ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (11): 1349-1359.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01349

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

随迁儿童元刻板印象威胁对工作记忆的影响:群际焦虑的中介作用

孙亚文;贺雯;罗俊龙   

  1. (上海师范大学教育学院, 上海 200234)
  • 收稿日期:2015-01-06 出版日期:2015-11-25 发布日期:2015-11-25
  • 通讯作者: 贺雯, E-mail: hewen@shnu.edu.cn; 罗俊龙, E-mail: luo831023@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    教育部哲学社会科学重大课题攻关项目(13JZD046); 国家自然科学基金项目(31200768); 上海哲社规划课题(2015BSH004);上海市教委科研创新重点项目(13ZS089, 15ZS041)资助。

Meta-Stereotype Threat Effects on Working Memory Among Migrant Children: Mediating Effects of Intergroup Anxiety

SUN Yawen; HE Wen; LUO Junlong   

  1. (College of Education, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China)
  • Received:2015-01-06 Online:2015-11-25 Published:2015-11-25
  • Contact: HE Wen, E-mail: hewen@shnu.edu.cn; LUO Junlong, E-mail: luo831023@163.com

摘要:

元刻板印象是指个体关于外群体成员对其所属群体所持刻板印象的信念或看法, 消极元刻板印象的激活会导致群体成员的一种社会心理困境和认知不平衡状态, 诱发压力和害怕体验, 并损害其行为表现。研究采用工作记忆的N-back范式, 对随迁儿童的元刻板印象威胁效应进行探讨。实验通过让被试根据不同指导语写形容词的方式, 操纵了“威胁”和“无威胁”的条件, 并考察不同条件对群际焦虑和工作记忆的影响。结果如下:(1)威胁组被试的群际焦虑水平显著高于无威胁组; (2)在工作记忆的3个任务难度中, 威胁组被试的正确率显著低于无威胁组; 随着难度的增加, 威胁组和无威胁组被试的正确率都显著下降; (3)在工作记忆的3个任务难度中, 威胁组被试的反应时显著长于无威胁组; 随着难度的增加, 威胁组和无威胁组被试的反应时都显著增长, 且组别与任务难度的交互作用显著; (4)群际焦虑在元刻板印象与工作记忆任务的正确率(中等难度任务)间起完全中介作用, 在元刻板印象与工作记忆任务的反应时(中等难度任务)间起部分中介作用。结果表明, 在激活随迁儿童的消极元刻板印象后, 产生了明显的元刻板印象威胁效应。

关键词: 随迁儿童, 元刻板印象威胁, 群际焦虑, 工作记忆, 中介作用

Abstract:

 

Meta-stereotype refers to a person’s beliefs regarding the stereotype that out-group members hold about their own group. The model of intergroup anxiety argues that negative meta-stereotype generates threat by creating negative expectations on the behavior of out-group members. Previous research has demonstrated that intergroup anxiety following stereotype threat contribute to the depletion of working memory and then impairs the performance in the related domain, but the mechanism of the meta-stereotype threat effects on cognition remains unclear. Accordingly, it was common that migrant children have the negative meta-stereotype, however, the influence of negative meta-stereotype on migrant children’s cognition has not been thoroughly investigated. The current study aimed to explore, firstly, the negative meta-stereotype effects on working memory among migrant children, secondly, the mediated role of the intergroup anxiety between meta-stereotype and working memory, thirdly, the moderated role of difficulty of working memory task on negative meta-stereotype effects.
A total of 90 migrant children participated in the present study. Participants were instructed to write descriptive adjectives to evoke negative meta-stereotype or not according to different instructions. Then, participants were assigned to either the meta-stereotype threat (MST) condition (25 males, 24 females, aged 11~13 years, M = 12.05, SD = 0.83) or the non-MST condition (21 males, 20 females, aged 11~13 years, M = 12.24, SD = 0.79). This study was organized into a 2×3 design. The first factor was the type of meta-stereotype, consisting of 2 levels, MST condition and non-MST condition. The second factor was the type of working memory, including 3 levels, 0-, 1-, and 2-back working memory tasks. The participants also completed the intergroup-anxiety scale. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and mediation analysis were used to analyze the data.
The following results were observed: (1) The intergroup anxiety under the MST condition was higher than the case of non-MST condition. (2) The accuracy of the MST condition was significantly lower than that of the non-MST condition across the 0-, 1-, 2-back working memory tasks. Moreover, the accuracy in the MST and the non-MST condition both decreased significantly with the task difficulty growing. (3) In the 0-, 1-, 2-back working memory tasks, the reaction time of participants in the MST condition was significantly higher than those in the non-MST condition, and in the MST condition, the reaction time significantly increased with the increase of difficulty, the interaction between the group and the type of working memory was significant. (4) The relationship between the meta-stereotype and the accuracy of working memory (medium difficulty) was entirely mediated by the intergroup anxiety. The relationship between the meta-stereotype and the reaction time of working memory (medium difficulty) was partially mediated by the intergroup anxiety.
Overall, it was suggested that the deleterious effects of negative meta-stereotype on working memory and the intergroup anxiety among migrant children contributed to the explanation of the decline of working memory at medium level of difficulty. Further study still needs to precisely assess other factors (i.e., prejudice, social identity, and so on) that are involved in the threat effects of the meta-stereotype.

Key words: migrant children, meta-stereotype threat, intergroup anxiety, working memory, mediating effects