ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2023, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (9): 1477-1488.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.01477

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


白荣, 高叶淼, 李金文, 刘霞()   

  1. 北京师范大学发展心理研究院, 北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2022-09-23 发布日期:2023-06-09 出版日期:2023-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 刘霞
  • 基金资助:

Combined effects of distal and proximal interpersonal stress and FKBP5 gene on adolescent self-injury behavior: The developmental perspective

BAI Rong, GAO Yemiao, LI Jinwen, LIU Xia()   

  1. Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2022-09-23 Online:2023-06-09 Published:2023-09-25
  • Contact: LIU Xia


本研究采用为期2年的纵向追踪设计, 在436名青少年中考察远端童年期虐待与近端同伴侵害对青少年自伤的相对作用与影响模式, 以及FKBP5基因在其中发挥的调节作用。结果发现:(1)远近端人际压力均能显著预测青少年自伤行为, 但二者的相对作用在青春期不同阶段会发生变化; (2)在全样本中, 远近端人际压力均以“压力放大”模式影响自伤行为, 即高童年期虐待放大近期同伴侵害对自伤行为的预测作用; (3)纳入FKBP5基因后, 在AA纯合子青少年中仍符合“压力放大模型”, 但在AC和CC基因型青少年中, 影响模式则符合“压力敏感模型”, 即经历高童年期虐待的青少年对近期同伴侵害更加敏感, 在低同伴侵害下自伤得分相对较高。研究结果提示, 远近端人际压力对青少年自伤的特定影响模式因其遗传基因而有所差异。

关键词: 人际压力, 自伤行为, FKBP5基因, 压力放大模型, 压力敏感模型


Self-injury usually emerges in early adolescence and has a high incidence among adolescents worldwide. Self-injury not only damages body tissue but is also associated with depression, anxiety, personality disorders, substance abuse, and a higher-than-average risk of suicide. Given the high incidence of self-injury and the severity of its consequences, it is important to explore its predictors and specific mechanisms. Interpersonal theories of developmental psychopathology maintain that interpersonal stress is a critical risk factor for adolescent self-injury behavior. However, the ways the source and duration of exposure to that stress affect adolescent self-injury behavior are unclear. Adolescents also differ in their sensitivity to interpersonal stress. Stress-related genetic factors may play an important moderating role. The current study selected child abuse and recent peer victimization as distal and proximal interpersonal stress, respectively, and FKBP5 gene rs3800373 polymorphism as the genetic factor. The purpose of this study was to build upon the results of previous studies by exploring the relative and interactive effects of distal and proximal interpersonal stress on adolescent self-injury behavior.

The participants were 436 adolescents (12.84 ± 0.89 years, 49.8% males) recruited from four junior high schools in Guizhou Province. All were tracked from grade 7 to grade 9. At Time 1, adolescents reported child abuse via the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale, reported peer victimization via the Multidimensional Peer Victimization Scale, and reported self-injury behavior via the Short Version of Self-Injury Behavior Scale. At Time 2, adolescents reported peer victimization and self-injury behavior, and saliva samples were collected. Genotyping with respect to the FKBP5 gene was performed with Agena MassArray software, and the corresponding typing results were analyzed using MassARRAY Typer software version 4.0.

Results showed that both distal and proximal interpersonal stress significantly predicted adolescent self-injury behavior, but the relative effect sizes differed in early and middle adolescence. Across the entire sample, distal and proximal interpersonal stress had an interactive effect on adolescent self-injury, and the interaction pattern was consistent with the stress amplification model. However, when the FKBP5 gene was considered, the interaction pattern was found to differ between adolescents in different genotype groups. Specifically, compared with AA homozygous adolescents who experienced less childhood abuse, those who experienced more child abuse were easily to be impacted by recent peer victimization and engage in NSSI. This was consistent with the stress amplification model. However, in adolescents with the AC/CC genotype who experienced more childhood abuse, mild recent peer victimization triggered adolescent self-injury. These participants showed lower self-injury thresholds and higher scores for self-injury than those who experienced less childhood abuse, which was consistent with a stress sensitization model. These relationships were stable in both early and middle adolescence.

These findings showed different patterns of interaction between interpersonal and intrapersonal factors on self-injury behavior in adolescents of different genotypes. Using an integrative, dynamic, and developmental framework, this study provides important insights into the relevant interpersonal theories. It is also valuable for the accurate identification of adolescents at high risk of self-injury and for both prevention and intervention.

Key words: interpersonal stress, self-injury behavior, FKBP5 gene, stress amplification model, stress sensitization model