Mediation models are frequently used in the research of psychology and other social science disciplines. Mediation indicates that the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable is transmitted through a third variable, which is called mediator. In most applied research, Baron and Kenny’s (1986) causal steps approach has been used to test mediating effect. In recent years, however, many methodological researchers questioned the rationality of the causal steps approach, and some of them even attempted to stop its use. Firstly, we clarify the queries on the causal steps approach one by one. Secondly, we propose a new procedure to analyze mediating effects. The new procedure is better than any single method that constitutes the procedure in terms of Type I error rate and power. The proposed procedure can be conducted by using observed variables and/or latent variables. Mplus programs are supplied for the procedure with observed variables and/or latent variables. Finally, this article introduces the development of mediation models, such as mediation model of ordinal variables, multilevel mediation, multiple mediation, moderated mediation, and mediated moderation.
User-generated content (UGC) is the cornerstone of consumer-generated media (CGM). It has a great and far-reaching influence on internet companies and traditional enterprises. CGM research has just started, and research on consumer participation in creation is still limited. The few studies about group creation focus on organizations or teams but little on customers. Based on motivation theory, emotion theory, individual creation and group creation theory, this research explores individual psychological reaction, group creation process, group creation mode and environment mechanism of UGC from the customer’s perspective. The authors use experiment, social network analysis and survey method, at the same time, try to collect objective data by psychological instruments such as Polygraph. The expected results will help internet companies to establish scientific mechanisms of user participation to enhance competitiveness, and help traditional companies to carry out sales promotion and maintain long-term customer relationship by customer participation.
The babyface effect is a prevalent and evolutionary social-cognitive phenomenon induced by the babyface feature or baby scheme. This effect involves not only a preference to babies’ faces including attention capture and impulsion of caregiving and feeding but also an overgeneralization effect to adults, animals and non-living things with similar babyface features. In this way any stimuli presenting baby-like stereotype can induce corresponding attitude and behaviors. Recent studies on the manifestation, mechanism and influencing factors of the babyface effect suggest that modern people’s response to baby scheme is an innate releasing mechanism and provide evidences to evolutionary psychological theories such as parental investment and sexual selection. Future research should focus more on the cultural difference and the practical application of this effect.
Self-regulation is a core aspect of the self that can be broadly defined as goal-directed behavior. In recent years, more and more researchers bring the concept of working memory capacity (WMC) which belongs to cognitive psychology into the social psychological models of self-regulation. Evidences from these studies show that the WMC and self-regulation are both dependent on a common limited resource. The correlation between WMC and regulation of attention, thought, emotion or impulse behavior have also been confirmed by abundant empirical studies. The collaboration between social psychology, cognitive psychology and neuroscience in the future would bring more insights in the investigation of self-regulation.
Music listening while driving is a popular activity. The arousal theory predicts that music can lead to a more optimal arousal level which could benefit driving vigilance. However, following the central capacity theory, music can also distract the driver and pose danger on the road. Dynamic model, which integrated the existing researches, pointed out that music had an arousal or distractive influence on driving vigilance depending on the complexity of music, the demands of driving situation and the difference between drivers. Later, the compensatory theory highlighted that drivers’ self-regulations were the key to restoring the dynamic equilibrium. In the future, researchers need to focus on the studies in the fields of how to measure drivers’ mental workload, how to develop smart car music system as well as how to design some training programs for drivers.
Emotional contagion refers to the emotional convergence between individuals result from social interaction. Specifically, the unconscious tendency to automatically mimic and synchronize other people’s movements, expressions, postures and behaviors is called primitive emotion contagion. Lots of empirical evidences have been provided recently to uncover the mechanism of primitive emotion contagion. However, challenges in this field still remains due to definition ambiguity and its “unconscious” “synchronical” “automatical” occurrence. Based on the review of past studies, we conclude the interference factors of social situations and clarify the dilemma on aspects of concept definition, measuring method and depended cues. Moreover, we suggest that future researchers should apply more advanced techniques and paradigm to conduct the experiments. And theories about the underlying mechanism should be undated with recent findings.
The recognition of vocal emotions across cultures means understand the emotional information through voice in cross-culture situations. Whereas existing researches mainly focus on: cross-cultural consistency; the effect of in-group advantage; the study of gender and age; the recognition of spontaneous voice emotions; the selection of language materials. So our future research should further explore the aspects of materials obtaining, the influence factors and bilingualism.
Addiction can be divided into substance addiction and behavioral addiction. Although different type of addictions has its own specific characteristics on intertemporal choice, all of addictions show steep delay discounting. The neural basis of addicts’ intertemporal choice deficits focuses on the valuation network (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, striatum and posterior cingulate cortex), the cognitive control network (prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) and the imagery /prospection network (hippocampus and amygdala). We can use mental trainings to improve addicts’ intertemporal choice deficits. With regard to intervention, Working Memory Training、Prospection / Imagery Training and Advisor-Teller Money Manager therapy are the effective ways which have been proved to reduce addicts’ delay discounting. Future studies should pay attention to the cognitive mechanism of addicts’ intertemporal choice deficits, the interaction between neural networks (valuation network, cognitive control network and imagery/prospection network), the basis of behavioral genetics and developing effective methods to reduce addicts’ delay discounting.
Compassion is a process through which individuals notice others’ sufferings, evaluate the current situation, feel others’ sufferings and eventually take actions to help them out of trouble. Compassion has received much attention in research on positive organizational scholarship. Behavior coding, questionnaire, self-report and qualitative evaluation have been used to measure compassion in organization. A set of predictors, including relationship quality between organization members, organizational culture, leadership and institutionalized compassion practices, have shown to be positively related to compassion, which in turn facilitates positive emotion, anxiety, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, OCB, turnover intention, and cooperative capability. Future studies should further examine the structure and measurement of compassion in organization, antecedents and more nuanced mechanisms.
The negative effects of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) have drawn increasing attention from both scholars of organizational science and practitioners of management. Our work focuses on the negative effects of OCB taken from the perspective of Too-Much-of-a-Good-Thing. On the one hand, this perspective can help us better explore reasons regarding “too much” and “Too-Much-of-a-Good-Thing” in OCB; on the other hand, it can help us better analyze the impact mechanism of “Too-Much-of-a-Good- Thing” specific to OCB. Furthermore, based on limitations and problems seen in the current literature, we proposed a dynamic model perspective of negative effects on OCB with an emphasis on factors at the individual, organizational, and societal levels. In addition, we suggest that future studies should use longitudinal designs to better understand the causal effects of OCB on organizations and individuals as this deeper understanding will allow us to better manage and use the “double-edged sword” of OCB.
Money plays an important role in people’s daily life. Many studies have demonstrated that even subtle reminder of money will influence human behaviors. Empirical researches suggested that money cues had triggered a state of self-sufficiency, economic mind-set, free-market values and self-interested identity (social-cognitive model). As a result, participants whose money concepts were primed showed less altruistic pro-social behavior, less commonweal pro-social behavior, less relationship pro-social behavior and less trait pro-social behavior than those not been primed of money. There are many questions should be further explored: (1) The effects of money on pro-social behavior being extended to cover organizational management; (2) The moderate effect of socioeconomic status between money priming and pro-social behavior; (3) The different effect of time on pro-social behavior compared to money; (4) The neural mechanisms of money priming effects on pro-social behavior.
With the advancement of globalization, national identification once again became the focus of social psychology researches. Whether did globalization weaken or strengthen national identification, was not only related to the specific content of national identification, also related to the level of national globalization. At the same time, the individual’s attitudes to out-groups, not only was affected by the group size, also was moderated by identity content. People who endorsed a definition of national belonging based on language, religion, culture, hold a negative attitude to out-groups. People who defined the nation in terms of citizenship, hold a positive attitude to out-groups. The future research should focus on the following aspects: to integrate the content of national identification, to clarify the developing track of national identification, to expand the research methods, and to develop the indigenization research.
Multiple-Choice (MC) item format is commonly used in cognitive diagnosis assessment. To obtain much more diagnostic information from MC items, including the diagnostic information of the keys and the distractors, the methods to construct MC items are firstly introduced. To extract the diagnostic information of the keys and the distractors, some corresponding cognitive diagnosis models are also proposed. Finally, the article suggests that the researches on the methods to construct distractors and cognitive diagnosis models to extract diagnostic information from the distractors should be strengthened.
Test vertical equating refers to transforming the performance of students in tests of various levels to the same scale. Item Response Theory (IRT) and Multidimensional Item Response Theory (MIRT) are the main methods used in vertical equating. IRT method is an effective way to build a vertical scale because IRT models impose no requirement on the distribution of test-takers’ ability and that item parameters are independent of the samples. However, its application is restricted when the test dose not satisfy the unidimensional assumption. MIRT is a combination of IRT and factor analysis, making it an important tool in vertical equating to estimate ability parameter and item parameter precisely in multidimensional test. Current researches focus on the applicability of IRT and MIRT, calibration method and parameter estimation method in vertical equating and comparison study of the two methods. Future studies should concentrate on including more variables when comparing IRT and MIRT in order to expand their applications.