ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (3): 258-270.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00258

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇



  1. (青少年网络心理与行为教育部重点实验室, 华中师范大学心理学院,
    湖北省人的发展与心理健康重点实验室, 武汉 430079)
  • 收稿日期:2015-03-09 发布日期:2016-03-25 出版日期:2016-03-25
  • 通讯作者: 江光荣, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:


Patterns of reinforcement sensitivity for non-suicidal self-injury in college students

YING Mengting; JIANG Guangrong; YU Lixia; LU Ting   

  1. (Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior (CCNU), Ministry of Education; School of Psychology, Central China Normal University; Key Laboratory of Human Development and Mental Health of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430079, China)
  • Received:2015-03-09 Online:2016-03-25 Published:2016-03-25
  • Contact: JIANG Guangrong, E-mail:


强化敏感性包括惩罚敏感性和奖励敏感性, 它影响个体的情绪、动机和行为过程, 与个体的情绪反应性密切相关。极端的强化敏感性与情绪管理障碍及多种自伤相关行为存在密切联系。为探索强化敏感性与自伤行为的关系, 研究1采用BIS/BAS量表和青少年自我伤害问卷, 对717名大学生进行了调查。研究2在研究1的基础上, 采用Q−任务和CARROT范式, 由127名大学生参加实验, 进一步考察不同功能的自伤行为的强化敏感性基础。结果表明:①惩罚敏感性、奖励敏感性及其愉悦寻求维度均对自伤行为有正向预测作用; ②情绪管理组自伤被试以高惩罚敏感性和接近正常的奖励敏感性为特征, 刺激寻求组自伤被试以高奖励敏感性和接近正常的惩罚敏感性为特征。结论:强化敏感性可有效预测自伤行为; 情绪管理和刺激寻求两种功能的自伤行为具有不同的强化敏感性基础; 对自伤行为进行分类研究十分必要。

关键词: 自伤行为, 强化敏感性, 自伤的功能, 自伤的分类, 大学生


Reinforcement sensitity, as an important personality trait, affects individual’s emotional, motivational and behavioral process, especially relates to emotion reactivity. Numerous studies have demonstrated that two dimensions of reinforcement sensitivity—BIS sensitivity and BAS sensitivity—exhibit strong associations with emotion management difficulties, which are considered as main characteristics of non-suicidal self-injury. Individuals at the far poles of BIS and BAS dimensions are at increased risk for developing various types of psychopathology, some of which have high correlations with non-suicidal self-injury. In order to investigate the relation between reinforcement sensitivity and non-suicidal self-injury, two studies were conducted.
Study 1 examined the associations between dimensions of reinforcement sensitivity and non-suicidal self-injury by using self-report measures. The BIS/BAS Scales and the Chinese version of Self-Harm Inventory were used to assess reinforcement sensitivity and non-suicidal self-injury, respectively. Data were collected among 717 college students and were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression. Results showed that BIS/BAS sensitivity significantly predicted non-suicidal self-injury. As to BAS sensitivity, BAS-FunSeeking was the only dimension that contributed to non-suicidal self-injury.
On the basis of Study 1, Study 2 further explored different patterns of BIS/BAS sensitivity between people who engaged in non-suicidal self-injury for two different purposes. The Q-TASK and the CARROT were used as two behavioral measures of BIS sensitivity and BAS sensitivity, respectively. Two groups of self-injurers (emotion managing vs. novelty seeking) as well as one control group participated in two experiments. Data obtained from 127 participants were analyzed by MANOVA. The Findings indicated that there were different patterns of reinforcement sensitivity for non-suicidal self-injury with different functions. Participants who conducted self-injurious behaviors to manage their own feelings or emotions were characterized by high BIS sensitivity and average BAS sensitivity, whereas participants who engaged in non-suicidal self-injury for seeking novelty were characterized by high BAS sensitivity and average BIS sensitivity.

In summary, reinforcement sensitivity was a significant predictor of non-suicidal self-injury. It can be hoped that therapeutic interventions for self-injurers based on their patterns of BIS/BAS sensitivity will be designed and proposed before long. More importantly, the different patterns of BIS/BAS sensitivity in self-injurers, which was found in Study 2, indicates different mechanisms behind non-suicidal self-injury. This may shed light on the inconsistent findings regarding non-suicidal self-injury so far. Participants are usually not classified into groups by different functions of their self-injurious behaviors, thus leading to a counteracting effect on potential associations. It is indicated that classification of non-suicidal self-injury is quite necessary and deserves future research attention.

Key words: non-suicidal self-injury, reinforcement sensitivity, functions of self-injury, classification of self-injury, college students