ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (11): 1341-1348.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01341

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇



  1. (1辽宁师范大学心理学院; 2辽宁师范大学心理发展与教育研究中心, 大连 116029)
  • 收稿日期:2014-12-22 发布日期:2015-11-25 出版日期:2015-11-25
  • 通讯作者: 刘文, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:

    2013年教育部博士点基金项目博导类项目(20132136 120002)支持。辽宁省儿童人格发展与教育创新团队(WT2013007)。

Equity Sensitivity of 2~3 Years Old Children in Distribution Condition

LIU Wen1,2; ZHU Lin1; ZHANG Xue1; ZHANG Yu1; LIU Ying1   

  1. (1 College of Psychology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China)
    (2 Research Center of Psychological Development and Education, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China)
  • Received:2014-12-22 Online:2015-11-25 Published:2015-11-25
  • Contact: LIU Wen, E-mail:


公平敏感性是指个体对感知到的公平和不公平的稳定而个性化的反应, 其表现为个体对公平的不同偏好。本研究旨在考察2~3岁儿童公平敏感性发展特点, 并进一步探究分配情境、分配数量和分配结果等因素对儿童公平敏感性的影响。实验1采用VOE范式, 在第三方任务情境下, 考察130名2~3岁儿童公平敏感性的发展特点, 结果发现在VOE范式下, 2~3岁儿童公平敏感性随着年龄增长而上升, 3岁~3岁3个月儿童的公平敏感性发展最明显。实验2, 选取60名处于公平敏感性发展最明显的3岁~3岁3个月的儿童比较其在不同分配情境、分配数量以及分配结果下的注视时间差异。结果表明, 在有接受者情境下儿童公平敏感性显著高于无接受者情境下的公平敏感性, 并且公平敏感性受分配数量的影响。

关键词: 儿童, 公平敏感性, 分配情境, 期望违反范式



Equity sensitivity refers to individual’s response to perceived equity or inequity, which is stable and personalized. It is observed as an individualized bias to equity. Recently studies showed that 3-year-old, 2-year-old, even 15-month-old human infants were sensitive to equity. However, there were very few literature on age difference of equity sensitivity in the young child development. The purpose of the first experiment is to explore the development of 2 to 3 years old children's equity sensitivity in allocation condition, and the second experiment aims at exploring impact factors of equity sensitivity based on the results of the first developmental study.
One hundred and thirty 2 to 3 years old children participated in the first experiment. This experiment employed VOE paradigm and the third-party task. Children’s stare duration to equitable distribution and inequitable distribution situations were recorded as the testing measure. The result showed that there was a significant interaction between age and distribution outcomes. The stare duration in the inequitable distribution condition was much longer than in the equity distribution condition, which suggested that 2 to 3 years old children had equity sensitivity. Children's stare duration on different distribution outcomes also had a significant age effect. Compared with other age groups, 3 years to 3 years and 3 months old children showed the strongest equity sensitivity.
The second experiment explored three impact factors on equity sensitivity, including distribution situation, quantity of distribution resources, and distribution outcomes. Sixty 3 years old children were examined under the distribution situation. The results were analyzed using repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVA), which showed that there was a significant interaction between distribution situation and distribution outcomes. In the context of the recipient, stare duration to inequitable distribution was longer than it to equitable distribution. Compared to the none-recipients situation, children showed more equity sensitivity when they were in recipients situation. There was no significant interaction between quantity distribution resources and distribution outcomes. But children's stare duration on distribution situation with 2 sweetmeats was longer than those with 4 sweetmeats.

In summary, these two experiments investigated the development of children's equity sensitivity in distribution condition and influence factors of equality sensitivity. Equity sensitivity of young children was found: 2 to 3 years old children had already possessed equity sensitivity. The stare duration showed an increasing trend with the growth of age from 2 to 3 years and a decreasing tendency after age of 3. It suggests that 3 years to 3 years and 3 months children were obviously sensitive to equity. Children's stare duration to inequitable distribution was longer than in equitable distribution remarkably in distribution situation. Children showed equity sensitivity under both distribution situations which had either 2 or 4 sweetmeats. These results provided converging evidence that young children in the second year of life have already possessed equity sensitivity. Equity sensitivity of 3 years to 3 years and 3 months old children were relatively obvious. Distribution situation, the quantity of distribution resources, and distribution outcomes all have strong impact on the children's equity sensitivity.

Key words: children, equity sensitivity, distribution condition, violation-of-expectancy paradigm