ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (9): 944-959.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00944

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

语言演变差异与族群/方言名称对族群信息加工的影响——以广东三大汉语方言为例

伍丽梅1, 张积家2,1(), 孟乐3, 张小林1, 黄楠芯1, 张金桥1   

  1. 1暨南大学华文学院, 广州 510610
    2广西师范大学教育学部, 桂林 541004
    3中国人民大学心理学系, 北京 100872
  • 收稿日期:2020-09-13 出版日期:2021-09-25 发布日期:2021-07-22
  • 通讯作者: 张积家 E-mail:zhangjj1955@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家民委民族研究重点项目“少数民族学生双语学习认知规律研究”(2017-GMA-004);暨南大学大统战专项研究项目“港澳台和海外华侨青年语言教育与国家认同关系研究”(12620821)

Language evolution and ethnic group/dialect name affecting ethnic information processing: Three major Chinese dialects in Guangdong

WU Limei1, ZHANG Jijia2,1(), MENG Le3, ZHANG Xiaolin1, HUANG Nanxin1, ZHANG Jinqiao1   

  1. 1College of Chinese Language and Culture, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510610, China
    2Faculty of Education, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004, China
    3Department of Psychology, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China
  • Received:2020-09-13 Online:2021-09-25 Published:2021-07-22
  • Contact: ZHANG Jijia E-mail:zhangjj1955@163.com

摘要:

语言是族群的重要文化特征之一。基于广东三大方言族群均为中原移民的史实, 探讨三大汉语方言的语言演变差异与族群/方言名称对方言讲话者对中原族群信息加工的影响。以方言为客家话、粤语和潮汕话的广东大学生为被试, 实验1采用群体参照的R/K范式, 考察不同方言讲话者对中原族群信息的记忆; 实验2采用启动Stroop范式, 考察不同方言讲话者对中原族群信息的注意偏向。结果表明, 语言演变差异与族群/方言名称影响不同方言讲话者对中原族群的信息保持, 顽强地保持祖先语言的客家方言族群对中原族群的信息加工产生群体参照效应; 语言演变差异和族群/方言名称影响方言讲话者对中原族群信息的注意偏向, 客家方言族群对中原族群的信息加工产生注意偏向。整个研究表明, 语言演变差异和族群/方言名称影响对同祖语族群的信息加工, 完整地保留汉祖语特点、强化方言与汉祖语的关系, 能够增强根祖意识, 增进对同根族群的认同。研究结果对铸牢中华民族共同体意识具有重要启示。

关键词: 语言演变, 族群名称, 方言

Abstract:

There are three major dialects in Guangdong: Cantonese, Chaoshan, and Hakka. These dialects mainly formed during the southward migration of the Han people in the Central Plains, but they are different in language source, evolution history, and name. From the perspective of language itself, the Hakka dialect is the smallest variation of Mandarin, Cantonese medium, and Chaoshan the largest. In terms of language-variation completion time, the Hakka dialect occurred most recently, followed by Cantonese, with Chaoshan occurring the earliest. Regarding the dialect names, a morpheme of “Ke” exists in the name Hakka, which always reminds its speakers that their ancestors are from the Central Plains, while Cantonese and Chaoshan are named after each locality. An interesting question has been whether these differences among the three dialects affect the speaker’s information processing of the Central Plains group.

Guangdong college students who speak only one dialect of Hakka, Cantonese, and Chaoshan were grouped according to their language background in the present study. One hundred and eighty participants took part in two experiments, 90 per experiment. In experiment 1, the group reference R/K paradigm was used to investigate whether speakers of different dialects had a different memory effect on the Central Plains group compared with that on an unrelated group. Experiment 2 adopted the “starting stroop paradigm”; that is, using different group names as the starting stimulus, and personality adjectives with different valences as target stimuli, the participants were asked to judge the color of the target stimuli.

Experiment 1 found that the participants had a superior memory of their own group, but only Hakka dialect speakers experienced a group reference effect on the information processing of the Central Plains group, which resulted in a better memory effect on the Central Plains group than that on the unrelated group. The results of experiment 2 showed that the participants had the longest reaction time under the condition that their own ethnic group name was activated, but only the Hakka participants responded more slowly to the Henan ethnic group than to the unrelated ethnic group. The results of both experiments indicated that all the three dialect groups had processing advantages regarding the information of their own groups that manifested in the obvious referential effect of their own groups and the attention bias of their own information. Moreover, the Hakka participants’ cognition regarding the Central Plains group represented by “Henan people” is significantly different from that of Cantonese and Chaoshan dialect speakers.

The research results suggested that language evolution affected ethnic information processing. The identity of ethnic groups with the same ancestry could be enhanced by keeping the characteristics of ancestral language completely and strengthening the relationship between dialect and ancestral language. The results have important implications for the construction of Chinese Community Consciousness.

Key words: language evolution, ethnic group name, dialect

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