ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


    2007, Volume 15 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Two Systems in Decision-making and Reasoning:
    Heuristic System and Analytic System
    Sun Yan;Li Shu;Yin Xiaoli
    2007, 15 (5):  721-726. 
    Abstract ( 2818 )   PDF (880KB) ( 5096 )  
    Researchers in decision-making and reasoning have recently proposed that there are two distinct cognitive systems: heuristic system and controlled analytic system. The former is a relatively effortless system that relies on prior knowledge, judgmental heuristics, and immediate experience; the latter is a slower, effortful, resource-dependent, rule-based one. The two systems have sharply differing evolutionary histories and neuro-logical substrates. The mechanism of the two systems in decision-making and reasoning process, the relationship of them, the individual difference variables and some limitations were also discussed in this article
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    Mental Accounting: Theory and the Application Inspiration
    Li Aimei;Ling Wenquan
    2007, 15 (5):  727-734. 
    Abstract ( 3361 )   PDF (879KB) ( 6912 )  
    Mental accounting is a psychological process for individuals, households or corporations to code, organize, evaluate, and keep track of economic activities. It revealed the internal cognitive coding process on people’s economic decision-making. The theoretic production of mental accounting was non-fungibility and the especial mental arithmetic. The productions on application involved price consciousness, behavioral portfolio theory; behavior lifecycle hypothesis and mental budgeting. It would probe into the mental mechanism and cognitive rule of mental accounting based on more study methods in the future
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    The Linda Problem: The Equate-to-differentiate Interpretation
    Liu Liqiu;Lu Yong
    2007, 15 (5):  735-742. 
    Abstract ( 2499 )   PDF (894KB) ( 2643 )  
    Numerous studies on how people reason with statistical data suggest that human judgment often fails to approximate rational probabilistic (Bayesian) norms. Tversky and Kahneman (1983) studied people’s probabilistic inference under uncertainty using the Linda problem and several particular scenarios. According to the empirical results, in some situations when subjects are asked to assign the likelihood of several alternatives, including single and joint events, they tend to rate a probability to a conjunction of two events larger than that they assign to one of the constituent events, which anomalous phenomenon is called “conjunction fallacy”, and such fallacious behavior on conjunctive probability judgment was explained in terms of the “representativeness heuristic”. However, the heuristic has been criticized heavily as being too vague to account for explanations. In this paper, the phenomenon and several explanations on the conjunction fallacy were briefly reviewed, and a new exposition that people apply equate-to-differentiate decision rule (Li, 1994, 2004) to judge in the Linda problem was proposed to interpret this anomalous phenomenon
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    Review of the Researches in Cooperation in Social Dilemmas
    Chen Xin;Ye Haosheng
    2007, 15 (5):  743-748. 
    Abstract ( 1272 )   PDF (866KB) ( 2970 )  
    It is an important issue in social dilemmas how to predict people to make cooperative decision. This review summarizes recent researches on social dilemmas, including the dilemma’s characters, sources, types and the theoretical basics, describes the factors influencing on cooperation, and introduces the interaction between sanctioning systems and cooperation. The reasons of the paradoxical findings are also considered. In addition, we discuss the problems in these researches. We would pay attention to the construction of the theory, difference of cultures and cognitive processes in the future researches
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    The Regulatory Fit Theory
    Lin Huiyun;Wang Ling
    2007, 15 (5):  749-753. 
    Abstract ( 2425 )   PDF (849KB) ( 3419 )  
    Higgins(2000)proposed a new view of self-regulation in motivation and decision making: regulatory fit theory, concerning fit between people’s regulatory orientation and their goal pursuit means[1]. The theory proposed that regulatory fit could increase the strength of motivation, emotion experiences and value of what they were doing, and then influenced people’s judgments and decision making. This article reviewed the studies concerning the concept, produce, effect and value of regulatory fit in recent years. Otherwise, we also proposed some questions about the present studies and the direction of the future research
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    The Role of Visual Working Memory in Visual Search
    Pan Yi;Xu Baihua;Hu Xinkui
    2007, 15 (5):  754-760. 
    Abstract ( 1285 )   PDF (859KB) ( 3400 )  
    The role of visual working memory in visual search is more complex than that described by the biased-competition model. According to the demands of current tasks, the contents of visual working memory can be used flexibly to guide attentional selection in visual search. Based on the systematic review of recent studies, we discuss the role of visual working memory in visual search from following three aspects: object working memory & visual search, spatial working memory & visual search, and executive working memory & visual search. In the end of this paper, we draw seven conclusions on the role of visual working memory in visual search based on the recent studies, and give our specific explanations for several problems existing in recent studies. We also put forward some directions for future researches on visual memory involved in visual search. The role of such visual memory as prospective memory and implicit memory in visual search should be studied in depth
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    A Review on Switching Process Research
    Sun Tianyi;Xiao Xin;Guo Chunyan
    2007, 15 (5):  761-767. 
    Abstract ( 1468 )   PDF (1024KB) ( 2039 )  
    Task switching is a basic manner in human’s cognitive activities, and the switching process is an important aspect of executive control, it is considered as controlling switching course between two tasks which compete the same cognitive resources. Switching cost refers to the performance difference in task-switch and task-repeat trials, which is an indicator of executive control. Some critical studies investigating switching process were reviewed in this paper, such as the components and sources of switching cost, behavioral experiments and neuro-physiological studying in this field. In the end, we speculate on the direction of future studies
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    The Word Length Effect in Working Memory
    Li Biqin;Xu Zhan;Xu Li
    2007, 15 (5):  768-773. 
    Abstract ( 3698 )   PDF (857KB) ( 2962 )  
    The word length effect in working memory is the finding that short items are remembered better than long items on immediate serial recall tests. Above all, the article reviewed the experimental researches on word length effect and explained the corresponding theories including the classic phonological loop hypothesis, the feature model, integration theory, item-order trade off perspective and SIMPLE model proposed in recent years. Then it introduced the advance in the applications of neuroimaging technology on the effect, such as ERP, fMRI and PET, which provided the further evidences. Moreover, the disputes were discussed. At last it commented briefly the theories and predicted the research trend in the future
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    The Cognitive Process of Phrase Boundary in Language and Music
    Li Weijun;Yang Yufang
    2007, 15 (5):  774-780. 
    Abstract ( 2157 )   PDF (898KB) ( 1982 )  
    In recent years, a growing number of researchers have been involved in the phrase structure processing of language and music. Firstly, the present review introduces the event-related brain potential (ERP) studies of phrase boundary processing in language. In ERPs, the prosodic boundaries in natural speech and commas during silent reading reliably elicit a similar online brain response, termed the Closure Positive Shift (CPS), which reflects the closure of intonational phrase. Then, the latest studies of music phrase processing with ERP and event related magnetic field (ERF) technique are reviewed. The replication of music CPS demonstrates the robustness of this ERP component. New trends and issues concerning to the study of prosodic hierarchical boundaries are discussed in the end
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    Semantic Effect in the Picture-Word Interference Paradigm
    Fang Yanhong;Zhang Jijia
    2007, 15 (5):  781-787. 
    Abstract ( 2320 )   PDF (863KB) ( 2514 )  
    Semantic interference effect(SIE)in the picture-word interference paradigm is commonly interpreted as support of the assumption of lexical selection by competition. Two contrasting polarities of semantic contextual effect are observed in picture-word interference paradigm: semantic interference or semantic facilitation. Many factors attribute to these two results and the assumption of lexical selection by competition and comparative level of categorization are the main two theories. The model of selection by competition assumes that the concepts represented by semantic-related distractors and target picture will interactivate and lead to semantic interference ,and lexical nodes compete for selection; The assumption of comparative level of categorization assume that the crucial factor in determining semantic effect and its magnitude is the comparative levels of categorization between distractors and the target pictures .If they are from the same level of the same category , SIE will arise; If they are from the different level of the same category, semantic facilitation will arise. This paper gives a revision of present studies and points out the research direction in the future
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    The Underconfidence-With-Practice Effect
    in the Judgment of Learning
    Liu Ning;Zhang Feng;Zhang Qinlin;Liangna
    2007, 15 (5):  788-794. 
    Abstract ( 2278 )   PDF (860KB) ( 1955 )  
    As an important metacognitive judgment, judgment of learning is the prediction about the future performance of learned materials. The underconfidence-with-practice effect ,which describes an underconfidence phenomenon that people underestimate their recall performance during a test on their repeated study., is an intriguing and counter-intuitive phenomenon in the field of judgment of learning. So far, most of the experimental evidence supports that the underconfidence-with-practice effect in the judgment of learning is robust and pervasive, whereas some other evidence demonstrated some constraints on the occurrence of the effect. With respect to the functional mechanism of this underconfidence effect, the researchers have proposed different theoretical models (such as the anchoring-and-adjustment hypothesis, mnemonic debiasing account, and the Memory for Past Test heuristic ) to investigate this effect in depth.. Finally, the limitations of the previous studies and the remaining questions to be resolved in the future studies in this field would be indicated in this paper
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    Mathematics Anxiety and Its Effect on Mental Arithmetic
    Wang Cuiyan, Liu Chang
    2007, 15 (5):  795-801. 
    Abstract ( 1769 )   PDF (862KB) ( 2715 )  
    In recent 20 years, researchers have began to learn that mental arithmetic is influenced by mathematics anxiety. The meaning and measurement of mathematics anxiety were introduced in the paper. Mathematics anxiety effect is related to problem-size effect. It is not significant when mental arithmetic problems are simple, but it becomes more significant with the difficulty growing. Moreover, the procedures of code, retrieve and selecting strategy are influenced by mathematics anxiety. Current research was apt to verify the processing efficiency theory, but inhibition theory was also an alternative, which is lacking in evidence
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    The Treatment Programs for English Developmental Dyslexia
    Wang Zhengke;Sun Leyong;Jian Jie;Meng Xiangzhi 
    2007, 15 (5):  802-809. 
    Abstract ( 1432 )   PDF (892KB) ( 2881 )  
    Three theories, phonological hypothesis, perceptual hypothesis, and double-deficit, are generally proposed for the causes of English developmental dyslexia (DD). The first takes phonological deficit for the core problem of DD, and the second emphasizes that dyslexics have more fundamental visual-auditory perceptual processing deficit, especially auditory temporal processing deficit. The third, Double-deficit hypothesis, considers both the phonological and rapid naming deficit cause reading failure. Many treatment programs based on these hypotheses are contrived to improve reading performance of DD. Several typical treatment programs, which are theoretically based upon phonological deficit, auditory temporal processing deficit and double-deficit hypothesis, are introduced in the paper
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    Concept, Function and Meaning of Positive Emotion

    Guo Xiaoyan;Wang Zhenhong

    2007, 15 (5):  810-815. 
    Abstract ( 5128 )   PDF (868KB) ( 9998 )  
    The positive emotion is a pleasure feeling that comes from the individual’s satisfactions by stimuli of inside or outside the body, and the life events. The positive emotions activate a general approach tendency, have priming and broaden effect on the cognition, can build individual resource, undoing physiological activation associated with negative emotion, and facilitate performance of organization. It is an important component of the mental health, and thus can promote a physical heath. The positive emotion has extensive function and meaning towards individual’s adaptation
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    The Review on and Prospects for Social Sharing of Emotion
    2007, 15 (5):  816-821. 
    Abstract ( 2410 )   PDF (853KB) ( 3221 )  
    People tend to meditate on their emotional episodes and share their experience with the other who can meet their specific needs. These processes are characteristic of university, timing, transmission, and constraint. It is intensity of emotion, moral characteristics of event, and partner’s reaction that influences the extent of social sharing of emotion. Social sharing of emotion is helpful for people to regulate their emotion, test the social consensus as well as construct the meaning of emotion. Moreover, it may contribute to form and maintain the intimacy relationship and construct the social order. Further research in this field should be focused on individual’s regulation and controlling of sharing, social comparison of emotion, and network of relationships
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    The Social Identity Threat
    from the Perspective of the Social Identity Theory
    Wang Pei;Liu Feng
    2007, 15 (5):  822-827. 
    Abstract ( 2739 )   PDF (857KB) ( 5989 )  
    Social identity threat refers that, in comparison to an out-group, the individual in a particular group failed to identify his/her group status and showed a sense of alienation, deprivation and inferiority. Consequences of social identity threat included three categories: dissociation from the particular group, changing the state of the particular group and reception of the consequences of negative social identity. The explicit measuring of social threat was mainly made up of surveys. Meanwhile, systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were taken as indices in the implicit methods. The experimental research of social identity threat divided the group into inner-group and out-group, manipulated the difference of group status and explored social identity threat and the physical reaction of the group with simulated society game. The following issues will draw great attention in future researches: the conceptual construction of social identity threat, cross-cultural research and analyses of the implicit processes
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    The Measurement of Implicit Social Cognition
    to Assess the Single Attitude Object
    Wen Fangfang;Zuo Bin
    2007, 15 (5):  828-833. 
    Abstract ( 2308 )   PDF (860KB) ( 3889 )  
    This paper introduced four ways to assess individual social cognition indirectly-GNAT,EAST,SC-IAT and ST-IAT-the new variants of IAT. All these ways can be used to assess the single attitude object. The present paper introduced the procedure, the reliability and the domain of application and limits of the four research methods of implicit social cognition through examples. It also discussed the differences during the various implicit measures and made an evaluation
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    Associative-Propositional Evaluation Model:
    New Explanation of Attitude Change
    Ye Na;Zuo Bin
    2007, 15 (5):  834-839. 
    Abstract ( 2823 )   PDF (854KB) ( 2933 )  
    Studies of attitude are an important part in social psychology. A central theme in recent researches on attitude is the distinction between implicit attitude and explicit attitude. APE model proposed by Gawronski and Bodenhausen pointed out that implicit attitude and explicit attitude had their own underlying mental processes. Implicit attitude is based on associative processes and explicit attitude is based on propositional processes. From the perspective of the APE model, the mutual interplay of the two processes leads to several specific patterns of changes in implicit and explicit attitude. The article introduced theory and main content of the APE model, and then gave comments on the model
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    Transactive Memory System Research: Review and Prospect
    Zhang Gang;Xiong Li
    2007, 15 (5):  840-845. 
    Abstract ( 1725 )   PDF (857KB) ( 3032 )  

    A transactive memory system(TMS)is the cooperative division of labor that team members in interdependent relationships developed with respect to the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information from different substantive domains. The construct can explain how members of effective teams process information needed for solving problems, and how they apply what they know. TMS is especially relevant for understanding team knowledge processes. Research on TMS theory has a history of nearly 20 years. In this article, several important aspects of TMSs were reviewed, such as their formation and maintenance, measurement, impacting factors, and effects on team effectiveness. The authors finally pointed out their significance for management study and practice, and some suggestions for future research directions were provided

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    Brand Love: Conception and Development
    Zhang Lirong;Guan Yijie;Wang Yong
    2007, 15 (5):  846-851. 
    Abstract ( 2936 )   PDF (857KB) ( 3900 )  
    Carroll and Ahuvia (2006) propose a new marketing construct—brand love, which refers to the emotional attachment of consumers to the satisfied brands. This paper systematically reviews the definition and related such research backgrounds as brand attachment, consumer-brand bond, extended-self theory, then differentiates brand love from brand emotion/affect and brand loyalty. In the end, future researches and advices are provided
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    A New Perspective in the Domain of Work-family Interface:
    the Study of Work-family Facilitation
    Tang Hanying;Ma Hongyu;Wang Bin
    2007, 15 (5):  852-858. 
    Abstract ( 1971 )   PDF (858KB) ( 2792 )  
    Work-family facilitation which pays close attention to the synergies between the domains of work and family, is the extent to which an individual’s engagement in one social system, such as work or family, contributes to growth in another social system. In this paper, the origin and development of work-family facilitation was introduced. The essay also clarified the construction definition of work-family facilitation. There were three main perspectives in the work-family facilitation domain. Next, the process through which facilitation occurs was explained by providing a theory model. At last, the author pointed out two chief prospects for the future research, including developing the measurement scales, and also exploring the relationship between work-family facilitation and other variables
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