ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (2): 156-164.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00156

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  1. 认知与人格教育部重点实验室(西南大学); 西南大学心理学院, 重庆 400715
  • 收稿日期:2012-10-09 发布日期:2014-02-25 出版日期:2014-02-25
  • 通讯作者: 张庆林
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(30970892, 31170983); 中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助(SWU1309433)。

Self-Reference Influence the Directed Forgetting of Emotional Memory

YANG Wenjing;LIU Peiduo;CUI Qian;HAO Xin;Xiao Xiao;ZHANG Qinglin   

  1. (1 Key laboratory of Cognition and Personality, Ministry of Education, Southwest University; 2 Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China)
  • Received:2012-10-09 Online:2014-02-25 Published:2014-02-25
  • Contact: ZHANG Qinglin


关于自我参照效应的研究大多从信息编码角度考察自我参照的加工优势, 但作为记忆过程的另一重要方面, 自我参照对遗忘影响的研究较少。遗忘自身经历的情绪性记忆是日常生活中的常见现象。研究采用项目法定向遗忘范式(item-method directed forgetting)考察了自我参照对情绪性记忆定向遗忘的影响。实验一和实验二的结果都表明参照方式会影响定向遗忘:自我参照条件下的材料会发生定向遗忘; 而他人参照条件下的材料不会发生定向遗忘, 两种参照方式下材料间区辨性的不同是导致这一现象的原因。此外, 实验二采用回忆测试发现:自我参照对不同效价的情绪性记忆定向遗忘产生了不同影响, 而自我提升(self-enhancement)动机在其中起着重要的调节作用。

关键词: 定向遗忘, 情绪性记忆, 自我参照, 自我提升, 抑制控制


Intentional forgetting of emotional memories refers to the phenomenon that people attempt to actively put the unwanted memories out of awareness. The item method directed forgetting is often used to explore the intentional forgetting of emotional memory. Most of the directed forgetting studies suggest that both the selective encoding and retrieval inhibitory contribute to the directed forgetting effect. Though the emotional material can enhance the memory, people can use the inhibitory mechanism to forget the emotional memory. Self-reference effect is an important effect of memory. It seems that the self is a well-developed construct that promotes both elaboration and organization of encoded information. Although forgetting is an important process of memory, most studies concentrated on the encoding of the memory when it comes to the self reference effect. As we know, few studies focused on whether self-reference can influence the directed forgetting. Most studies suggest that people can intentionally forget the emotional memories. If these materials are enhanced by emotion and self-reference, can people forget them? As the best knowledge of us, no study concentrated on this problem up to now. But this problem is common in our daily life. Thirty eight undergraduates or master students participated in the Experiment 1. Two hundred and forty four trait adjective words were included in the materials which were randomly distributed to two lists (one is the study list and the other is the distracter in the recognition test). The experiment was divided into three separate parts. In the study period, participants should finish two tasks. Firstly, subjects were first asked to judge whether the adjective was proper to describe the self or luxun, and then they were instructed to remember or forget the front word. After carrying out a distraction task, there was a recognition task in which participants should discriminate whether the word was old or new. The same experimental procedure was applied in the experiment 2. The difference was that a recalling test replaced the recognition after the distraction task. A three-factor analysis of variance (ANONA) was performed after the experiment with the valence of the materials, the type of the reference and the type of the memory instruction as within-subjects variables. The results of experiment 1 showed that there was a main effect of memory instruction. However, the main effect of the type of the reference and the interaction effect of the valence, the type of the reference and the memory instruction were not significant. However, the results of the experiment 2 showed an interaction within the valence, the type of the memory instruction and the type of the reference. This discussion focused on the self-enhancement effect. The results suggest that self-reference can influence the directed forgetting of the emotional memory. Self-reference can enhance the discrimination of the materials. Then, participants can fully use the inhibition mechanism to inhibit the TBF items and more cognitive resources can be used to encode the TBR items. The results also suggest self-reference produce different influences on different emotional memories and the self-enhancement motivation play an important role in these influences. In order to have a positive self-image, participants try to forget the negative self-reference items, and keep the positive self-reference items.

Key words: directed forgetting, emotional memory, self-reference effect, self-enhancement, inhibition control