ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (01): 26-34.

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  1. 北京师范大学发展心理研究所,北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:1900-01-01 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2009-01-30 发布日期:2009-01-30
  • 通讯作者: 陈英和

Mechanism of Retrieval Inhibition in Directed Forgetting: Retrieval Success Produces Inhibition

MU De-Fang;SONG Yao-Wu;CHEN Ying-H   

  1. Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:1900-01-01 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2009-01-30 Published:2009-01-30
  • Contact: CHEN Ying-H

摘要: 两个实验采用无关材料考察了字表方式下提取诱发遗忘解释定向遗忘中提取抑制的可能性。在实验中,学习完两个字表后,对字表2 进行不同次数(0、1、3次)的提取练习以考察是否会增强定向遗忘效应以及定向遗忘效应是否随着提取练习次数的增加而增强。实验一中,字表2提取练习是要求被试回忆字表2项目,不给予线索提示。在实验二中,采用词干补笔测验的形式对字表2进行提取练习,词干补笔测验保证了对字表2项目的成功提取。研究结果发现,只有在实验二中对字表2的成功提取练习增强了定向遗忘效应,从而表明成功提取可以解释定向遗忘中的提取抑制

关键词: 定向遗忘, 提取诱发遗忘, 提取练习, 成功提取

Abstract: Directed forgetting is a new experimental paradigm for use in the study of memory. Retrieval inhibition theory offers a widely accepted account of the list-method directed forgetting effect, but little is known about the exact mechanism that produces it. One possibility is that inhibition results from retrieval practice. Indeed, many studies show that retrieval inhibition underlies the directed forgetting effect can be interpreted as consistent with the retrieval-induced forgetting interpretation. Drawing on the retrieval-induced forgetting, we hypothesized that (a) the directed forgetting effect would be greater with additional retrieval practice tests on a target word list than without and (b) the directed forgetting effect would increase with increasing amounts of interpolated retrieval practice.
One hundred and twenty undergraduate students participated in Experiment 1 and eighty in Experiment 2. In both experiments, participants studied items from two word lists - List 1 and List 2. Participants in the directed forgetting and remember groups were given different instructions. The directed forgetting groups were told that list 1 was just for practice and should be forgotten and that list 2 was the one to be remembered; in contrast, participants in the remembering groups were told to remember both list 1 and list 2. After studying both lists, participants were given one, three or no retrieval practice tests on list 2. In Experiment 1, before each retrieval practice test, participants were instructed to recall as many characters as they could from list 2; Experiment 2 was the same as Experiment 1 except that participants completed a stem completion test to facilitate their overall recall of list 2 items (as opposed to a pure recall test). Finally, participants were required to recall as many items as they could from list 1 and list 2. A three-factor mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed with group (directed forgetting and remembering) and number of retrieval practice tests (0, 1, and 3) as between-subjects factors and list (List 1 and List 2) as a within-subjects factor.
The results showed that in Experiment 1, the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect disappeared with increasing amounts of retrieval practice; in Experiment 2 which used the stem-completion test to increase retrieval success, the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect was increased and the participants in the forgetting instruction group inhibited list 1 items.
The results confirmed that retrieval success can increase the directed forgetting effect, indicating that retrieval success can account for retrieval inhibition in directed forgetting

Key words: directed forgetting, retrieval-induced forgetting, retrieval practice, retrieval success