ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (4): 450-461.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00450

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

语言和文化对自我参照条件下提取诱发遗忘的影响——来自汉族人和摩梭人的证据

王斌, 付雅, 张积家()   

  1. 中国人民大学心理学系、国家民委民族语言文化心理重点研究基地、教育部民族教育发展中心民族心理与教育重点研究基地, 北京 100872
  • 收稿日期:2018-04-24 出版日期:2019-04-25 发布日期:2019-02-22
  • 通讯作者: 张积家 E-mail:Zhangjj1955@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    * 中国人民大学科学研究基金(中央高校基本科研业务费专项基金资助)项目“语言影响人格:来自双语者与双言者的行为与生理证据” (项目编号:17XNL002)阶段性成果、中国人民大学心理学系科研项目资助

Influence of language and culture on retrieval-induced forgetting under the self-referential condition: Evidence from the Han and the Mosuo

WANG Bin, FU Ya, ZHANG Jijia()   

  1. Key Research Center for National Psychology and Education, the National Education Development Center of the Ministry of Education, Beijing 100872, China
  • Received:2018-04-24 Online:2019-04-25 Published:2019-02-22
  • Contact: ZHANG Jijia E-mail:Zhangjj1955@163.com

摘要:

采用提取诱发遗忘范式考察摩梭人和汉族人在自我参照、母亲参照、姨母参照和他人参照条件下的加工规律, 发现摩梭被试在自我参照、母亲参照、姨母参照条件下都未出现提取诱发遗忘, 而在一般他人参照条件下出现了提取诱发遗忘; 汉族被试在自我参照、母亲参照条件下未出现提取诱发遗忘, 而在姨母参照、他人参照条件下出现了提取诱发遗忘。这表明, 不同的文化和语言影响人的自我构建, 在汉族人的自我结构中包含有母亲, 而摩梭人将母亲、姨母皆作为重要的他人纳入自我建构中, 使得母亲参照和姨母参照产生与自我参照同样的记忆优势。

关键词: 提取诱发遗忘, 自我参照加工, 母亲参照加工, 姨母参照加工, 跨文化研究

Abstract:

Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) refers to the phenomenon, in which individuals may forget related information during the retrieval process whenever they try to remember something. Studies have shown that “self-reference” is one of the boundary conditions of RIF in the Western cultural context, indicating that RIF is only eliminated when the recalled materials are related to self-concept (known as the “self-referential effect”). In the Chinese culture, however, RIF was observed under the conditions of self-reference and maternal reference. The Mosuo people are raised in a matrilineal society, in which they are familiar with their mothers and aunts to the same extent. Such people consider their aunts and natural mothers as equally important. Conversely, the Han is a patriarchal society that differs considerably from the orientation of the Mosuo’s. This study aimed to explore the influence of the culture and language of the Mosuo and Han on their self-cognition and processing, especially the influence of their aunts on their self-conception.

Tested participants included 131 Mosuo and 126 Han from Yunnan’s Ninglang District. The experiment had a 2 (Nationality: the Mosuo, the Han) × 4 (Conditions: Self-reference, Mother-reference, Aunt-reference, Other-reference) × 3 (Retrieval Factor: Rp+, Rp-, or Nrp items) design. Nationality and condition were manipulated as between-subject factors, and the retrieval factor was manipulated as a within-subject factor. The study had four phases. (1) Study phase: Participants were shown Chinese characters on the monitor, with a series of 32 category exemplars in random order. They were instructed to memorize the exemplars while associating them with the paired category. (2) Retrieval-practice phase: Here, participants were sequentially presented with word-pair forms of eight cues that could probe their memory. Each cue comprised a category name and a first initial character of an exemplar. Participants were asked to recall the target exemplar in the written form in response to each cue. (3) Distractor phase: Participants were requested to perform mathematical operations within three minutes. (4) Final test phase: Participants were required to produce a written recall of as many exemplars as possible in response to each presented category name.

Results indicated that (1) in the Mosuo culture context, RIF was not observed under self-referential, mother-referential, and aunt-referential encoding, and was found only for other-referential encoding, and (2) for Han participants, RIF was observed in the aunt-referential and the other-referential encoding, but not in the self-referential and mother-referential encoding.

The present findings demonstrate that, first, in the Han and Mosuo cultures, self-reference and maternal reference are the key factors that cause RIF. Second, in the Mosuo culture, aunt-reference is another key factor that influences RIF aside from self-reference and maternal reference. Aunts who are integrated in the self-concept of the Mosuo people are also important to such individuals. Finally, (3) language and culture are crucial factors of self-formation and development.

Key words: retrieval-induced forgetting, self-referential processing, mother-referential processing, aunt-referential processing, cross-cultural research

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