ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (1): 58-70.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00058

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

个人目标相关性对非临床抑郁者未来想象的影响

胡治国1,2,3,*, 陈静1,2, 吴惠君1,2, GeorgNorthoff1,2,3,4   

  1. 1 杭州师范大学认知与脑疾病研究中心
    2 杭州师范大学心理科学研究院, 杭州 311121
    3 浙江省认知障碍评估技术研究重点实验室, 杭州 311121
    4 Institute of Mental Health Research, University of Ottawa, Ottawa K1Z7K4, Canada
  • 收稿日期:2017-10-09 出版日期:2019-01-25 发布日期:2018-11-26
  • 通讯作者: 胡治国
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家自然科学基金面上项目资助(31271195)

Future thinking in non-clinical depression: the relevance of personal goals

HU Zhiguo1,2,3,*, CHEN Jing1,2, WU Huijun1,2, Georg Northoff1,2,3,4   

  1. 1 Center for Cognition and Brain Disorders, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121, China
    2 Institutes of Psychological Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121, China
    3 Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Research in Assessment of Cognitive Impairments, Hangzhou 311121, China
    4 Institute of Mental Health Research, University of Ottawa, Ottawa K1Z7K4, Canada
  • Received:2017-10-09 Online:2019-01-25 Published:2018-11-26
  • Contact: HU Zhiguo

摘要:

通过两个实验考查了非临床抑郁者未来想象的异常是否受到个人目标相关性的调节。实验1采用未来想象任务, 实验2采用可能性评估范式, 两个实验一致发现, 抑郁倾向者想象未来积极事件的异常, 受到了与个人目标相关性的调节:相对于非抑郁倾向者, 抑郁倾向者对未来与个人目标相关的积极事件的预期减弱, 而对未来与个人目标无关的积极事件的预期则没有表现出异常; 同时还发现, 抑郁倾向者表现出了对未来消极预期的普遍增强, 不受与个人目标相关性的影响。

关键词: 抑郁, 未来想象, 个人目标, 情绪, 可能性评估

Abstract:

Future thinking is an important process to psychologically simulate one’s perception of their future. It plays a crucial role in the recovery, persistence and recurrence of depression. Many studies have examined future thinking in depression and found that future thinking is disrupted in depression and is mainly manifested as weakened positive expectations and increased negative expectations for the future. However, the results of the existing studies have not been consistent, which may be due to the fact that ‘self’ in the future events have not been considered in previous research. In the present study, two experiments were conducted to investigate whether the abnormalities of future thinking in non-clinical depression can be modulated by the self in relation to the relevance of personal goals. For this purpose, the present study focused on comparing four different kinds of future events: future positive events either related or unrelated to personal goals, and future negative events either related or unrelated to personal goals.
In Experiment 1, the future thinking task (FTT) was utilized; 23 non-clinical depressive subjects (whose BDI score was higher than or equal to 14) and 25 non-depressive subjects (whose BDI score was not higher than 4) were enrolled. The subjects were required to think about positive and negative future events that could happen to them in the next ten years, either related to or unrelated to their personal goals. After the FTT task, the subjects were asked to evaluate the likelihood that the events would occur to them in the future based on a 50-point Likert scale (1: not at all likely to occur, 50: extremely likely to occur). In Experiment 2, the likelihood estimation measure (LEM) paradigm was used, in which the four types of events were produced according to the interview with the participants before the formal experiment, and the subjects were instructed to evaluate the likelihood that the given events would occur to them in the future based on a 50-point Likert scale as in Experiment 1.
Results of Experiment 1: The results of Experiment 1 showed that the depressive group imagined fewer positive events related to personal goals compared with the non-depressive group. In contrast, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the imagination of the other three types of events. Additionally, the depressive group (in contrast to the non-depressive group) considered that the positive events related to personal goals were less likely to happen to them, whereas negative events related to personal events were more likely to happen to them. This difference was restricted to events related to personal goals, as we did not observe a significant difference between the two groups in evaluating the likelihood of positive and negative events that were unrelated to personal goals. Results of Experiment 2: The results of Experiment 2 showed that the depressive group (in contrast to the non-depressive group) perceived the personal goal-related positive events to be less likely to occur to them. When assessing the likelihood of the negative events presented, the depression group (as opposed to the non-depression group) considered these events to be more likely to happen to them, whether the events were related to the personal goals or not.
Taken together, the results of the current study demonstrated that (1) the abnormality in future thinking of positive events in non-clinical depressive individuals appears to be modulated by the relevance of the personal goals, and (2) the non-clinical depressive individuals showed an abnormal increased in future expectancy of negative events, regardless of whether personal goals were involved. In conclusion, our data demonstrate a deficit in the future thinking of positive events specifically related to personal goals in non-clinical depression. Our study thus shows that the relevance of personal goals is an important factor when investigating future thinking in depression.

Key words: depression, future thinking, personal goal, emotion, likelihood estimation

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