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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 20 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    主编特邀
    Olfactory Perception and Its Interplays with the Emotional System
    ZHOU Wen;FENG Guo
    . 2012, 20 (1): 2-9.  
    Abstract   PDF (195KB) ( 1267 )
    Out of all senses, olfaction is particularly linked with human emotion. The kinship is rooted in the evolutionary process, which possibly shaped the highly overlapped anatomical compositions between the two systems. Anecdotal descriptions aside, recent empirical studies have examined the interplays between olfaction and emotion either with or without subjective awareness, as well as the underlying mechanisms. These efforts have outlined the behavioral affinity between olfaction and emotion as well as their shared neural encoding scheme involving structures like the amygdala, hippocampus, insular and orbitofrontal cortex. The findings also highlight the distinct roles of non-social odorants and social chemosignals in modulating emotional processes.
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    博士论坛
    The Human Susceptibility to the Valence Strength of Emotional Stimuli: Neural Mechanisms
    YUAN Jia-Jin;LI Hong
    . 2012, 20 (1): 10-19.  
    Abstract   PDF (339KB) ( 1718 )
    The humans experience emotion at apparently distinct valence strength which, however, is out of the research focus until recent years. Through manipulating the valence strength of emotional stimuli, we systematically addressed the human susceptibility to the valence strength of emotional stimuli from the perspectives of the emotion susceptibility itself, the emotion impact on higher cognition and the individual specialty. The results showed that the human brain is more sensitive to the valence strength of unpleasant versus pleasant stimuli, which may be associated with the emotion alerting function of the right amygdale/hippocampus. Secondly, consistent with the above findings, unpleasant emotion induction of diverse strength impacts higher cognition, such as novelty processing, target detection and behavioral inhibitory control, differently at each stage of the processing stream. Thirdly, there are significant individual differences in brain susceptibility to emotional events. Compared to males, females are more susceptible to mildly unpleasant events. Moreover, compared with ambiverts, extraverts are more susceptible to pleasant stimuli regardless of emotion intensity, and are less susceptible to unpleasant stimuli of decreased valence strength.
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    元分析
    A Meta-analysis of Relationship Between Subjective Well-being and Big Three Personality
    CHEN Can-Rui;GAO Yan-Hong;SHEN He-Yong
    . 2012, 20 (1): 19-26.  
    Abstract   PDF (256KB) ( 2698 )
    The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between subjective well-being (SWB), big three personality, and the factors affecting this relationship. In the present study, 43 retrievable literatures including 16377 participants were reviewed. We found the following results: (1) Extroversion of EPQ had positive correlation with SWB, while neuroticism and psychoticism had negative. In comparison with foreign researches, the correlation between SWB, extroversion and neuroticism of Chinese participants were stronger. The conjunctions of personality and culture played an important role of SWB among Chinese participants. (2)The difference of SWB structure had no significant influence on correlation between SWB and big three personality. Therefore, the structure of SWB needs to be more standard and clearer. (3) The correlation between SWB and extroversion was regulated by age, while neuroticism and psychoticism were not. Finally, the results and direction of further research were discussed.
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    研究构想
    E-commerce Consumers Purchase Decision and Its Influencing Factors
    Chen Yi-Wen;Ma Ji-Wei
    . 2012, 20 (1): 27-34.  
    Abstract   PDF (232KB) ( 4736 )
    With the development of the computer and internet technology, E-commerce, as a new economic model, has broad and profound impact on people’s shopping attitudes and behavior. Online shopping is to purchase goods or services on the Internet, usually referred to e-commerce. There is few research frame studying the entire online shopping processes starting from which is the impact factors to how they influence the purchase behavior. Considering these, we want to find the factors affecting online shopping, to validate the mediate effect of the risk perception and purchase attitude on decision making model, and to explore the relationship of the product types, consumer categories and the decision–making patterns in series of studies. The researchers will adopt interview, questionnaires, laboratory studies and server log files to collect data and explore the decision–making model in China. We expect the findings will help to improve the environment of e-commerce shopping, e-commerce website design, and online marketing strategy making.
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    The Role of Safety Motivation in Safety Performance Model: A Multilevel Model from a Self-determination Theory Perspective
    JIANG Li;LI Yong-Juan
    . 2012, 20 (1): 35-44.  
    Abstract   PDF (257KB) ( 1205 )
    Safety motivation is an important determinant of employees’ safety behavior in the routine work. Despite continued recognition of the important effect of safety motivation, empirical research lacks clear theoretical framework and useful measurement instruments. The present research intends to borrow the classification of motivation from self-determination theory to enrich the types of safety motivation, and investigate the mediating role of safety motivation among transformational leadership, individual characteristics and safety performance, and also the boundary condition within Chinese management context based on the model of safety performance. Methods such as interviews, questionnaires and scenarios will be used to explore the correlation or cause and effect relations among these variables. Theoretically, the research combines self-determination theory and the model of safety performance to contribute motivation theory in safety domain. Practically, the results would have significant implications for leadership training and safety performance management.
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    研究方法
    An Overview of Mood-induction Methods
    ZHENG Pu;LIU Cong-Hui;YU Guo-Liang
    . 2012, 20 (1): 45-55.  
    Abstract   PDF (254KB) ( 3393 )
    Inducing desired mood states in participants experimentally has been one of the standard paradigms in emotion research. A series of mood induction procedures (MIPs), including emotional picture MIP, music MIP, olfactory stimuli MIP, computer game MIP, facial/gesture feedback MIP were reviewed. Influencing factors, such as individual differences were analyzed. Then, after describing and evaluating current techniques for inducing pride in the laboratory, a modified pride-induction method named simulated competition was introduced.
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    研究前沿
    A Special Illusion: Motion-induced Blindness
    HU Feng-Pei;WANG Xi;WANG Du-Ming;HU Huan
    . 2012, 20 (1): 56-64.  
    Abstract   PDF (189KB) ( 1426 )
    When the salient static targets are superimposed on the moving background which moves within a scope of certain space, visual targets spontaneouslydisappears from visual awareness and subsequently reappears, this phenomenon is called “motion-induced blindness”. The reason that this illusion happens includes: attention competition theory, Gestalt perception theory and the theories about neurophysiological mechanism. This phenomenon has its particularity, which is induced by changing awareness in the process of object recognition, and it’s quite different from other blindness phenomenons; on the other hand, researchers are concerned with the specificity of “counter-intuitive” in motion-induced blindness. Researches in neurophysiological mechanism focus on the change on early cortex and late cotex, researchers use eye tracking and EEG to measure and evaluate timing. The present review sums up the related research results and points out the future research direction which includes: the intrinsic mechanism of motion-induced blindness, as a tool for the research on neural correlates of consciousness, unconscious perception processing, significant process and cognitive conflict in MIB, etc.
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    The Probability and the Mental Representation
    CHEN Ya-Lin;LIU Chang;ZHANG Xiao-Jiang
    . 2012, 20 (1): 65-74.  
    Abstract   PDF (161KB) ( 872 )
    Probability is an expression of uncertainty. Recent research found that likely events are tend to represent by their abstract and essential features, whereas unlikely events are tent to represent by their concrete and incidental features. In corresponding, activating abstract construals will reduce the probability estimates of the events, whereas concrete representations will increase the probability estimates. Moreover, the predictive relation between cue and outcome in the training period can also affect the probability estimates. Future research should investigate why probability can affect the construal level of events, the adjustment of raw value and the combinatorial probability estimates, and the inner mechanism of these phenomenon.
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    Microorganism and Behavior and Psychiatric Disorders
    LIANG Shan;WANG Tao;HU Xu;LI Wei;JIN Feng;WANG Li
    . 2012, 20 (1): 75-97.  
    Abstract   PDF (396KB) ( 1389 )
    As we know that some pathogenic microorganisms not only influence host brain and behaviors, but also cause psychiatric disorders. Recent researches indicate that beneficial symbiotic microorganisms, which also known as probiotics, may improve host health both physically and mentally. Gut microorganisms are involved in the development of the neural system and behavioral pattern of mice. They are also related to chronic gastrointestinal disorders and chronic fatigue syndrome. Some central nervous system diseases, such as hepatic encephalopathy and multiple sclerosis may be induced by the disturbance of gut micro-ecosystems. Depression and autism also may be related to the status and proportion of gut microorganisms. The observations above are consistent with the hygiene hypothesis. Balanced symbiotic microorganisms could play an important role in human physical and mental health. Although the mechanisms still remain to be clarified, various hypotheses and research models will give us a better understanding of the role of gut-brain axis in host health. We believe that the relation of symbiotic microorganisms and host health will become a promising research subject in psychology.
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    Boredom: A Long and Revival Research Topic
    ZHOU Hao;WANG Qi;DONG Yan
    . 2012, 20 (1): 98-107.  
    Abstract   PDF (225KB) ( 2554 )
    Boredom was an unpleasant emotional experience in which individuals feel a pervasive meaningless of life. It affectes various psychosocial functions directly or indirectly. Currently, some researches on mental health, social adaptation, and academic performance have revealed the negative effects of boredom. However, most researches of boredom remain in the level of theoretical discussion or correlation study. Moreover, there is no uniform definition and systematic theory and model to explain boredom. Researches in the future are suggested to explore the mechanism of boredom and develop effective interventions to eliminate people’s boring state.
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    Creative Self-efficacy: Concept, Influencing Factors and Intervention
    LI Xi-Ying;ZHANG Li;LU Yong-Li;ZHANG Heng-Sheng;ZHANG Long-Ping
    . 2012, 20 (1): 108-114.  
    Abstract   PDF (203KB) ( 1393 )
    Creative self-efficacy, being a part of an individual’s general self-efficacy, refers to an individual’s belief in his or her own ability to produce novel, original and appropriate ideas, solutions or behaviors for a task in a particular setting. The commonly-employed creative self-efficacy scales are simple, single-dimensional and lack validity, while recently-developed scales are not strongly supported by empirical researches. Demographic variables, individual variables and contextual variables have effects on creative self-efficacy. Creative self-efficacy can predict creativity. It is plastic and may have long-term training effects, and therefore it is of great significance in cultivating creativity. Future researches should focus on cultivating creative self-efficacy in school setting.
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    The Study of Voice Behavior in the Perspective of Cognition: Cognitive Factors, Theoretical Basis and Formation Mechanism
    DUAN Jin-Yun;ZHANG Qian
    . 2012, 20 (1): 115-126.  
    Abstract   PDF (235KB) ( 1800 )
    At present, studies on voice behavior mostly focus on its antecedents, while less on its cognitive formation mechanism. Voice behavior is considered closely related with individual cognitive activities pertaining to its triggering mechanism, process decision-making mechanism and advice expressing mechanism. By analyzing the cognitive factors which affect the employees’ voice behavior, the study attempted to put forward the whole model of cognitive mechanism, and then pointed out the direction of the further relevant researches.
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    Instrumentality, Social Identity, and Group-based Anger: Overview of Collective Action Research
    CHEN Hao;XUE Ting;YUE Guo-An
    . 2012, 20 (1): 127-136.  
    Abstract   PDF (199KB) ( 1695 )
    Collective action has been concerned by the social scientific community for a long period. In the early 20th century, collective action research was mainly conducted from the social psychological perspective, but then was shifted to be led by the sociological and political perspectives. Fortunately, Social psychological research for collective action have come back to life and flourished by degrees in the past over 20 years. Instrumentality, social identity, and group-based anger as the fundamental antecedents of collective action have been discovered by social psychologists so far. Moreover, two famous dual-pathway models of collective action were established separately, one of which included the instrumentality and group-based anger paths, the other of which included the instrumentality and social identity paths. And then based on a meta-analysis, an integrated social identity model of collective action was proposed. The next generation of collective action research should think highly of the context and individual characteristics influenced on collective action, pay attention to the group-based emotions other than anger, broad the array of antecedents, such as ideology, and connect to other literatures of social psychology.
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    A Review of Self-expansion Model
    JIA Feng-Xiang;SHI Wei
    . 2012, 20 (1): 137-148.  
    Abstract   PDF (263KB) ( 2148 )
    Self-expansion model proposes that people have the motivation to seek to expand the self (i.e. people seek to enhance their potential self-efficacy by expanding themselves). Self-expansion model emphasizes that self-expansion motivation is a central human motivation. One way in which people expand themselves is through including others in themselves, to some extent, the other’s resources, perspectives and identities. Self-expansion model is a conceptual framework that seems as a platform for researching relationships and relationship-linked phenomena. The ideas in self-expansion model renew the view of “similarity-attraction effect”, “contact hypothesis”, and related perspectives about close relationships and intergroup relationships. Furthermore, it is helpful to some actual activities such as smoking abstinence. However, self-expansion model itself has not yet been mature. In the future we must take advantage of more other psychological theories for deeper exploration about the model. Meanwhile, we should apply it to the applied fields.
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    Neural Mechanism of Cultural Influences on the Self-construal
    YANG Shuai;HUANG Xi-Ting;WANG Xiao-Gang;YIN Tian-Zi
    . 2012, 20 (1): 149-157.  
    Abstract   PDF (210KB) ( 1471 )
    Self-construal refers to how people think about themselves and their relation to others. From collectivism-individualism perspective, East Asians and Westerners are respectively typical interdependent-independent self-construal. In self-reference task, significant others (e.g. mother) and self were represented in the same brain area, which is medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), for East Asians but not for Westerners. In oddball task and word-voice incongruity task, degree of interdependence modulates the brain response of P3 and N400 respectively. Corresponding self-construal can be accessible for bicultural subjects in culture priming. Some theories could explain the influence process, such as social brain hypothesis, culture-gene coevolutionary theory, and neuro-culture interaction model. Future researches should focus on Chinese relational self, especially on the development of native theories and methods.
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    Reviewers in 2011
    Editorial Office
    . 2012, 20 (1): 158-158.  
    Abstract   PDF (116KB) ( 1177 )
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