ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2001, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (2): 104-110.

• • 上一篇    下一篇

错误再认:意识、注意和刺激特性

耿海燕;朱滢;李云峰   

  1. 北京大学心理系,北京大学心理系,北京大学心理系 北京100871 ,北京100871 ,北京100871
  • 出版日期:2001-04-25 发布日期:2001-04-25
  • 通讯作者: 耿海燕

FALSE RECOGNITION: AWARENESS, ATTENTION AND STIMULUS QUALITY

Geng Haiyan Thu Ying Li Yunfeng (Department of Psychology. Peking University, Beijing 100871)   

  • Online:2001-04-25 Published:2001-04-25

摘要: 该研究基于错误再认现象,确立了意识知觉和无意识知觉在行为结果上的质的差异。在决定一个刺激是被有意识知觉还是无意识知觉时,刺激特性和注意之间存在着相互补偿的作用。实验一表明,当一个刺激短暂呈现而被无意识知觉的时候,增强刺激特性或提高注意水平都能使它的知觉变为有意识的;相对应地,实验二表明,一个处于分散注意条件下被无意识知觉的刺激,也可以通过使注意集中或增强刺激特性而使它的知觉变为有意识的。该研究对意识、注意和刺激特性三者间的关系进行了讨论。

关键词: 错误再认, 意识, 注意, 刺激特性

Abstract: The goal of this paper was to assess whether there were systematic trade-offs between attention and stimulus quality in determining awareness. The approach was based on the qualitative differences in performance across perception with and without awareness, which had been shown to occur when stimulus quality was varied or the level of attention was varied. Qualitative differences in performance were established across perception with and without awareness, based on a phenomenon: false recognition, which is defined as an "old" response to a new item on an old! new recognition test. This means, the subjects said "old" to new test characters more often on match (context characters were the same as test characters) than nonmatch trials (context characters were different from test characters) when context characters perceived unconsciously, whereas they said "old' to new test characters less often on match than nonmatch trials when context characters perceived consciously. The results of the two experiments showed that there were systematic trade-offs between attention and stimulus quality in determining whether a stimulus was perceived with or without awareness. In Experiment 1, a stimulus that was perceived without awareness when presented with poor quality (short duration), could be perceived with awareness either by increasing stimulus quality (long duration) or by increasing the level of attention; and correspondently, in Experiment 2, a stimulus that was perceived without awareness under a condition of divided-attention, could be perceived with awareness either by focusing attention on it or by increasing stimulus quality. It seemed that attention and stimulus quality can supplement each other in determining whether a stimulus is perceived with or without awareness. Discussion focused on the interrelations between awareness, attention and stimulus quality.

Key words: false recognition, awareness, attention, stimulus quality