ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (11): 1228-1241.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.01228

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

积极情绪对心理旋转的影响:趋近动机的调节效应

崔丽霞;张玉静;肖晶;张钦   

  1. (首都师范大学心理系, 北京市“学习与认知”重点实验室, 北京 100048)
  • 收稿日期:2013-01-08 出版日期:2013-11-25 发布日期:2013-11-25
  • 通讯作者: 张钦
  • 基金资助:

    北京市教委科技面上项目(KM201210028014)、北京市属高等学校人才强教深化计划“学术创新团队建设计划” (PHR201007109)、国家自然科学基金 (31070902)和国家自然科学基金(31200790)的资助。

The Influence of Positive Affect on Mental Rotation of Compound Stimuli: the Moderating Role of Approch Motivation

CUI Lixia;ZHANG Yujing;XIAO Jing;ZHANG Qin   

  1. (Beijing Key Laboratory of Learning and Cognition and Department of Psychology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China)
  • Received:2013-01-08 Online:2013-11-25 Published:2013-11-25
  • Contact: ZHANG Qin

摘要:

基于Gable和Harmone-Jones提出的动机维度模型, 采用行为的和认知的情绪诱发手段, 研究趋近动机强度不同的积极情绪对复合字母刺激心理旋转整体优先效应的影响。实验一采用微笑的面部表情配合三种身体姿势(前倾、挺直和后倚)分别诱发高中低三种趋近动机强度不同的积极情绪; 实验二采用金钱激励延迟范式作为情绪诱发手段, 增加中性情绪对比条件。结果表明:(1)在后倚和挺直时大字母的反应时均显著短于小字母(p < 0.05), 而前倾时大小字母无显著差异(p > 0.05); (2)奖励(获得/不获得)的主效应不显著 (p > 0.05), 但是在目标后获得反馈和目标后意外获得反馈两种条件下大字母的反应时显著快于小字母(p < 0.05), 而目标前获得线索条件下大小字母间反应时差异不显著(p > 0.05)。结论:趋近动机强度调节着积极情绪对心理旋转整体优先效应的影响; 但是没发现效价(积极情绪/中性情绪)调节心理旋转整体优先效应。

关键词: 趋近动机, 积极情绪, 心理旋转, 动机维度模型, 金钱激励延迟范式

Abstract:

The Motivational Dimensional Model (MDM, Gable & Harmon-Jones, 2010c), based on a series of experiments on attention, memory, and cognitive categorisation, proposes that the positive affect high in approach motivation narrows the scope of cognition, whereas the positive affect low in approach motivation broadens the scope of cognition (Gable & Harmon-Jones, 2010b, 2011a; Price & Harmon-Jones, 2010). The current study examined the influence of positive affects differed in approach motivational intensity on the effect of global precedence on mental rotation of compound stimuli on the basis of MDM hypothesis. We carried out two experiments using behavioral and cognitive emotion-eliciting methods to examine the influence of positive affects differed in the approach motivational intensities on the effect of global precedence on mental rotation of compound stimuli. In Experiment 1 we adopted 3 body postures (leaning forward, sitting upright and reclining backward) accompanied by the facial expression of smile to elicit positive affects with high, moderate and low approach motivation, respectively. In Experiment 2 we adopted Monetary Incentive Delay Paradigm, which added neutral condition lacked in experiment 1. Twenty eight and thirty one university students completed the parity judgment task that requires mental rotation of compound stimuli in each experiment. The first object was to examine the influence of positive affects differed in approach motivation on mental rotation. The second object was to examine the different effect between the positive affect in different approach motivation and the neutral condition on mental rotation. The results were: (1) In Experiment 1 Individuals responded faster to global targets than local targets when sitting upright and reclining forward, while their performance remained in the same level given local and global targets when leaning forward; (2) In Experiment 2 the results showed that the main effect of the reward (gain/no gain) on the RTs of mental rotation task was not significant, but individuals responded faster to global targets than local targets in the postgoal expected and postgoal unexpected condition while did not differ in their RTs to local and global targets after the pretgoal cue. We concluded that the approch motivation moderated the influence of positive affect on the effect of global precedence on mental rotation. The effect of global precedence on mental rotation showed up when the approach motivation was low but disappeared when the approach motivation was high. These results suggest the positive affect low in approach motivation broadens the scope of mental rotation, whereas the positive affect high in approach motivation narrows the scope of mental rotation. But we did not found that the valence (positive affect / neutral condition) moderated the effect of global precedence on mental rotation.

Key words: approch motivation, positive affect, mental rotation, the Motivational Dimensional Model, Monetary Incentive Delay