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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 20 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Parent-child Communications and Children’s Theory of Mind Development: Cultural Perspectives
    SU Yan-Jie;LIU Yan-Chun
    . 2012, 20 (3): 317-327.  
    Abstract   PDF (287KB) ( 1762 )
    Previous evidences suggested the acquisition and development of theory of mind (ToM) was cultural-universal as well as cultural-specific. To explore influential factors of children’s ToM development, additional researchers begin to focus on the effect of social communication. As a part of children’s early social communication, communications between parents and children were correlated to children’s TOM acquisition and development. This paper reviewed the cultural differences between Chinese and Western families in parent-child talk and children’s episodic memory, and its relations with children’s ToM to understand cultural specificity of Chinese children’s ToM acquisition and development. Finally, the paper referred to key issues in current and research trends in future.
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    The Role of Early Sign-language Experience in Shaping the Structure and Function of the Deaf Brain
    DING Guo-Sheng;LI Yan-Yan
    . 2012, 20 (3): 328-337.  
    Abstract   PDF (255KB) ( 902 )
    Language is unique to human being, and language experience is critical in shaping both functional and anatomical development of human brain. Specifically, the initial experience at the early stage of the development is extremely important. However, few neuro-imaging studies have been done to investigate this issue. In this paper, we raised a proposal to explore the impact of age of first language acquisition with comparing deaf native signers who have early sign language experience and nonnative signers who have no sign language experience. We will compare the functional development of the brain in both groups, including the working neural network underlying language comprehension and production, and the default network in resting state. We will also compared the structural development by measuring the gray matter volume (density) and the fractional anisotropy (FA) values of whiter matter, to explore how early language experience shapes both function and structure of the brain.
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    Roles of Lexical Tone and Neural Mechanisms Underlying Processing of Mandarin Speech Melody
    REN Gui-Qin;LIU Ying;YU Ze
    . 2012, 20 (3): 338-343.  
    Abstract   PDF (211KB) ( 905 )
    Chinese is a tone language, in which both lexical tone and intonation is signaled by pitch variation and associated with spectral processing. In the present project, Mandarin Chinese is exploited to address the issues remained unclear in the cognitive processing of speech melody. We aim at investigating the role of Mandarin Chinese lexical tone on the activation of lexical meanings in an early pre-attentive stage and the neural mechanisms underlying processing of Mandarin speech melody in different cognitive stages. Here we combine event-related potential recordings and source estimation (LORETA) to examine the issues as following: (1) the role of Mandarin lexical on the activation of lexical meanings in the early automatically processing indexed by the mismatch negativity (MMN); (2) the dynamic patterns of brain responses to lexical tone and intonation at the early stage of speech perception; (3) the dynamic patterns of brain responses to lexical tone and intonation at the late stage of speech perception. Addressing those issues would help to test the current hot arguments concerning the processing of speech melody, and extend the previous theoretical models of speech perception that built on the studies of non-tone languages.
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    A Cross-temporal Meta-analysis of Changes in Chinese College Students’ Interpersonal Trust
    XIN Zi-Qiang;ZHOU Zheng
    . 2012, 20 (3): 344-353.  
    Abstract   PDF (381KB) ( 1744 )
    With the dramatic social changes in recent China, changes of people’s trust may take place as well. The present study conducted a cross-temporal meta-analysis of 53 papers adopting Rotter’s Interpersonal Trust Scale (ITS) to investigate Chinese college students’ trust. The 53 papers involved 24233 college students and the data collection time ranged from 1998 to 2009. Results showed that: (1) Chinese college students’ interpersonal trust was decreasing in the past 11 years, and compared to the year of 1998, it dropped 1.19 standard deviations in 2009; (2) Interpersonal trust declined significantly for both the male and the female, whereas, trust scores had no significant gender difference; (3) Interpersonal trust of students from rural area declined significantly, whereas trust of students from urban area held constant, moreover, no difference of trust scores was observed between rural and urban students.
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    The Analysis of Visual Motion Tacking
    CHEN Ting-Ting;JIANG Chang-Hao;DING Jin-Hong
    . 2012, 20 (3): 354-364.  
    Abstract   PDF (292KB) ( 1065 )
    The aim of visual motion tracking is to capture and track moving objects through a sequence of images. The ability is crucial for the survival of many species. Visual motion tracking proceeds in two main parts: object capture and object tracking. The first step is to discriminate target’s signals from other object signals in the visual context, and then concentrate on encoding target’s motion and identity. The second step is to initiate smooth pursuit eye movements and catch-up saccades, and then predict target trajectory by behavioral response, eye movement or cerebral activity. Visual tracking system has to encode target’s motion features and semantic identity for completing predictive mechanism. In recent years the amount and complexity of data about processing of object’s motion features have increased substantially, whereas data about processing of object’s semantic identity is significantly less.
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    Studies on the N2pc Component in Visual Spatial Attention
    YAO Shu-Xia;YANG Dong;Qi Sen-Qing;LEI Yan;Cody Ding
    . 2012, 20 (3): 365-375.  
    Abstract   PDF (179KB) ( 1804 )
    The N2pc component is closely associated with spatially selective attention and is known to reflect the deployment of spatial attention to task-relevant stimuli. Studies investigating the properties of N2pc mainly focused on, but not limited to, its theoretical explanations, methods of measurement, neural sources, and influencing factors. The experimental paradigms of N2pc primarily consist of visual search and visual short-term memory search. Studies using N2pc as a tool could be divided into two aspects. One was the basic studies that investigated the relevant processing of visual spatial attention. A second centered more on applied research, which was also closely related to the processing of visual spatial attention. The future N2pc studies should further investigate its properties and promote both basic and applied research.
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    The Neural Mechanism of Own-Race Bias
    MA Jian-Ling;CHEN Xu;WANG Jing
    . 2012, 20 (3): 376-383.  
    Abstract   PDF (209KB) ( 1112 )
    The own-race bias refers to the phenomenon that people have better memory for own-race face compared to other-race face. N170, P200, N200 and “DM” effect explain the own-race bias from the encoding perspective, while Old-New effect focus on the retrieval difference between own-race face and other-race. FMRI studies have indicated some brain areas, such as amygdala, fusiform gyrus, post anterior cingulate, which might be involved in the processes of own-race bias. Besides, right hemisphere dominance of the own-race face are stronger than other-race face, which is the result of rich perceptual experience. Future research should explore specific ERPs of the own-race bias, and it indicates that the Neural Mechanisms from integrated prospective will also be the future direction.
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    A Review on Implicit Stigma of Mental Illness
    WANG Xiao-Gang;YIN Tian-Zi;HUANG Xi-Ting
    . 2012, 20 (3): 384-393.  
    Abstract   PDF (175KB) ( 1245 )
    Implicit stigma of mental illness (ISMI) is hard to introspectively and accurately indentified traces about mental illness. It unconsciously regulates the individual’s view and reaction of mentally ill persons. The typical measurements of ISMI include Implicit Association Test, Brief Implicit Association Test, Priming Task, and Psychophysiological Evaluation. Current ISMI research has focused on content of implicit stigma, public implicit-stigma, self implicit-stigma, and anti-stigma assessment. We believe that future studies should focus on ISMI as a psychological construct and its related factors, its neural mechanisms, and use of multiple assessments of ISMI. We further argue that the topic needs to be investigated from indigenous point of view.
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    Review On Gay Men’ Body Image: What and Why
    ZHANG Chun-Yu;WEI Jia;LUO Yu;CHEN Xie-Ping;ZHANG Jin-Fu
    . 2012, 20 (3): 394-402.  
    Abstract   PDF (151KB) ( 1850 )
    Gay men’ body image have been the focus of research over the past 30 years. Gay men report greater levels of poor body image, body dissatisfaction and eating disorders compared to heterosexual men. The ideal gay man’s body is constructed by researchers and theorists as thin and muscle. To account for the phenomena of body image in gay men, researchers have tended to speculate about the contribution of a range of social-cultural and psychological factors. It includes the sexual objectification theory, sociocultural theory, internalized homonegativity, evolution psychology hypothesis, the role of sex role and AIDS/HIV. Integration and diversity should be the future directions of research. Two factors should be concerned in the method, which are Internet-based recruitment and phenomenological analysis. Culture specificity of Chinese gay men is also should be concerned.
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    Review of Research on Entrepreneurial Personality
    LI Hai-Lei;GONG Yan-Ming;ZHANG Wen-Xin
    . 2012, 20 (3): 403-411.  
    Abstract   PDF (160KB) ( 1494 )
    Research on entrepreneurial personality received wide criticism in the 1990s after the initial period of flourishing. This paper briefly reviewed the history of entrepreneurial personality research and introduced the Model of Entrepreneurs’ Personality Characteristics and Success. The specific and general personality traits that were related to entrepreneurship were summarized, and inconsistencies in research findings were then analyzed. Finally, the paper suggested that future research on entrepreneurial personality should give special emphasis on: a) a clearer definition of the concept and the construction of theoretical model, b) improving research design and the validity of measurements, c) identifying variables that moderate and/or mediate the link between personality and entrepreneurship, and d) more careful selection and differentiation of entrepreneurial performance variables.
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    The Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Job Performance
    CHEN Meng;BIAN Ran;WANG Li-Na;CHE Hong-Sheng;LIN Xuan-Hui
    . 2012, 20 (3): 412-423.  
    Abstract   PDF (191KB) ( 2057 )
    Many studies have confirmed that emotional intelligence can positively predict job performance, and the relationship between them might be influenced by many mediator and moderator variables. There are some problems and limitations in existing studies, and the reasons lie in such aspects: the disagreement and opposition between the main different theory models, the problems of the assessment tools, and the facts of failing to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance at dimension level. Future studies should go in for integrating the main different theory models, developing new assessment tools, examining the influence of mediator and moderator variables, and exploring the relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance at dimension level.
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    Leader Deviance Behavior in Organizations: A Theoretical Framework of Antecedents and Consequences
    HONG Yan;WANG Duan-Xu
    . 2012, 20 (3): 424-432.  
    Abstract   PDF (185KB) ( 1330 )
    Leader deviance behavior refers to any intentional action/behavior by a leader, supervisor or manager that violates significant organizational norms. Drawing on workplace deviance behavior and leadership behavior literatures, leader deviance behavior is triggered by contextual characteristics, such as organizational culture, job characteristics and interpersonal relationships, as well as leader’s personal characteristics, including personality, perception and demography. Furthermore, leader deviance behavior affects subordinates’ performances mainly through three paths, namely, social comparison, social psychology and social exchange. The conceptual model of leader deviance behavior should be suggested to delve into its target (organization and interpersonal relationship) and motivation (self-focus and other-focus) in the future. In addition, the interaction of different determinants and mechanism of leader deviance behavior should be emphasized as well.
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    Social Identity Complexity: Theories, Methods and Advances
    XIN Su-Fei;XIN Zi-Qiang
    . 2012, 20 (3): 433-442.  
    Abstract   PDF (155KB) ( 954 )
    Social identity complexity is one recent focus of social psychology, which refers to the way in which individuals subjectively represent the relationships among their multiple ingroup memberships. Social identity complexity reflects the degree of overlap perceived to exist between groups of which a person is simultaneously a member. When the overlap of multiple ingroups is perceived to be high, social identity complexity is low. Conversely, when the overlap of multiple ingroups is perceived to be low, social identity complexity is high. After a brief introduction of multiple ingroups representation model, this article systematically reviewed the researches on the contents and methods of social identity complexity, as well as the antecedents and consequences of social identity complexity. Finally, future studies should strive to forward theory and research design, validity verification of scales and the application of results.
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    Schadenfreude: Malicious Joy at the Base of Human Nature
    CAO Hong-Bei;XU Yan;XIN Xia
    . 2012, 20 (3): 443-456.  
    Abstract   PDF (397KB) ( 1740 )
    Schadenfreude, is defined as the pleasure at the misfortune of others. The intrinsic characteristic of Schadenfreude is a type of insidious affection. As a social emotion originated from social competition and comparison, it depends on the particular circumstance and is greatly influenced by a number of factors. It possesses a positive valence to the individual, but is largely negative to social relationships and also anti-society. The antecedent of Schadenfreude can be reasoned in the following three categories: target-oriented; relationship-oriented; and a combination of the two. Self enhancement is currently the focus of the Schadenfreude functional research. Mechanism research should be in place besides the antecedents and functional researches. The mechanism research manifests in the forms of Reversal Effect Hypothesis and Fluid Compensation Hypothesis.
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    Detecting Deception by Verbal Content Cues
    WU Song;JIN Sheng-Hua;CAI Wei;LI Shao-Zhuan
    . 2012, 20 (3): 457-466.  
    Abstract   PDF (182KB) ( 1556 )
    The verbal content cue is one of the three deception detecting cues. There are four major models of verbal content cue: criteria-based content analysis, reality monitoring, interpersonal deception theory and verbal immediacy. The 4 models are very different in basis of theory and veracity of detecting deception. In addition, the reliability of verbal content cues are influenced by individual and social factors, such as age, social skill, culture, event familiar, interpersonal communication and interview strategy. The future studies should develop the verbal content cues by integrating models, studying active detecting skills and combining nonverbal behavior cues.
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    Estimating Test Reliability of a Longitudinal Study
    YE Bao-Juan;WEN Zhong-Lin;CHEN Qi-Shan
    . 2012, 20 (3): 467-474.  
    Abstract   PDF (280KB) ( 1236 )
    Test reliability of a longitudinal study is an important index in evaluating the quality of the longitudinal study. Conventional methods that estimate test reliability are not appropriate to estimate the test reliability of a longitudinal study. In recent years, four methods for estimating the test reliability of a longitudinal study were proposed. rw and r(Sw) coefficients were designed to estimate the test reliability of a longitudinal study at each wave, whereas RT and RL were designed to estimate the test reliability of the whole longitudinal study. The mathematical models and assumptions of the four reliability coefficients were briefed and their merits and demerits were pointed out in this article. RT and RL were recommended because they can be used to estimate the test reliability of a longitudinal study both at each wave and as the whole under a few assumptions.
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