Co-parenting is a complex construct that is different from parenting, which focus on the ways that caregivers work together in their roles as parents. Majority of studies suggest that co-parenting have significant influence on child adjustment, directly or indirectly, by the Parent-Child relationship system and marriage relationship system. However, there is no consensus among the researchers about the definition of co-parenting and its evaluation system. Future studies should focus on the basic theory of parenting (such as co- parenting internal structure, evaluation system, etc. ) issues and the co-parenting’s mechanism on child adjustment, as well as combining with the common characteristics of some special types of family as children left home, divorce family, grandparents raising families, families of prisoners.
Up to now, although there have been a great number of studies conducted to deal with the problem of pronoun resolution, most of these studies were concerned with the question of how syntactic and semantic constraints influence the process of pronoun resolution. The question of how pronoun resolution is influenced by pragmatically-based constraints, i.e. information structure (especially focus structure) has not received as much attention in the literature. In particular, we know little about the processes of how focus structures interact with other linguistic information, such as grammatical role, verb semantic, and distance-related factors, to determine the interpretation of pronoun. The purpose of this project is to gain insight into the question of how information structure, namely focus structures, influences the interpretation of the pronoun. In order to achieve this aim, we choose two different types of focus structures, that is, a top-down focus structure (linguistic focus) and a bottom-up focus structure (non-linguistic focus). More specifically, by measuring the latency and amplitude of Event related potential (ERP) components, we want to reveal the process of how these two different types of focus structures exert their influence on pronoun resolution, and during this process whether/how different focus information interact with syntactic and semantic information. Moreover, we also want to reveal the correspondingly electrophysiological correlates underlying these different processing stages. The systematic studies of how focus structures exert their influence on the process of pronoun resolution and especially, how focus information interacts with other syntactic and semantic information during pronoun resolution, can tell us how linguistic constraints (top-down information) and non-linguistic constraints (bottom-up information) interact with each other to contribute to anaphor resolution and sentence representation. Specifically, there are three key questions to address in this project, which are: 1) how top-down focus information influences the pronoun resolution; 2) how bottom-up focus information influences the pronoun resolution; 3) how focus structure, grammatical role, and verb semantic interact with each other during pronoun resolution.
Using data from 19 studies on the relation between language ability and false-belief understanding with a total of 1581 3-6 years children from Chinese mainland, this meta-analysis determined the strength of the relation and examined moderators that may account for the variability across studies—including aspect of language ability assessed, type of false-belief task used. The results indicated a moderate and significant correlation between language ability and false-belief after controlling for age. Further moderator analysis showed that the relationship was not affected by the type of language ability and the measurement of false-belief understanding.
Weight metaphor exists in many cultures, the most recent research have found that the metaphor of importance based on the body experience of weight. The perception of weight will affect the judgment of importance, the importance information will also influence weight perception, which suggests that the neural basis for the perception of weight and the related metaphors may be overlap. The embodied theories of conceptual representation and conceptual metaphor provides theoretical foundation to explain this phenomenon. Future research needs to explore the range which weight metaphor can work, and the role of diverse culture in the formation of weight metaphor.
Previous studies consistently found that the language processing system plays different roles in different kinds of numerical systems. Specifically, language processing influences the exact number system, whereas, there is no relationship between language and either the approximate number system or small number system. The mechanism underlying these relationships remains unclear. Recent behavioral and brain researchers have explored the reliance of numerical processing on language by using different paradigms such as longitudinal tests, language switching, dual tasks and phonological length operation within the same language.. However, these studies have not reached a consensus. Here we propose a novel explanation for this inconsistency from a perspective of memory mediation. Future research should include the number system development trace of children during their language-acquiring age. In addition, more studies should be done to see how long term and short term memory systems have effect on the relationship between language and number, how semantic and grammar influence number system, and to investigate the cognitive and neural basis of four basic number operations.
Spoken communication in noise presents problems for all listeners, but is especially difficult in a second language (L2). Noise can produce energetic masking and informational masking that bring about adverse effects on the perception of speech sounds. L2 listeners often have more difficulties in understanding speech in the presence of noise than native listeners, and their performance varies according to noise types and levels and target sounds. They also show considerable individual differences in their performance, which are attributable to a wide range of factors. Moreover, native listeners are less accurate in perceiving foreign accented speech in noise than recognizing speech without accents. Inexperienced L2 listeners are more accurate at recognizing speech sounds with accents that are similar to their own, whereas experienced listeners show more flexibility in their perception.
In face cognition, facial gender and emotional expression have different processing mechanisms. The models of face cognition from Bruce & Young (1986) and Haxby, Hoffman & Gobbini (2000) focused on expression processing. However, there was little interpretation about the facial gender processing, and the relationship between gender and expression processing was not illustrated in those models. Although several studies suggest that gender and expression processing may interact with each other, there is still no direct evidence. We proposed that the effect of facial familiarity might had been neglected in previous studies using the Garner’s paradigm. Meanwhile, the face adaption paradigm might provide a new way to examine the relationship between the facial gender and expression processing. The mechanisms of the interaction would also be discussed in this review.
Action memory is a type of memory involved with better awareness and enactment. It not only emphasizes the influence of better awareness on memory, but also stresses the integration of physical enactment on memory. The early researches mainly paid attention on the action memory as well as the affected factors through the SPT paradigm, and proposed four theories to account for the enactment effect. However, all of the theories could not reveal the processing mechanism of action memory completely as each of the theories focused on the enactment effect from different angles. Some of empirical researches attempted to explore the mechanism of action memory from the source monitoring. But, the results did still not lead to an agreement so far.
User experience refers to a person's perceptions and responses from their interaction with products. Electrophysiological techniques offer a possibility to measure user experience in real time. Three electrophysiological measures, Electrodermal activity (EDA), Electrocardiogram (ECG) and Electroencephalogram (EEG), were reviewed focusing on studies related to human cognitive and emotional state. Previous studies have found that the Skin conductance level (SCL) is related with emotional arousal level and cognitive engagement in EDA; Heart Rate (HR) is sensitive to emotional arousal and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is sensitive to mental workload in ECG; and alpha and beta waves in EEG are valid indicators of emotional state and mental workload. However, these indices are not sensitive to the valence and categories of emotion. Future research could be developed in three aspects: identifying the valence and categories of emotion in user experience, integrating and synchronizing multiple indicators to identify emotional state in real time, and measuring aesthetic experience by physiological technology.
Family and peers are not only the most important microsystems influencing personal development, but also particularly influential for adolescent problematic behaviors. Although extensive research has explored the main effect of parent-child relationship and friendship on adolescent adjustments, little is known of the relationship models among the three variables and their theoretical basis. The existing research is so fragmented that it’s necessary to integrate them. This paper first reviewed the previous research, and then analyzed three models of effects of parent-child relationship and friendship on individual’s problematic behaviors: the independence model, the interaction model and the indirect-effect model. Shortages of the three models and their related research were also discussed, such as inconsistent measure indexes of close relationships, unbalanced studies on internalizing and externalizing problematic behaviors, single informant, ignoring cultural differences, absence of sufficient longitudinal and experimental researches, and so on. Finally, we pointed out the directions of future research.
There are two lines of research examining the role of cognitive style in hopelessness depression. Based on cognitive vulnerability-stress model, the first one focuses on the etiology of hopelessness depression, emphasizing the role of cognitive vulnerability and stress in the risk of hopelessness and depression. The other one, based on a model of recovery from depression, focuses on the recovery of hopelessness depression, highlighting the role of cognitive protective factors and positive life events in increasing hopefulness, as well as recovery from depression. In this regard, clarifying some relevant issues and integrating the two approaches should be of benefit to assessing individual’s depression risk and exploring the resilience growth among vulnerable individuals.
Workplace bullying is a negative behavior in the workplace and influences the well-being of the bystanders, who are in the same ecosystem with the perpetrator and target. As the third party, bystanders are a heterogeneous group. Some positively intervene by protecting the bullied; some passively encourage bullying by ignoring it. Others may actively encourage bullying by supporting the bully. The roles and behaviors of bystanders will influence the evolution of workplace bullying in turn. Furthermore, bystanders’ behaviors are influenced by their deontic perspective of justice and emotion through social exchange and learning process.
Deception commonly exists in personal communication, interrogation and security and people often attempt to detect it through nonverbal visual cues. The paradigms in deception research are categorized as forced, voluntary or mixed deception. During deception, people usually experience higher cognitive load, higher emotional arousal and more attempted control, which would lead to the changes in nonverbal visual cues, such as eye movements, facial expressions and gestures. Other influential factors such as inter-personal and intra-personal differences were also analyzed and discussed. Future studies should further investigate the psychological mechanisms of deception and the psychological implications of nonverbal visual cues. Researchers should conduct more field studies to better understand the relationship between deception and nonverbal visual cues, and employ state-of-the-art technology to precisely measure and analyze nonverbal behaviors during deception.
Individualism, as an important cultural dimension, was defined as a focus on self-independence, personal goals and personal achievements. Three general approaches to measure individualism were self-report, priming cultural frame and tangible cultural products outside the head. Recently, Climato- Economic Theory and Pathogen susceptibility Theory that account for individualism were developed. There were between- and within-culture differences in individualism, which within-culture differences (states, provinces, prefectures within-country) were emphasized. Just as individualism differs across regions, individualism changed over time within-culture. Trends appeared more individualistic in the form of generational change on the basis of big data and objective indicators. Future research should integrate various approaches to measure individualism.
The term “global climate change” - one of the biggest challenges for human beings this century - refers to the direct or indirect influence of the climate on human activities. Climate change has cognitive, emotional and behavioral effects on individuals and, for most, these psychological effects could be gradual and cumulative. According to current research, coping strategies for dealing with climate change include those that are problem-focused, emotion-focused and meaning-focused. Meaning-focused approaches might be the most beneficial option for mental health. Defining and quantifying important concepts, articulating whether there are correlations between coping strategies and mental health and investigating the features of Chinese coping strategies are avenues for future work.
Missing data is a very common phenomenon in social science research. Among most existing statistical analysis about missing data, Full-information maximum likelihood estimation and multiple imputation are recommended as most common approach at present for handling missing data. Planned missing data designs use special research design which create completely random missing data, and then employ modern missing data estimation techniques to get unbiased parameters and maximize statistical power in the process. Planned missing data designs can be used in cross-section survey to increase questionnaire items or reduce respondent burden. In longitudinal survey to shorten measure occasion, moreover, enrich validities. There are two types of planned missing data designs: 3-form design and two-method measurement design.
The parameter estimation techniques in item response theory modeling are indispensable to theoretical researches and real applications. This paper focused on its data augmentation techniques and described its historical development from the Bock and Aitkin’s (1981) deterministic EM algorithm to the Cai’s (2010) Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro (MH-RM) algorithm (the integration of Markov Chain Monte Carlo and maximum marginal likelihood estimation, known as the stochastic data augmentation). Currently, the statistical computing still needs to be developed in new applications.