ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


    2008, Volume 16 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue

    For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
    The Disjunction Effect in Decision Making
    WANG Zuo-Jun;LI Shu
    2008, 16 (4):  513-517. 
    Abstract ( 2566 )   PDF (715KB) ( 2897 )  
    A disjunction effect occurs when one will do A given event E occurs and will do A given event E does not occur, yet will not do A when the outcome of event E is unknown, which violates Savage’s “Sure-Thing Principle”. The present article reviewed the three assumptions about why the disjunction effect occurs, which are the reason-based account, the reluctance-to-think account and the equate-to-differentiate model. Whether the effect really exists or not, and what kind of experimental design would be fitting for investigating the effects should be further tested in the future research. Future research might also benefit from the insights of the work of Nobel Prize Laureate Aumann. Understanding the mechanism of the disjunction effect is conducive to making a “rational” decision
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Affection of Anxiety on Decision-Making
    GU Ruo-Lei;LUO Yue-Jia
    2008, 16 (4):  518-523. 
    Abstract ( 2404 )   PDF (717KB) ( 5330 )  
    Current researches suggested that high level of anxiety would lead to risk-avoidant decision-making, and it was proposed that some important influencing factors might be responsible for this trend, including the cognitive resource factor, the information processing factor, the probability bias factor and the emotion regulation factor. This article introduced these factors with the biological and psychological proofs of them. However, there is still a lack of a relatively complete theoretical system
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Psychological Mechanisms of Hot Hand Fallacy and Gambler’s Fallacy
    DU Xiu-Min;ZHANG Qing-Lin; XIANG Hong; ZHANG Hai-Wei
    2008, 16 (4):  524-531. 
    Abstract ( 2646 )   PDF (723KB) ( 2177 )  
    In perceiving the random sequence, people incline to consider two actually independent outcomes as positively related or negatively related, which are the hot hand fallacy or gambler’s fallacy, i.e. the positive or negative recency effect in the random sequence. In the exploration of the psychological mechanism of those two fallacies, Kahneman and Tversky adopt the local representativeness heuristic. Since their explanation has several shortcomings, several new models (i.e. casual model, Urn model, memory model, adaptive model and two stages Gestalt model) are presented to explain the two fallacies in different ways. In the conclusion the authors point out that the research methods, neurotic mechanism, individual differences and the application in daily life would be the possible development in this field
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The Key Respect of Sentence Comprehension: A Further Review on the Relation between Syntax and Semantics
    XU Xiao-Dong;LIU Chang
    2008, 16 (4):  532-540. 
    Abstract ( 2333 )   PDF (765KB) ( 2326 )  
    With respect to syntactic and semantic processing in sentence comprehension, traditional modular models assume that syntactic processes appear prior to semantic processes and dominate the process of sentence comprehension. However, this point of view has been recently challenged by a number of ERP studies, which demonstrate that semantic information plays an important role in both syntax and sentence integration processes. In light of these findings, researchers propose that the relation between semantics and syntax is not invariable: on one hand, syntactic processing might guide semantic processing, on the other hand, semantic processing might guide syntactic processing.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Aging and Text Comprehension
    YAN Sai-Jun;HE Xian-You;WU Jian-Hong
    2008, 16 (4):  541-547. 
    Abstract ( 2588 )   PDF (724KB) ( 1322 )  
    According to previous researches about aging and text comprehension, while older adults’ ability of comprehension and memory was decreased in the lower levels of surface form and textbase, the decline in the construction, updating and retrieval of situation model wasn’t observed. Besides summarizing these researches, the reason for older adults’ different ability in the two lower-level processing— surface form and textbase, and situation model processing, the higher-level processing, was analyzed from aspects of the characteristics of situation model and older adults. Further researches were needed in the underlying mechanism and influencing factor of the preserved ability and how it could be used to compensate the decline in other areas of cognitive function caused by natural aging
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Neural Mechanisms for Autobiographical Memory Retrieval
    LU Ying-Jun;QIN Jin-Liang
    2008, 16 (4):  548-554. 
    Abstract ( 1570 )   PDF (726KB) ( 2154 )  
    Autobiographical memory(AM)is the memory of personal events. It constructs the main channel of interaction among self, emotion and personal significance in human cognition. The approach of AM research has enriched the scope of memory research and become a new growing point in memory research and even in the whole cognitive psychology. With advanced technology of neuroscience, like PET, fMRI and slow cortical potential, neural mechanisms for autobiographical memory retrieval have been studied. In this paper, the SMS model, neuroanatomy of AM retrieval, lateralization of AM retrieval and role of hippocampus in AM are reviewed, and the methods of studying neural mechanisms for autobiographical memory retrieval are also discussed
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Neural Mechanisms for the Occurrence of Visual Illusions
    LI Xiao-Jian;LIU Dong-Tai
    2008, 16 (4):  555-561. 
    Abstract ( 2098 )   PDF (883KB) ( 2680 )  
    Traditional cognitive psychology is limited in its ability to explain illusory perception. The research findings of cognitive neuroscience on motion illusions, contour illusions, and color illusions suggest a single mechanism of overlapping neural correlates accounts for the occurrence of visual illusions. The neural activities for illusory perception are intrinsically the same as for accurate perception. Specifically, illusory perception and corresponding accurate perception share the same neural correlates. The occurrence of illusory perceptions needs no special neural correlates. Rather, the neural activity during illusory perception is stronger than that during accurate perception on the shared neural correlates
    Related Articles | Metrics
    From Learned Helplessness, Learned Optimism to Positive Psychology: Seligman’s Contributions on Psychology Development
    CAO Xin-Mei; LIU Xiang-Ping
    2008, 16 (4):  562-566. 
    Abstract ( 3391 )   PDF (708KB) ( 5984 )  
    Seligman was the first psychologist who researched into learned helplessness and learned optimism. In the middle of the 20th century, he led the research of Positive Psychology, which shifted psychology’s focus from human frailty and weakness to the strength of the human character and the improvement of virtue. Mr. Seligman defined the three distinct studies of positive emotion, positive character, and positive institutions. He put forward the concept of three factors of happiness and employed the theory of happiness to cure depression and strengthen human sense of happiness. Recently he has concentrated on human virtue and strength research, and according to his PPT theory, human virtues and advantages can be helpful psychotherapeutics for mental illness
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Status Quo and Prospect of Counseling Process-Outcome Research
    HU Shu-Jing;JIANG Guang-Rong
    2008, 16 (4):  567-575. 
    Abstract ( 3067 )   PDF (721KB) ( 2903 )  
    Counseling process-outcome research studies process variables’ impact on outcome. Person-centered theory, cognitive theory, behavior theory, psychoanalytic theory and some other theories all contributed to this research field. Process-outcome research focuses on the relationships between process variables and outcome. Main process variables under research are therapist response modes, client behavior in counseling, therapeutic alliance and important contents in counseling. Fruits in this field are not so rich at present, probably because the relationship itself is very complicated. Besides, there are some limitations with research methods, such as some designs are too simple for complicated relationships, too many measure tools lead to hardness of results comparison, some measure tools are not mature, reliability and validity are poor. In addition to conquering these problems, future research should consider more on theory construction, inner variables’ moderator and mediator effects, and client variables. Besides, research methods should be more integrative and diversified
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Theory and Practice of Schema Therapy
    LIN Wen-Wen;CUI Li-Xia
    2008, 16 (4):  576-581. 
    Abstract ( 1212 )   PDF (716KB) ( 2686 )  
    Because of many problems and challenges traditional cognitive-behavioral therapy facing with patients of personality disorder, Young developed schema therapy based on cognitive-behavioral therapy. Schema therapy focused on patients’ early maladaptive schemas and maladaptive coping style of patients, helping patients change early maladaptive schemas and develop healthy coping style by different kinds of strategies. It integrated cognitive-behavioral, attachment, object relations, Gestalt, and constructivist school into a new therapy model. Its integration will promise a bright future
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Review of Theories on the Development of Mental Illness Stigma
    LI Qiang;GAO Wen-Jun;XU Dan
    2008, 16 (4):  582-589. 
    Abstract ( 2179 )   PDF (725KB) ( 4724 )  
    Mental illness stigma is an ashamed mark attached to people with mental illness, which may impede the treating and rehabilitating process of clients. Theories on the cause of stigma fall into two approaches: functional and bio-cultural framework. The developmental model of stigma accounts for the progress of stigma. Identity threat model explains the mechanism of stigma. Stigma can be effectively reduced by protest, education and individual contacts. It is suggested at the end of the essay that in China, related research should focus on the analysis of the relationship between traditional culture, mental illness type and stigma, and then further explore the feasibility of strategies of stigma reducing
    Related Articles | Metrics
    An Integrative Study for Organizational Socialization:
    From an Interactionist Perspective
    YAO Qi;YUE Guo-An
    2008, 16 (4):  590-597. 
    Abstract ( 2342 )   PDF (724KB) ( 2108 )  
    Organizational socialization is a process of adaptation from an outsider to an effective and participative insider. There’re great needs to integrate the research on organizational socialization for its divided and fragmented status and lack of core theories. After analyzing the necessities of integration and the possibilities of integration using symbolic interactionism, the relationship between symbolic interaction and organizational socialization was manifested, and the person-environment interactionist model was built. Finally, the issues worthy of further study, such as examing the model more deeply and paying more attention to mediators and moderators, were pointed out
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Political Skill in Organizations and the Relevant Studies
    GAO Ji;MA Hong-Yu
    2008, 16 (4):  598-605. 
    Abstract ( 2738 )   PDF (745KB) ( 2411 )  
    Political skill is about the ability that to influence others to enhance organizational objectives in work-relevant situations, it demonstrates a significant impact on individual work performance, job attitudes, and neutralizing dysfunctional effects of stressors on strain. Perceptiveness, control, affability, active influence and development experiences can serve as antecedents of political skill, and experiential exercises, vicarious learning are important ways to develop political skill. The understanding and the multiple source measurement of the concept, and its other prospects should be noticed in the future research
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Brand Attachment: Construct and Theoretical Evolution
    JIANG Yan;DONG Da-Hai
    2008, 16 (4):  606-617. 
    Abstract ( 2837 )   PDF (767KB) ( 3134 )  
    Brand attachment as the strength of the cognitive and emotional bond connecting the brand with the self has become a new focus in the fields of brand affect and brand relationship. Brand attachment can not only effectively predict the higher level of consumer behaviors but also constitute one of the critical sources of brand equity. This paper includes a review of literatures of psychology and marketing, points out attachment theory, brand relationship and self-congruence theory as theoretical basements of brand attachment. This paper analyzes the unidimensionality and multidimensionality of brand attachment’s concept, differentiates it from brand attitude, brand love, brand commitment and brand involvement and examines factors that create brand attachment and the effects of brand attachment on higher order behaviors. Future researches about brand attachment are also presented
    Related Articles | Metrics
    A Review of Research about Workaholism
    LIU Jie;SHI Wei
    2008, 16 (4):  618-622. 
    Abstract ( 1780 )   PDF (713KB) ( 2509 )  
    The study of workaholism was reviewed in this article. Workaholism involves difficult disengaging from work, a strong drive to work, intense enjoyment of work, and additional devotement much time and energy to work. The paradigms employed to explain workholism include addiction model, reinforcement theory, trait-based paradigm, and, more recently, family-systems model. The importance of measurement validation has been one that has plagued the early development of workaholism research. Currently, there are three validated measures of workaholism: Work Addiction Risk Test, Workholism Battery and Workholic Behavior Scale. Some of researches have focused on dealing with antecedents of workholism, such as personality, demographic variables and organizational factors, and the consequences of workaholism include health and relationship. The workaholism research arena is still in its infancy, thus, there is ample opportunity to develop the concept and theoretically integrated research programmes, also the measurement and sampling research in the future
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Self-stereotyping and Its Antecedents and Consequences
    LI Rui;LING Wen-Quan
    2008, 16 (4):  623-630. 
    Abstract ( 2006 )   PDF (727KB) ( 2751 )  
    Self-stereotyping refers to the degree to which one views characteristics of one’s in-group as characteristics of oneself. After a brief introduction of self-categorization theory which serves as the basis of this process, the paper systematically reviewed the researches on the effects of self-stereotyping on behaviors and attitudes, as well as the influencing factors of self-stereotyping. Finally, it pointed out five prospects for the future research, such as the application studies of self-stereotyping
    Related Articles | Metrics
    From the Individual Impression Management to the Organizational Impression Management
    ZHANG Ai-Qing;LI Wen-Xia;QIAN Zhen-Bo
    2008, 16 (4):  631-636. 
    Abstract ( 2119 )   PDF (718KB) ( 2251 )  
    The organizational impression management (OIM) pays close attentions to the questions about how an organization affects audiences’ perceptions through its behavior and information regulation, and it becomes the new domain of current impression management study. The organization impression management and the individual impression management have the interactive relations. The individual impression management study has laid the foundation for the organization impression management research. In the future, the key issues related with OIM study should include: The research and development of the appraisal tool about organization impression management; understanding the OIM strategies; how to study the effects about OIM strategies, and how to promote the practical application research about organization impression management in China
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Materialism and the Relevant Studies
    LEE Jing;GUO Yong-Yu
    2008, 16 (4):  637-643. 
    Abstract ( 2965 )   PDF (722KB) ( 3874 )  
    Materialism is generally defined as a personal value stressing the importance of owning material possessions. It has emerged as a topic of great interest among scholars across a broad range of disciplines. This paper firstly introduces the concept, the structure and the measurement of materialism, and then expounds its causes and consequences, especially its effect on well-being, and the cross-cultural studies. Future researches should take socially desirable responding bias into account when measuring materialism with scales or try to develop implicit measurement. The methods used to study the relationship between materialism and well-being are also needed to improve. Besides, more studies based on the Chinese culture are needed
    Related Articles | Metrics
    A Review of Researches of Social Dominance Orientation
    LEE Qiong;GUO Yong-Yu
    2008, 16 (4):  644-650. 
    Abstract ( 2141 )   PDF (718KB) ( 2329 )  
    Social dominance orientation was a concept from social dominance theory, reflecting the extent to which one desires that one’s in-group dominate and be superior to outgroups. Persons who had high level of social dominance orientation prefered enhancing hierarchy, and desired that “inferior” groups should be more dominated by “superior” groups, while persons who had low level of social dominance orientation prefered attenuating hierarchy, and desired that ‘inferior’ groups wouldn’t be dominated by “superior” groups. As a result, Social dominance orientation could influence social equality, and explain the prejudice. The level of social dominance orientation was influenced by gender and group status. Social dominance orientation correlated to interpersonal dominance
    Related Articles | Metrics
    A Review on Studies of Lying and Lie-detection
    ZHANG Ting-Yu;ZHANG Yu-Qing
    2008, 16 (4):  651-660. 
    Abstract ( 4456 )   PDF (742KB) ( 5661 )  
    Studies on lying and lie-detection by western psychologists in last half-century are mainly concerned with lie-detection accuracy and the way to improve detection ability. Empirical findings indicate that lying is a fact of everyday life; general detection accuracy is not greater than chance; people’s beliefs about lying cues, which are defined as the verbal and non-verbal differences between truth-telling and lying, are not in accordance with the real picture revealed by the psychologists. Moderators of cues to deception and detection accuracy include motivation, interactivity, personality differences, context, et al. Lying behavior shows some unique features in computer-mediated-communication
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Researches Overseas on Testing Effect: A Review
    ZHANG Jin-Kun;BAI Xue-Jun;YANG Li-Xian
    2008, 16 (4):  661-670. 
    Abstract ( 2554 )   PDF (739KB) ( 2775 )  
    Findings on testing effect indicate that learning doesn’t occur only by encoding, and testing doesn’t just serve as an evaluating tool as well. Testing or retrieval practice can enhance later retention more than additional study of the material, this happens even when there is no feedback after testing. The authors try to review the empirical literature about testing effect from the following aspects: The positive effect of testing under different experimental conditions, such as free recall, paired-associate learning, recognition, and also the basic effects in educational settings; the negative effect of testing including retrieval induced forgetting, negative suggestion effects and false memory; theories account for the positive testing effect based on different perspectives, such as additional exposure, over-learning, effortful retrieval, desirable difficulties and transfer-appropriate processing. At last the authors discuss some inconsistent results of the current studies and the implication of testing effect, and expect the future research
    Related Articles | Metrics