship.
Globalization has led to rapid diffusion of cultural values across national borders, which could under some circumstances evoke fear of erosion of local cultural traditions. Exclusionary reactions to foreign cultures are the tendency to reject foreign culture and defend the integrity of one’s heritage culture against the cultural erosive effects of globalization. Bicultural exposure increases the likelihood of exclusionary reactions by rendering culturally typical characteristics salient. Disgust, a mediator of this process, often accompanies cultural exclusionary reactions. The boundary conditions of cultural exclusionary reactions are also discussed. Future research will focus on the implications of cultural exclusions for managing intergroup relations.