ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (8): 969-980.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00969

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

青少年的情绪调节策略对创伤后应激障碍和创伤后成长的影响:社会支持的调节作用

周 宵1,2; 伍新春1; 曾 旻1;田雨馨1   

  1. (1 北京师范大学心理学院, 应用实验心理北京市重点实验室, 北京 100875) (2 以色列特拉维夫大学社会工作学院; I-Core重大创伤研究中心, 以色列特拉维夫 6997801)
  • 收稿日期:2015-11-22 出版日期:2016-08-25 发布日期:2016-08-25
  • 通讯作者: 伍新春, E-mail: xcwu@bnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    北京市社会科学基金重大项目(15ZDA11)资助。

The relationship between emotion regulation and PTSD/PTG among adolescents after the Ya’an earthquake: The moderating role of social support

ZHOU Xiao1,2; WU Xinchun1; ZENG Min1; TIAN Yuxin1   

  1. (1 Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Experimental Psychology, School of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China) (2 I-Core Research Centers for Mass Trauma; School of Social Work, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel)
  • Received:2015-11-22 Online:2016-08-25 Published:2016-08-25
  • Contact: WU Xinchun, E-mail: xcwu@bnu.edu.cn

摘要:

为了考察雅安地震后青少年的情绪调节策略、社会支持与创伤后应激障碍(PTSD)和创伤后成长(PTG)之间的关系, 采用创伤暴露程度问卷、情绪调节策略问卷、社会支持问卷、儿童创伤后应激障碍症状量表和创伤后成长问卷对雅安市芦山县的315名中学生进行调查, 结果发现:创伤暴露程度对认知重评和表达抑制的预测作用不显著, 对PTSD和PTG具有显著的正向预测作用。青少年的认知重评策略可以显著地负向预测PTSD、正向预测PTG, 表达抑制策略仅对PTSD有显著的正向预测作用、对PTG的预测作用不显著; 社会支持可以显著地调节表达抑制策略对PTSD和PTG的作用, 表现为表达抑制对PTSD的正向预测作用随着社会支持的增加而降低, 并可随着社会支持的增加而对PTG发挥促进作用。

关键词: 青少年, 情绪调节策略, 社会支持, PTSD, PTG

Abstract:

It has been documented that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) are common and representative posttraumatic reactions. The former can be considered as pathological results after trauma, involving intrusive symptoms, avoidance symptoms, and hyper-arousal symptoms. The latter is reckoned as positive changes following trauma including perceived changes in self, changed sense of relationships with others, and changed philosophy of life. More importantly, PTSD and PTG may co-exist among traumatic survivors. Therefore, some researchers suggested that it is necessary to examine their shared factors, and to compare their determining factors. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the roles of possible factors or processes on the development of PTSD and PTG. A number of studies found that cognitive activities might be important factors for the development of PTSD and PTG, but these studies ignored the effect of emotional activities on PTSD and PTG. Based on the process model of emotion regulation, we found that the emotional activities had a significant effect on PTSD and PTG. However, this theory suggests that there are different emotional regulation modes such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Previous studies have achieved a consistent conclusion that cognitive reappraisal has a positive role in improving PTG and relieving PTSD, whereas previous studies placed inconsistent views on the role of expressive suppression. Why did studies on the relation between expressive suppression and PTSD/PTG have a mixed conclusion? To make this question clear, we reviewed much relevant literature and proposed that there might be a moderating factor in the relation between expressive suppression and PTSD/PTG. Wherein, social support may play the potential moderating effect. When people perceive high level of social support, their expressive suppression may also result in positive outcomes under stressful surrounding. To examine the relations among emotion regulation, social support, and PTSD/PTG, 315 adolescents were surveyed by using the trauma exposure inventory, the emotion regulation questionnaire, the social support question questionnaire, the posttraumatic growth inventory, and the child PTSD symptom scale. The results found that there were no significant associations between traumatic exposure and cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, but traumatic exposure had positive and significant effects on both PTSD and PTG. Additionally, after controlling for the traumatic exposures, cognitive reappraisal had a positive effect on PTSD, and a negative effect on PTG; expressive suppression only had a significant and positive effect on PTSD, but not PTG. Moreover, social support had a moderating role in the relations between expressive suppression and PTSD/PTG. Specifically, while under a high level of social support, expressive suppression had a positive and significant effect on PTG, but not PTSD; under a low level of social support, expressive suppression had a positive and significant effect on PTSD, but not PTG.

Key words: adolescents, emotion regulation, social support, PTSD, PTG