ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 49 ›› Issue (6): 771-782.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00771

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 龚少英1;  上官晨雨1;  翟奎虎1;  郭雅薇1,2   

  1.  (1华中师范大学心理学院暨青少年网络心理与行为教育部重点实验室, 武汉 430079) (2 College of Education, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602-7143, United States)
  • 收稿日期:2016-05-18 出版日期:2017-06-25 发布日期:2020-12-07
  • 通讯作者: 龚少英, E-mail: E-mail:E-mail:
  • 基金资助:

 The effects of emotional design on multimedia learning

 GONG Shaoying1; SHANGGUAN Chenyu1; ZHAI Kuihu1; GUO Yawei1,2   

  1.  (1 School of Psychology, Central China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior (CCNU), Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430079, China)(2 College of Education, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602-7143, United States)
  • Received:2016-05-18 Online:2017-06-25 Published:2020-12-07
  • Contact: GONG Shaoying, E-mail: E-mail:E-mail:
  • Supported by:

摘要:  通过两个实验探讨多媒体学习中情绪设计对学习者情绪、认知过程和学习结果的影响。实验1将内部情绪设计与外部情绪诱发两种方式结合起来, 探讨多媒体学习环境中不同方式诱发的积极情绪对学习的影响。实验2进一步聚焦于内部情绪设计, 考察颜色和拟人化这两个特定的情绪设计元素对学习者情绪和学习的影响。结果发现:(1)积极的外部情绪诱发和内部情绪设计可以诱发积极情绪, 并促进学习迁移。(2)对学习材料进行内部积极情绪设计可以诱发学习者积极情绪, 增强学习者的学习动机, 降低学习者感知到的学习材料的难度, 并促进学习迁移。其中, 彩色设计可以诱发学习者积极情绪, 但拟人化只有与彩色结合才能诱发学习者积极情绪; 在拟人化条件下, 彩色设计可以增强学习者学习动机; 彩色设计可降低学习者对学习材料感知到的难度; 彩色和拟人化都可以促进学习迁移。

关键词:  多媒体学习, 情绪设计, 拟人化, 积极情绪, 学习效果

Abstract:  Previous studies into multimedia learning have mainly focused on cognitive factors to investigate different instructional conditions and design principles. However, as an important factor influencing multimedia learning, emotion is often neglected in previous research. To date, it is still not clear what the relationship between emotion and learning is, and how we should design multimedia learning materials to foster positive emotions and learning. To answer these questions, the present research designed two experiments to explore the effects of emotional design of multimedia materials on positive emotions and learning. In two experiments, the multimedia learning material was an animation named “The Formation of Lighting”. In experiment 1, one hundred and eleven participants were randomly assigned to four conditions created by two factors: external emotion induction (positive vs. neutral) and internal emotional design (positive vs. neutral). External induction of emotions was conducted by means of watching films while internal emotional design was conducted by emotional design of the learning material. In experiment 2, we separately explored the effects of design elements of color (chromatic vs. achromatic) and anthropomorphism (anthropomorphism vs. no anthropomorphism) on learners' emotions, cognitive processes and learning performance. One hundred and seven participants were randomly assigned to four conditions created by the two factors. Findings from experiment 1 showed that both positive external emotion induction and internal emotional design induced learners’ positive emotions and promoted their transfer performance. Positive emotional design reduced learners’ perceived task difficulty. The results from experiment 1 also indicated that positive emotions induced through the emotional design of the learning material maintained the whole learning process compared with those induced through external emotion induction. Experiment 2 found that learners in the condition of positive emotional design generated more positive emotions, showed stronger learning motivation, perceived less task difficulty and had better transfer achievement. Specifically, chromatic design both alone and in conjunction with anthropomorphism induced positive emotions. Anthropomorphic design alone, however, did not affect learners’ emotions. The combination of chromatic design and anthropomorphic design increased learners’ motivation. Chromatic design also reduced learners’ perceived task difficulty. Chromatic design and anthropomorphic design facilitated transfer performance independently as well as together. These findings suggest that internal positive emotional design is a better way to induce learners’ positive emotions and facilitate learning processes as well as learning outcomes than external emotion induction. Emotion should be considered an important factor in the design of multimedia learning materials. Future research needs to explore the effects of more other design elements on learners’ positive emotions and learning outcomes. Direct measures of emotion and cognitive processes during learning are needed to pinpoint the mechanisms underlying the emotional design effect.

Key words:  multimedia learning, emotional design, anthropomorphism, positive emotion, learning effect