ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 49 ›› Issue (6): 759-770.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00759

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 工作记忆成分的年龄相关差异 对算术策略运用的预测效应

 丁 晓;  吕 娜;  杨雅琳;  司继伟   

  1.  (山东师范大学心理学院, 济南 250358)
  • 收稿日期:2016-06-12 出版日期:2017-06-25 发布日期:2020-12-07
  • 通讯作者: 司继伟, E-mail: sijiwei1974@126.com E-mail: E-mail: sijiwei1974@126.com
  • 基金资助:
     国家自然科学基金面上项目(31371048)、山东省自然科学基金面上项目(ZR2010CM059)和山东省“十二五”特色重点学科“发展与教育心理学” (2011-2015)专项经费资助。

 Age-related differences of different components of working memory: The predictive effect on strategy utilization in arithmetic

 DING Xiao; LV Na; YANG Yalin; SI Jiwei   

  1.  (School of Psychology, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250358, China)
  • Received:2016-06-12 Online:2017-06-25 Published:2020-12-07
  • Contact: SI Jiwei, E-mail: sijiwei1974@126.com E-mail: E-mail: sijiwei1974@126.com
  • Supported by:
     

摘要:  采用选择/无选范式, 借助工作记忆成套测验, 在两位数乘法估算问题中探讨了工作记忆系统各成分对不同年龄段个体算术策略运用的预测效应。结果显示:(1) 工作记忆的不同成分与年龄之间存在明显的相关。表现为, 除视空模板成分外, 其他各成分得分随着年龄增长而呈现上升趋势; (2) 估算策略运用中, 年龄与策略选择显著相关, 表现为随着年龄增长, 策略选择表现明显提高; (3) 估算策略运用中, 不同年龄个体的工作记忆不同成分和策略选择表现出不同的联系, 中央执行均显示出显著的预测效应, 语音环路和视空模板的预测效应均不显著。不同年龄个体的工作记忆不同成分对策略执行的预测效应均不显著。上述发现对于深刻理解工作记忆系统在算术认知策略运用中的作用机制具有重要理论含义。

关键词:  策略运用, 工作记忆, 中央执行, 年龄相关差异

Abstract:  Arithmetic strategy utilization study is one of research hotspots for mathematical education, which relates to the studies of teaching, psychology, decision-making and so on. Studies showed that arithmetic strategy utilization can predict people’s arithmetic performance and was affected by task characteristics, problem situation, strategy adaptability, cognitive ability, emotion, individual development, etc. Accompany with the deep researches about working memory, more and more evidences indicated that working memory, as a higher level cognitive processing, affected arithmetic strategy utilization. However, those findings did not reach a stable consistency. Consequently, the present study explored the predictive effect of different components of working memory on computational estimation for people with different ages. The present study adopted the choice/no choice paradigm to explore how working memory affected individuals’ arithmetic strategy utilization (including strategy selection and strategy execution) by means of the AWMA and two-digit arithmetic estimation tasks. A total of 53 participants in grade 4 (M = 10.09 years), 49 participants in grade 6 (M = 12.18 years) and 52 undergraduate students (M = 24.40 years) were recruited in this study. The whole experiments included two parts, the AWMA and two-digit arithmetic estimation tasks, which were measured separately, and each participant was asked to complete these tests individually. Major findings were as followings: (1) Significant correlation was obtained between different components of working memory and participants’ age. Except visuo-spatial sketchpad, all the components scores of working memory improved significantly accompany with the growth of their ages. (2) In arithmetic strategy utilization, strategy selection was related with age. It showed that arithmetic strategy selection performances of participants improved significantly with the growth of their ages. (3) For participants with different ages, the different relationships were found between different components of working memory and strategy selection. A significant predictive effect was found for central executive component of working memory. Nevertheless, phonological loop and visuo-spatial sketchpad failed to reach the significant level. More vitally, all participants’ scores in AWMA and strategy execution test at all ages didn’t show significant relationships. In conclusion, age influenced the performance of working memory central executive and phonological loop, and the performance in the strategy selection tasks was promoted along with the growth of the age. Moreover, central executive, but not phonological loop and visuo-spatial sketchpad, has a predictive effect on arithmetic strategy selection for all of people with different ages. Such an effect was not found for different components of working memory on the prediction of individuals’ strategy execution at all ages. These findings have important theoretical implications for understanding the mechanism of working memory system in the use of arithmetic strategies.

Key words:  strategy utilization, working memory, central executive, age-related differences

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