ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (7): 813-827.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00813

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


段文婷1, 孙启武1, 王铭2(), 吴才智1, 陈真珍1   

  1. 1青少年网络心理与行为教育部重点实验室, 华中师范大学心理学院, 湖北省人的发展与心理健康重点实验室, 武汉 430079
    2武汉理工大学心理健康教育中心, 武汉 430070
  • 收稿日期:2021-03-23 发布日期:2022-05-16 出版日期:2022-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 王铭
  • 基金资助:

The developmental cascades of prosocial behavior tendency, internalizing and externalizing problems for early adolescence in China: A within-person analysis

DUAN Wenting1, SUN Qiwu1, WANG Ming2(), WU Caizhi1, CHEN Zhenzhen1   

  1. 1Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior (CCNU), Ministry of Education; School of Psychology, Central China Normal University; Key Laboratory of Human Development and Mental Health of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430079, China
    2Center for Mental Health Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
  • Received:2021-03-23 Online:2022-05-16 Published:2022-07-25
  • Contact: WANG Ming


认识亲社会行为倾向、内化问题和外化问题的发展级联对青少年心理健康促进具有重要价值。采用个体内分析方法分析了894名初中生3年的追踪数据, 并与传统的交叉滞后面板模型进行比较。结果发现:(1)在个体内水平, 亲社会行为倾向与内化问题和外化问题具有中等或较弱的协同变化关系, T1亲社会行为倾向可负向预测T2内化问题, T2亲社会行为倾向可负向预测T3外化问题, 具有较弱的预测作用; (2)在女生群体中, T2内化问题可正向预测T3外化问题, 而在男生群体中, 内化问题和外化问题没有相互预测作用; (3)亲社会行为倾向的4个因子(公开的、依从的、情绪的和利他的)可负向预测内化问题, 它们仅在T2可负向预测外化问题, 具有较弱的预测作用; (4)个体内分析方法得到的研究结果与传统交叉滞后分析方法不同, 不同的个体内分析模型得到的研究结果也不同。结论: 青少年早期亲社会行为倾向的发展可降低内化问题和外化问题, 这种作用具有性别差异; 个体内分析方法在青少年心理病理发展研究中具有重要应用价值。

关键词: 亲社会行为倾向, 内化问题和外化问题, 随机截距交叉滞后面板模型, 广义交叉滞后面板模型, 发展级联


Conceptually, prosocial behavior reduces externalizing problems (e.g., aggression) and internalized problems (e.g., depression) because prosocial behavior promotes positive emotions (e.g., to find delight in helping others). Therefore, understanding the development cascades of prosocial behavior tendency, internalizing and externalizing problems is of great value to the promotion of adolescent mental health.

Developmental cascades model describes the above-mentioned process, that is, the function of one domain (level or system) will affect the function of another domain (level or system); as time goes on, multiple interactions in different domains (levels or systems) will produce cumulative effects that can spill over and affect the functions of other domain (level or system). Researchers usually use longitudinal data to test a developmental cascade model. However, previous studies tend to base their conclusions on Cross-Lagged Panel Models, which cannot sufficiently answer the causally reciprocal relationship the developmental cascade model described because CLPM mixed the between- and within-person effects. The results of the within-person analysis, which takes the person himself as the control, is more likely indicating the within-person changes of studied variables and their temporal relationships, and thus are consistent with the theoretical hypothesis of the developmental cascades model. The current study attempts to test the developmental cascades of prosocial behavior tendency, internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of Chinese adolescents, and to show how the within-person analysis and the analysis based on traditional CLPM influence the conclusions.

The demographic questionnaire together with Prosocial Behavior Tendency, Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale and Buss Warren Aggression Questionnaire were administered in two junior schools for three years. Totally 894 students completed the three-wave investigation. Among them, the age ranged from 11 to 15 years old (12.7 ± 0.60), including 517 boys (57.8%) at the beginning of the investigation. In terms of parents' education level, 94.6% of fathers completed nine-year compulsory education, and 56.9% of them completed high school or above level education; 91.5% of mothers completed nine-year compulsory education, and 52.2% of them completed high school or above level education.

Two models of within-person analysis (RI-CLPM and GCLM) were used to analyze the data, compared with the traditional CLPM. The data fitting indexes of the three models are all acceptable, but the results are different leading to very different conclusions. Particularly, GCLM can separate within- and between-person effects; (2) GCLM do not assume continuous development in comparison with RI-CLPM. These advantages of GCLM make GCLM have accurate estimates than other two models. Based on the results of GCLM, the research showed that: (1) at the within-person level, prosocial behavior tendency has a moderate or weak co-movements with internalizing and externalizing problems. The prosocial behavior tendency measured at T1 can predict the internalizing problems measured at T2, and the prosocial behavior tendency measured at T2 can predict the externalizing problems measured at T3; (2) For the girl group, the internalizing problems measured at T2 can predict the externalizing problems measured at T3, while in the boy group, the results did not support the reciprocal relationship between internalizing and externalizing problems; (3) The public, submissive, emotional and altruistic factors of prosocial behavior tendency can negatively predict the next-year internalizing problems, and these four factors can negatively predict the externalizing problems measured at T2. These results suggest the value of prosocial behavior as the potential way to promote adolescent’s mental health, within-person analysis in the developmental cascades research, and also indicate that mental health promotion programs should take the gender difference into account.

Key words: prosocial behavior tendency, internalizing and externalizing problems, random-intercept cross-lagged panel model, general cross-lagged panel model, developmental cascades