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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 20 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    Pitch Processing of Music and Speech in Congenital Amusia
    JIANG Cun-Mei;YANG Yu-Fang
    . 2012, 20 (2): 159-167.  
    Abstract   PDF (189KB) ( 1243 )
    Pitch processing is an important dimension in music and speech. Congenital amusia is a deficit in the perception and production of musical pitch. Testing the pitch processing of music and speech in amusia helped clarify the question of whether or not music and language share cognitive and neural resources. It has been shown that amusics have problems in processing musical pitch, and the pitch deficits have affected their pitch processing of speech. Moreover, tonal language experience may not compensate for pitch deficits in amusia. The findings support the resource-sharing framework suggesting shared cognitive and neural resources in music and language (Patel, 2003, 2008, in press), and may provide evidence for clinical practice in aphasia to a certain extent.
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    Effect of Emotion on Item Memory and Source Memory
    WANG Bo;FU Xiao-Lan
    . 2012, 20 (2): 168-173.  
    Abstract   PDF (213KB) ( 3058 )
    The effect of emotion on memory has increasingly received attention from cognitive psychologists over the past several decades. This article is a summary of the research that I conducted for my dissertation under the supervision of Professor Xiaolan Fu in the Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. My research was concerned with the effect of emotion on item memory and source memory for Chinese words. When emotion was elicited by emotional words during encoding, the main findings were: 1) Negative emotion enhanced free recall, whereas there was only a trend that positive emotion enhanced free recall. 2) Negative emotion reduced general recognition, whereas positive emotion had no effect on general recognition. Additionally, neither positive nor negative emotion affected recollection. However, negative emotion reduced familiarity, and positive emotion had no effect on familiarity. 3) Neither positive nor negative emotion affected source memory (i.e., memory for font colors of words). When emotion was elicited by emotional video clips after encoding, the main findings were: 1) For females, negative emotion enhanced consolidation of item memory. However, for males, neither negative emotion nor positive emotion had an effect on item memory. 2) Neither negative nor positive emotion had an effect on source memory. The above findings have theoretical significance for the establishment of the relationship between emotion and memory consolidation, and have practical implications for improving students’ memory consolidation in educational settings.
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    Leadership Effectiveness in the Chinese Context: A Meta-Analysis of Transformational Leadership, Leader-Member Exchange and Abusive Supervision
    WANG Zhen;SUN Jian-Min;ZHAO Yi-Jun
    . 2012, 20 (2): 174-190.  
    Abstract   PDF (398KB) ( 1811 )
    The leadership effectiveness in the Chinese context was examined through a meta-analytical review of 33517 employees from 92 samples. The study was conducted to investigate the relationship between two behavior-oriented (transformational leadership, and abusive supervision), one relationship- oriented leadership (leader-member exchange), three attitudinal (job satisfaction, affective commitment, and stay intention), and two behavioral criteria (task performance, and organizational citizenship behavior). Results indicated that: (1) Transformational leadership and leader-member exchange were positively, while abusive supervision was negatively related to all criteria. (2) Leader-member exchange showed greatest validity, followed by transformational leadership and abusive supervision in predicting follower attitudes, while in terms of follower behaviors, abusive supervision mattered most, followed by leader-member exchange and transformational leadership. (3) Relationship-oriented leadership partially mediated the association of behavior-oriented leadership with attitudinal and behavioral criteria.
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    The Neural Mechanism of Hypothesis Formation and Testing
    LI Fu-Hong;CAO Yun-Fei;CAO Bi-Hua;CAI Xue-Li;LI Hong
    . 2012, 20 (2): 191-196.  
    Abstract   PDF (239KB) ( 869 )
    Hypothesis formation and testing is an important tool to solve any complex problems. It is also the foundation of discovering rules, forming concept, establishing hypothesis, and acquiring knowledge. On the basis of previous behavioral and EEG studies, this project takes “category generalization-rule discovery” as the major paradigm and provides observers with multiple-dimensions perceptual stimuli to investigate the mechanism of the thinking process. Observers need to find the category-based rules through perceptual observation and feedback learning. The project focus on the brain mechanism of hypothesis selection, hypothesis convergence and the processing of negative (conflict) information, and attempts to reveal the individual developmental characteristics of hypothesis generation and testing.
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    The Formation Mechanism Research of Chinese Migrant Worker’s Entrepreneurial Growth in Chinese Context
    WEI Xue-Yan
    . 2012, 20 (2): 197-207.  
    Abstract   PDF (394KB) ( 1006 )
    Migrant worker’s entrepreneurial research grows more and more popular theme with pursuing fertile ground of entrepreneurship. It is of the most important for any of entrepreneur to select a right business concept, adapt strategic action and develop it to be a potential business opportunity. And it is consistent with the development strategy of enlarging employment and the promotion of establishing a business driving obtaining employment. Compared with the popular research of foreign entrepreneurship, localization on empirical study entered into the initial stage in China. However, it is the key factor for seizing entrepreneur’s need. The research adapts field study and lab simulation of semi-structured interview and matched-sample questionnaire. And the study based on strategic action and social network theory and explored the migrant worker’s successful mechanism of entrepreneurial process and development in the transitional background. The whole study includes three sub-studies: Focusing on the exploration of migrant worker’s self-action which includes the trait-activation-based of entrepreneurial initiation, dynamic capability, entrepreneurial self-efficacy that has influence on strategic action and opportunity identification; Focusing on the exploration of social action which includes the social-network-based of social capital that has influence on goal-setting, adaptation of strategic action and identification of opportunity, namely, how social capital had influence on entrepreneurial development of migrant worker; Focusing on task-activation which includes the research of the mechanism on migrant worker’s entrepreneurial development.
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    Syntactic Priming: Paradigm and Controversy in Language Comprehension
    CHEN Qing-Rong
    . 2012, 20 (2): 208-218.  
    Abstract   PDF (616KB) ( 1286 )
    Repetition is a central phenomenon of behavior. In the language sciences, a ubiquitous form of such repetition is syntactic priming, and researchers have made extensive use of it to better understand how language is represented and processed. This paper provides an overview of the sentence types and paradigms employed to investigate the nature of syntactic priming: sentence-retelling picture-describing paradigm, sentence-completion paradigm, sentence-recall paradigm and visual-world eye-movement paradigm. In addition to examining the strength and weakness of these paradigms, the paper also points out two current controversies regarding syntactic priming in language comprehension: 1) whether priming in sentence comprehension is strategic, semantic or syntactic; 2) whether syntactic priming in comprehension is lexically driven or lexically independent. Finally, the paper suggests possible avenues for future research in this field.
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    “Aha!” and “Haha!”: The Common and Distinct Cognitive Brain Processes Underlying Insight and Humor
    NIE Qi-Yang;LUO Jing
    . 2012, 20 (2): 219-227.  
    Abstract   PDF (189KB) ( 1630 )
    As high-level forms of human intelligence, there are many things in common between insight and humor. From the prospective of cognitive and affective components, the discontinuity, suddenness, and restructuring of insight are corresponding to the incongruity, incongruity detection, and incongruity resolution of humor, overlapped representational mechanisms between insight and humor were demonstrated. From the prospective of neural mechanisms, psychological events of insight and humor were both accompanied by the ERP negativity around 400 ms in the central frontal region, and activated anterior cingulate cortex, temporoparietal junction and prefrontal cortex. There were also differences between insight and humor in the P300 component and brain activation in the hippocampus and right-hemisphere anterior superior temporal gyrus. In the future, we can learn from the brain imaging research paradigm used in the study of cognitive and affective components of humor, to further demystify cognitive and emotional processing in insight.
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    Re-examining the Role of Working Memory in Visual Search

    ZHANG Bao

    . 2012, 20 (2): 228-239.  
    Abstract   PDF (173KB) ( 1038 )
    Visual search is a common perceptual task used to study how attention selects a particular object in the visual scene among a large number of distractors. Working memory, which is used to retain relevant information and suppress irrelevant information, has been proved to play a crucial role in visual search process, e.g., maintaining the visual search template, offering the place for matching the search template and visual search items, and preventing attention from re-orienting to the examined items. Based on the relevant evidence reviewed here, it is clear that working memory does play a role in visual search, but how it works still needs further studies.
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    The Characteristic, Influential Factors and ERP Study of Self-face Recognition
    MA Jian-Ling;CHEN Xu;WANG Jing
    . 2012, 20 (2): 240-247.  
    Abstract   PDF (197KB) ( 1542 )
    Self-face Recognition have become the hot topic in face recognition field these years. Three main characteristic of self-face recognition were self-face processing advantage, cultural difference and self-enhancement. Processing contexts and self-related information were two factors affect self-face recognition. The attentional property of self-face recognition was still in debate between priority processing and disengagement. Further research should focus on the search advantage mechanism in explicit self-face recognition task and the brain mechanism of IPA, the attentional property and cognitive mechanism of self-face will be another direction.
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    Emotional Memory Advantage of Individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    WANG Xiao-Ling;LI Song-Wei;QIAN Ming-Yi
    . 2012, 20 (2): 248-255.  
    Abstract   PDF (129KB) ( 1496 )
    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a chronic mental disorder caused by highly emotional events. The symptoms of PTSD, such as intrusion, flashback, pathological re-experience, increased vigilance and avoidance have severe impact on patients’ cognitive functions. The memories of the PTSD patients are characterized by intense and long lasting emotional contents, which are highly salient in the system of memory. The present article reviewed the psychophysics and the brain imaging studies on the advantage of emotional memories of individuals with PTSD. Results of these studies were not consistent due to many methodological factors and further studies are needed to explore these issues.
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    Relationship Between Low Resting Heart Rate and Antisocial Behavior
    WANG Shao-Kun;YANG Bo;ZHANG Zhuo
    . 2012, 20 (2): 256-264.  
    Abstract   PDF (224KB) ( 1003 )
    Due to the testability of resting heart rate, it has become one of the most important means of studying the physiological mechanism of aggression and crime. Researches indicate that low resting heart rate is related with various kinds of antisocial behavior. Animal research, human research and cross-cultural studies all indicate such relation. Howerer, meta-analysis shows that the effect size is only moderate. Meanwhile, socio-economic factors and personality factors affect. may affect the relations between low resting heart rate and antisocial behavior. Low resting heart rate reflect reduced noradrenergic, right hemisphere functioning or a fearless, stimulation-seeking temperament.
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    Forgiveness in Collectivism Culture and Its Enlightenment to Forgiveness Intervention
    ZHANG Tian;SUN Hui;FU An-Qiu
    . 2012, 20 (2): 265-273.  
    Abstract   PDF (231KB) ( 1279 )
    Existing research on forgiveness and forgiveness intervention was based on western culture, and few had included samples in collectivist settings. Under collectivist settings, the way people react to the offense; their forgiveness strategy and the personality factors are different compared with those under individualist settings. Apart from that, models for cross-cultural forgiveness have described forgiveness in collectivist cultures from various aspects. The model of decisional forgiveness and emotional forgiveness distinguishes the manifestation of forgiveness in individual and collectivism cultures; the model based on self and personality addresses the personality factors under distinct backgrounds; the dynamic process model investigates the cultural factors in forgiveness. The review is useful for the application of forgiveness intervention in collectivist culture.
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    The Emotion Mechanism of Employee Voice Behavior:A New Exploratory Perspective
    FU Qiang;DUAN Jin-Yun;TIAN Xiao-Ming
    . 2012, 20 (2): 274-282.  
    Abstract   PDF (274KB) ( 1717 )
    Despite previous research have examined many factors that influence voice behavior, little is known about the role of emotions play in this process. This paper analyzes two aspects of the relationship between emotions and voice behavior, one is the micro level that emotions affect voice behavior through cognitive information-processing, another is the macro level that is in organizational context. Drawing on the idea of the affective events theory, the emotion cycles theory, emotion feedback theory and related research, this paper analyses and explains several process about emotion: sources of employee emotion, the impact of employee emotion on their voice behavior, the impact of employee emotion on voice objects emotion, employee’s opinions have been adopted or not, and so on. Then we establish the emotion mechanism of employee voice behavior, systematically revealing the emotion mechanism on the whole voice behavior chain, and also give some examples how emotions such as fear, hope, psychological safety and regret affect employee voice behavior. Finally, we conclude by discussing limitations, future directions, and implications for research.
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    Motives of Information-seeking and the Determinant Factors in Organizations
    XIANG Chang-Chun;LONG Li-Rong
    . 2012, 20 (2): 283-291.  
    Abstract   PDF (149KB) ( 836 )
    Proactive information-seeking has become an important mechanism for employees to obtain useful information for lack of feedback and uncertainty newcomers facing in organizations. Employees’ information-seeking behavior is driven by instrumental motive to obtain useful information, ego-based motive, and impression-based motive. The three motives are affected by a number of individual characteristics and contextual factors. It is recommended that future research should draw on following topics: (1) Balance of multiple motives; (2) Motives of information- seeking in virtual context; (3) Motives of managers’ feedback-seeking; (4) Relationship between motives of information-seeking and information efficacy.
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    The Effects of Conflict Alerts on Air Traffic Controllers’ Conflict Detection under Free Flight
    LI Qian;YANG Jia-Zhong;SHI Rong
    . 2012, 20 (2): 292-300.  
    Abstract   PDF (215KB) ( 599 )
    Free flight is a proposal for future air traffic management. Previous studies showed that it would have negative effects on air traffic controllers’ conflict detection performance and proposed the introduction of conflict alerts as a solution. These studies focused on individual properties of conflict alerts such as modality, reliability, and look-ahead time, and found different effects of modality and reliability of conflict alerts on controllers’ performance compared to those found in traditional automation research. To clarify these differences and to provide effective guidance for the design of conflict alerts, future studies should investigate the effects of property-integrated conflict alerts on controllers’ performance and should include conflict resolution tasks in their experiments.
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    The Development and Prospect of Researches on Justice Sensitivity
    XIE Xue-Xian;LIU Yi;WU Wei-Jiong
    . 2012, 20 (2): 301-308.  
    Abstract   PDF (124KB) ( 1447 )
    Justice Sensitivity is an independent and stable personality disposition, which reveals how readily people feel unjustly treatment and how strongly they react to unfairness perceived. It offers an essential perspective on justice’s study. Justice Sensitivity can be measured by inventory, which contains four components as follows: Victim Sensitivity, Observer Sensitivity, Beneficiary Sensitivity and Perpetrator Sensitivity. They are closely relate to pro-social behavior and anti-social behavior, effecting cognitive processing. The current researches on Justice Sensitivity mainly address the outcome variables of Justice Sensitivity, however, the antecedent variables must be considered in the future.
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    On the Relationship Between Disgust and Moral Judgment
    WU Bao-Pei;CHANG Lei
    . 2012, 20 (2): 309-316.  
    Abstract   PDF (153KB) ( 1950 )
    Whereas evidence from social surveys and neuroscience research suggests that disgust is correlated with moral judgment, there is a debate over whether disgust influences general or specific moral judgment. The present review presents arguments and evidence from both sides of the debate and discusses them from an evolutionary perspective that emphasizes the functioning of disgust in defending germs and diseases. Future research needs to identify and categorize sources of disgust, distinguish between physical disgust and moral disgust, and measure implicit attitudes towards moral violations after disgust priming.
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