ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (3): 304-315.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00304

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

父亲参照效应的语言与文化差异:来自提取诱发遗忘的证据

杨群, 冯意然, 张积家()   

  1. 中国人民大学心理学系、国家民委民族语言文化心理重点研究基地、教育部民族教育发展中心民族心理与教育重点研究基地, 北京 100872
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-17 出版日期:2019-03-25 发布日期:2019-01-22
  • 通讯作者: 张积家 E-mail:Zhangjj1955@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    * 中国人民大学科学研究基金(中央高校基本科研业务费专项基金资助)项目“语言影响人格:来自双语者与双言者的行为与生理证据”阶段性成果(17XNL002)

The language and cultural differences of father-reference processing: Based on the retrieval-induced forgetting

YANG Qun, FENG Yiran, ZHANG Jijia()   

  1. Key Research Center for National Psychology and Education, the National Education Development Center of the Ministry of Education, Beijing 100872, China
  • Received:2018-07-17 Online:2019-03-25 Published:2019-01-22
  • Contact: ZHANG Jijia E-mail:Zhangjj1955@163.com

摘要:

采用提取诱发遗忘范式考察维吾尔族人和汉族人在自我参照、父亲参照和他人参照下的记忆特点, 发现维吾尔族被试在自我参照下和父亲参照下均未出现提取诱发遗忘, 在一般他人参照下出现提取诱发遗忘, 说明在维吾尔人中父亲参照加工与自我参照加工相较于一般他人参照加工存在优势; 汉族被试仅在自我参照下未出现提取诱发遗忘, 在父亲参照下和他人参照下均出现了提取诱发遗忘, 说明在汉族被试中仅有自我参照加工相较于一般他人参照加工具有优势, 父亲参照加工并未表现出同样的优势。这表明, 不同的语言和文化影响个体的自我建构, 父亲仅出现在维吾尔族人的自我建构中, 在姓名结构中父名与本名共现与否是影响两个民族自我建构差异的重要因素。

关键词: 提取诱发遗忘, 自我参照加工, 父亲参照加工, 父子连名制

Abstract:

Remembering some material can cause forgetting of related information, which is known as retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF), but it has some boundary conditions, such as “self” in western culture and some important others such as mother in Chinese. In such boundary condition, RIF was eliminated when material was encoded to be related to self (known as self-referential) or significant others. Name is a symbol and important to the self, but it has different constitution forms in different language and culture. In Uygur nationality culture, the name constitution is known as father and son joint, that is after the first name is the father name, which is different form the Han nationality. In Han nationality, the first name comes after the family name. All these differences may lead to the different constructions of the self, so this study intend to compare self-referential, father-referential and others-referential for the two nationalities.
90 Ugyur participants and 90 Han participants from Xinjiang district took part in the experiments. The experiment was a 3 (Conditions: Self-reference, Father-reference, Other-reference) × 3 (Retrieval Factor: Rp+, Rp-, Nrp items) design. The condition was manipulated as a between-subjects factor, while the retrieval factor was manipulated as a within subject factor. The study has four phases: (1) Study phase: the participants were shown the Chinese characters in computer of a series of 32 category exemplars in a random order with the form of “category-exemplar” and were instructed to memorize the exemplars while associating them with the paired category; (2) Retrieval-practice phase: The participants were sequentially presented with word pairs form of 8 cues that probed their memory. Each cue comprised a category name and a first initial character of an exemplar and the participants were asked for written recall of the target exemplar in response to each cue; (3) Distractor phase: The participants were asked to perform mathematical operations within 3 minutes; (4) Final test phase: The participants were required to retrieve written recall as many exemplars as possible in response to each presented category name. And the self-inflation test was used for more accurate results.
The results showed that in Uygur culture contexts, RIF was not observed under the self-referential and father-referential but in other-referential encoding. While in Han culture, RIF was observed in father-referential and the other-referential but not in the self-referential.
All these indicated that the constructions of self are different for Uygur and Han nationalities. For Uygur nationality, father is included in the self; but for Han nationality, though father is important, but it is not included in the self, and the boundary between others is significant. Thus, language is the way how culture affect the self, such as patronymic linkage naming system, religion culture and kinship terms.

Key words: retrieval-induced forgetting, self-referential processing, father-referential processing, patronymic linkage naming system

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