ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


    2007, Volume 15 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    The Other Window of Attentional Capture: Inattentional Blindness
    Li Huijie;Chen Chuqiao
    2007, 15 (4):  577-586. 
    Abstract ( 2770 )   PDF (824KB) ( 4885 )  
    When observers are focused on a particular object or event, they often fail to notice salient and distinctive objects, a phenomenon that is termed “inattentional blindness”. Two main experimental paradigms are used in the current research on inattentional blindness—static inattentional blindness and dynamic inattentional blindness. First, this paper analyzes factors that affect inattentional blindness, including sensory conspicuity, social conspicuity, mental workload, attentional set, expectation and capacity; Second, it analyzes cross-modal inattentional blindness; Third, different opinions that exist about inattentional blindness, such as inattentional blindness or inattentional amnesia, all-or-nothing and spectrum are discussed; Finally, this paper explores the relation between implicit attentional capture and explicit attentional capture from the viewpoint of inattentional blindness
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    Can One Feel Visual Emotion Without Attention and Consciousness? The Confused Finding and Its Origins
    Xu Xiaodong;Liu Chang
    2007, 15 (4):  587-595. 
    Abstract ( 2422 )   PDF (864KB) ( 2811 )  
    Some researchers have reported that emotional stimuli could be perceived even observers were unaware of the stimuli. In these studies, Awareness was controlled either by manipulating the stimulus conditions or by instructing observers on how to distribute their attention, however objective measure of visual awareness indicated that the criteria used to determine visual awareness on previous studies were not effective. Recent studies by signal detection theory methods show that attention is important for emotional visual stimuli perception, and emotion perception is modulated by attention via both exogenous bottom-up and endogenous top-down methods. Besides, the degree of such modulation correlates with personality and trait anxiety variables
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    The Review and Prospect of Chinese Developmental Dyslexia Study in the Recent Decade
    Wang Yanbi;Yu Lin
    2007, 15 (4):  596-604. 
    Abstract ( 1428 )   PDF (814KB) ( 7240 )  
    The developmental dyslexia is a kind of serious learning disabilities. The article reviews the experimental research documents about the Chinese developmental dyslexia written by inner -China authors during 1996 -2006, and it finds the research of the Chinese developmental dyslexia, mainly including diagnosis, selection, subtype analysis, cognitive characteristics, neurophysiology research and instructional intervention in the recent decade. At the same time, some existing problems are pointed out, such as inconsistency of developmental dyslexia definition; limited research field; lack of effective intervention patterns and experimental researches etc. In the end, the author analyzes the trends and the future research area
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    Dynamic Mental Simulations during Comprehension of Motion Descriptions
    Wu Limei;Mo Lei;Wang Renming
    2007, 15 (4):  605-612. 
    Abstract ( 1599 )   PDF (791KB) ( 1633 )  
    In contrast to traditional view that discourse comprehension is network-building, perceptual symbol theory proposes to view comprehension process as to construct perceptual simulations of the state of affairs it denotes. On this view, understanding descriptions about motions activates dynamic mental simulations. There is not only behavioral but also neuroscience evidence for this assumption. It’s suggested that the processing mechanisms recruited to construct simulations during language comprehension are also used during corresponding motion process. But the definitiveness of this assumption must await further empirical investigations and the perceptual symbol theory remains to be validated in the domain of language comprehension
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    The Brain Mechanism of Ordinal Number

    Cao Bihua;Li Fuhong;Li Hong

    2007, 15 (4):  613-617. 
    Abstract ( 1451 )   PDF (780KB) ( 1740 )  

    Human being preserves some elementary concept of number innately. The brain basis of cardinal number was founded at the places around intraparietal sulcus. If these brain areas were damaged or impaired in development, it would result in dyscalculia or some other inabilities on numerical cognition. However, the ordinal number was mainly represented in frontal and temporal lobes. Does the notation effect exist in the processing of ordinal number? What is the cultural difference of ordinal number and its neural correlates? These questions need further exploration

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    Children’s Inference of Mental States in Deontic Contexts
    Wang Fei;Zhu Liqi
    2007, 15 (4):  618-623. 
    Abstract ( 896 )   PDF (785KB) ( 2081 )  
    This article reviewed researches about children’s inference of mental state which included the actor’s desire, belief, emotion and the authority’s desire in deontic context. In general, the framework which included deontic rules made children to assign inappropriate high weight on the deontic rules. There were also some contradictions among these results. The contradictions might due to the deontic rules which belonged to different domains (such as moral, conventional and prudential domain) and the tasks which were also different (such as behavior prediction and behavior evaluation). Finally, this article pointed out the other two possible factors: the form of deontic rules and the children’s ability of perspective taking
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    An Analysis of the Relation between Self-Esteem and Self-efficacy
    Chen Jianwen;Wang Tao
    2007, 15 (4):  624-630. 
    Abstract ( 2143 )   PDF (784KB) ( 5383 )  
    There are some relation and difference between self-esteem and self-efficacy as core factors. Conceptually, self-esteem is self-evaluation of “behaving” and self-efficacy is self-evaluation of “doing”. Measurably, global structure of self-esteem and special structures of self-efficacy are emphasized. Functionally, self-esteem aims at mediating negative reflective evaluation and ultimate mental health, and self-efficacy takes on motive effect. On affecting factor, self-esteem is influenced by early growth experience and complementary experience in afteryears,and self-efficacy is influenced by recent factors such as successful-failing experience (direct or indirect) and subjective state of body and mind
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    Relationship between Self-Esteem and Self-Serving Bias
    Tiang Lumei;Zhang Xiangkui
    2007, 15 (4):  631-636. 
    Abstract ( 2736 )   PDF (784KB) ( 2261 )  
    Traditional researches considered that self-esteem was positively correlated with self-serving biases, and that those people with high self-esteem had stronger self-serving biases than those with low self-esteem. But more and more researches put forward challenges of this conclusion. These researches mainly related to two questions: (1) whether did only people with high self-esteem have self-serving biases? (2) whether did every person with high self-esteem have self-serving biases? It is pointed out that future researches should study these two questions more deeply and more detailed, for example, which people with what kind of self-esteem have self-serving biases, whether self-serving biases are only a kind of strategy and it is good or bad, etc
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    A Review of Fear of Failure Researches
    Sun Xiaoling;Wang Ling
    2007, 15 (4):  637-641. 
    Abstract ( 1450 )   PDF (795KB) ( 3278 )  
    Fear of failure (FF) has drawn more and more attention as an avoidance motivation or as a negative emotion in recent years. The paper introduced the evolution of FF concept and structures, the FF measure tools which changed from unidimensional to multidimensional, the development and prevention of FF based on psychodynamic theory and the intervention using new multidimensional measure tool. Proposed issues for further studies include determining whether fear of failure has cross-cultural or cross-contextual differences and finding the realistic significance of FF researches in China
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    The Prevention and Intervention of Antisocial Behavior in Oregon Social Learning Center
    Yan shuchang
    2007, 15 (4):  642-647. 
    Abstract ( 1424 )   PDF (785KB) ( 2136 )  
    The present article has briefly reviewed the development, main research projects and achievements of Oregon Social Learning Center (OSLC). In the field of applied research, OSLC focuses on the intervention on children both in the classroom and at home. In the field of basic research, OSLC studies the chronic influence of family, peer and society on children’s behavioral development. OSLC deals widely with juvenile experience, neurobiology of stress and etiology. Meanwhile, OSLC studies foster care, children abuse and antisocial behavior in children of incarcerated parents under the context of family, school, welfare system and juristic system. The practice of OSLC has referential significance to the related field in China
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    Concept Evolution and Reasons Discourse of School Refusal in Japan
    Wang Hongfang;Zhang Jianxin
    2007, 15 (4):  648-651. 
    Abstract ( 2362 )   PDF (816KB) ( 2740 )  
    School refusal is the phenomenon that the students can not go to school not because of their poverty or health problems, but of their psychological, emotional, physical and social reasons. In Europe and the United States the earliest studies on school refusal were conducted. In Japan the studies have been conducted for 50 years. This paper tries to track the evolutional process of the concept -- from "School Phobia", "School Refusal" to " Non School Attendance " in Japan. It also tries to illustrate the Japanese researchers’ studies about the reasons of school refusal from several respects such as family, school and society. It analyses students’ behavior mechanism such as separation anxiety, emotional disorders and poor family relations.Then it introduces Koizumi’ classification of school refusal used by the Ministry of Education of Japan as well. Finally it shows up the possible development of this phenomenon in China
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    A Review of the Research on Psychological Empowerment
    Ling Li;LuChangqin
    2007, 15 (4):  652-658. 
    Abstract ( 2562 )   PDF (823KB) ( 4165 )  
    Psychological empowerment is defined as a motivational construct manifested in four cognitions: meaning, self-efficacy or competence, self-determination, and impact. As to the antecedents of this construct, studies indicate that factors of individual characteristics, work or job characteristics, and group and organizational characteristics all contribute to the form and change of psychological empowerment. As to the consequences of the construct, scholars have found that psychological empowerment can affect work-related outcomes both as independent variables and as mediators or moderators. Based on the review of the studies on psychological empowerment, the paper pointed out four prospects for the future research such as the intervening mechanism of psychological empowerment, and longitudinal process research on psychological empowerment
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    Accounts in Organizations
    Wei Qingwang;Zheng Quanquan
    2007, 15 (4):  659-664. 
    Abstract ( 1996 )   PDF (784KB) ( 1507 )  
    Accounts in organizations are explanations used in organizational contexts. When exploring the mitigating effect of accounts on organizational predicament, some researchers used impression management theory and attribution theory, others used interactional justice theory or fairness theory. In research method, situated experiments were added to the critical incident method and lab experiments. Although most researches emphasized the positive effects of accounts on reducing the unfavorable consequences of organizational predicaments, accounts could backfire and had side effects sometime. The authors also discussed the applicable significance of accounts
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    Ethical Decision Making in Business
    Li Xiaoming;Wang Xinchao;Fu Xiaolan
    2007, 15 (4):  665-673. 
    Abstract ( 2152 )   PDF (818KB) ( 5111 )  
    The two main questions of ethical decision making in business are how people make ethical decisions and which factors influence ethical decision making in business. The present paper firstly introduced the main models of ethical decision making in business, then summarized the methods and conclusions of empirical studies, finally discussed the questions existed in the former studies and put forward the respects for developing studies of ethical decision making in business in China
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    Advances in Brand Information Processing Research: Effects of Cognition and Motivation
    Li Yanmei;Li Shu;Wang Yong
    2007, 15 (4):  674-681. 
    Abstract ( 2016 )   PDF (797KB) ( 2102 )  
    A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of the competition. Brand affects information processing activities and consumer behaviors. Past research gave more weight to the cognitive processes underlying brand information processing. In the last decade, however, research examining how motivational forces shaped brand information processing increased significantly. In this article, we reviewed advances in brand information processing research in the past 10 years from cognitive and motivational perspective, and concluded with suggestions for future studies
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    A Comparison between Two Models of Bounded Rationality: Equate-to-Differentiate and Priority Heuristic Approaches
    Bi Yanling;Li Shu
    2007, 15 (4):  682-688. 
    Abstract ( 1645 )   PDF (814KB) ( 3694 )  
    People are often restricted in their limited time or knowledge when making decisions. This raises a question of how people make risky decisions. In the early time, the Expected Utility theory gave a normative answer to the question. The status of the theory, however, was challenged by the Allais paradox. Simon rejected the idea of optimal choice, proposing the idea of “bounded rationality.” Since then, several researchers became interested in developing models of bounded rationality. In this paper, we compare and contrast Equate-to-Differentiate and Priority Heuristic approaches. We review the methods and the criteria, emphasizing the differences between them in terms of both the models they use and the computational strategies they employ. An implication for further research is discussed and suggested
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    The Individual Differences Research in Decision Making

    Liang Zhuyuan;Xu Yan;Jiang Jiang

    2007, 15 (4):  689-694. 
    Abstract ( 2184 )   PDF (783KB) ( 3109 )  
    The individual differences research in decision making (IDRD) can help to re-test and deepen traditional decision making models. The paper introduced the main researching variables (personality, cognitive ability, cognition styles and age) and results of the IDRD in recent 10 years, and summarized the background, research methods and theory meaning of IDRD briefly. These researches consistently found the influence of these variables on decision making process and performance, which indicated that individual differences were related to the complex person-context links in decision making process. To explain the influences of individual differences on decision making better, an integrate model needs to be developed in the future, in which the decision making context, emotion and person are considered together
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    “The Onlooker Sees the Game Best” ?
    Divergent Perception of Bias in Self versus Others
    Zhang Wei;Zuo Bin
    2007, 15 (4):  695-701. 
    Abstract ( 2485 )   PDF (801KB) ( 2975 )  
    Recently, social psychologists began to focus their attention to the research on the perception of bias which exists in social cognition. After reviewing the history of the research on bias and the perception of bias in this paper, we explained the experimental research on “bias blind spot” and “introspection illusion” and analyzed the theoretical interpretation of the perception of bias. Finally, the significance and apocalypse of the research on the perception of bias were touched upon
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    A Review of Equity Sensitivity Research
    Zhou Hou;Long Lirong
    2007, 15 (4):  702-707. 
    Abstract ( 1779 )   PDF (786KB) ( 3384 )  
    Adams’ equity theory was criticized as it did not take the individual differences into consideration, so, Huseman proposed a new construct: equity sensitivity. It was defined as the different preference of distributive fairness, and three kinds of people was classified: benevolent, equity sensitive and entitled. King refined the construct of equity sensitivity, proposed that it refer to the different tolerance of inequitable events. Many research showed that equity sensitivity had direct and moderating effects on outcome variables, such as performance, OCB, turnover intention. Personal and social factors could influence equity sensitivity effectively. At last, the problems of equity sensitivity research and research orientation were provided, for example, the definition of equity sensitivity should be clarified, the standard of three kinds of equity sensitivity should be refined, the research of influence factors and the research of Chinese equity sensitivity should be given more attention in the future
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    Attitude Strength: Dimension Constructs and Research Operations
    Zhou Jie;Wang Erping
    2007, 15 (4):  708-714. 
    Abstract ( 2076 )   PDF (788KB) ( 2915 )  
    Attitude strength is treated as the extent to which attitudes manifest the qualities of durability and impactfulness. The durability includes the persistence of attitude and the resistance of attitude, while the impactfulness includes the effects on information processing and behavior. Attitude strength contains 9 common dimensions including accessibility, ambivalence, certainty, elaboration, extremity, importance, knowledge, personal relevance and structural consistency. The article introduced the manipulation and measurement of attitude strength, and discussed the previous researches about the dimension constructs of attitude strength. Furthermore, we pointed out that attitude strength contained more than three dimension constructs, and put forward some research directions such as associating the attitude strength with the variables on the group level and social monitoring system
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    Clickstream: A New Paradigm to Study on Online Consumer
    Li Shuang Shuang;Chen Yiwen
    2007, 15 (4):  715-720. 
    Abstract ( 2157 )   PDF (784KB) ( 2969 )  
    Clickstream researches bring a new research stream, not only in many academic domains, but also in many practical domains. Clickstream data record the track when a consumer clicks on the sites. Most of the former researches concentrate on building consumers’ online behavior models, so to get further understanding of consumers’ online behavior. The analysis of clickstream data is also benefit for data mining, web designing and decision-making supporting system as well. Therefore, we classify three types of researches in existence: Within-Site clickstream researches, Between-Site clickstream researches, and applied researches of clickstream data. The limitation and the future development of clickstream research as a new paradigm are also discussed
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