ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


    2009, Volume 17 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue

    For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
    The Other Side of Change Perception: Change Blindness
    CHEN Li-Jun;WANG Hong;FAN Hui-Yong
    2009, 17 (4):  645-652. 
    Abstract ( 1619 )   PDF (758KB) ( 2581 )  
    People often fail to detect the changes to objects or scenes. This phenomenon is called “change blindness”. It is the other side of change detection. Researches on change blindness mainly focused on several aspects. The reasons of change blindness was one of researchers’ major concerns, and factors that influenced change blindness was another main subject, which includes properties of stimulus, attention breadth, context knowledge, individual differences between observers and culture backgrounds. Recently, the question of implicit change detection has drew many researchers’ notice, and great attention is paid to change blindness through multi (cross)-channels and change blindness blindness (CBB) as well. However, disagreements arose about change blindness and its representation mechanisms, processing methods and implicit change detection. Besides, studies on change blindness based on CBB and cognitive neuroscience need to be further explored.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The Neural Mechanism of Perceptual Learning

    MA Xiao-Li;YANG Bin;ZHONG Xiang;SONG Yan

    2009, 17 (4):  653-658. 
    Abstract ( 1397 )   PDF (736KB) ( 2258 )  
    Practice or experience can induce long-term changes in perceptual skill. This process is referred to as perceptual learning and indicates the plasticity even in adult brain. Previous studies on perceptual learning were mostly focused on the specificity, the transfer and the time course of learning. With the application of fMRI and ERP technology and the development of electrophysiological and psychophysical methods in recent years, scientists have achieved unprecedented progress in the neural mechanism of perceptual learning. The brain areas involved in perceptual learning, from primary visual cortex, have extended to the middle stage of visual information process (e.g. V4) and some higher attention-related brain areas. Furthermore, recent studies not only revealed how cortical maps change in the course of perceptual learning, but also explored the cell-level changes involved in perceptual learning. These new results provided further evidence for the research and application of brain plasticity.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Theoretical Models of Multisensory Cues Integration
    2009, 17 (4):  659-666. 
    Abstract ( 1339 )   PDF (834KB) ( 3244 )  

    In our daily lives, people integrate various kinds of cues from different modalities to perceive events or objects. These modalities represent the properties and positions of objects by adopting different reference frameworks. Moreover, the reliability of each cue varies as environment changes. However, human brains could integrate these cues effectively to perceive objects exactly. We highlight some of the models that underlie the integration of the modalities in human brain and mainly summarize the statistic optimization model based on the theory of Bayesian. The related research in the future could be studied by combining the virtual reality and neuroimaging techniques to investigate the mechanisms of multisensory cues integration.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Theoretical Models of Multisensory Cues Integration……WEN Xiao-Hui, LIU Qiang, SUN Hong-Jin, et al.(666)
    Construal Level Theory: From Temporal Distance to Psychological Distanc
    LI Yan-Chen; ZHOU Ting-Rui; ZHOU Xiu
    2009, 17 (4):  667-677. 
    Abstract ( 1885 )   PDF (756KB) ( 7369 )  
    Construal Level Theory is a theory about how different dimensions of psychological distance influence individual’s mental construal of objects, and how the abstractness or concreteness of construal determine individual’s judgment and decision making. A large amount of research have shown that people tend to construal psychologically distant objects in terms of high level, abstract and decontextualized aspects, whereas construal the same object in terms of low level, detailed and contextualized features if the object is psychologically near. Future research should discriminate among construal level itself, the operationalization of construal level and the antecedents of construal level. It is also important to include other psychological variables such as affect and motivation into the causal chain of psychological distance-construal level-preference and choice.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The Electrophysiological Index for the Automatic and Control Processing of Temporal Information
    YIN Hua-Zhan;HUANG Xi-Ting
    2009, 17 (4):  678-682. 
    Abstract ( 1153 )   PDF (778KB) ( 1496 )  
    Recently, there are more concerns about the issue of the unit mechanism of human temporal information processing. Recent studies showed that the Mismatch Negative wave (MMN) was related with automatic processing, while Contingent Negativity Variation (CNV) related with control processing, and omitted stimulus potentials (OSPs) corresponded with both automatic and control processing. Studies about all of the three ERPs proved the existence of both processing. Further studies should pay more attention on exploring the duration processing mechanism rather than on the segmentation point of automatic and control processing.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Recent Development in the Study of the Relationship between General Intelligence and Working Memory
    DANG Cai-Ping; LIU Chang
    2009, 17 (4):  683-690. 
    Abstract ( 2139 )   PDF (763KB) ( 2611 )  

    Existing studies disagree as to whether the respective correlation of working memory as a whole and its two sub-systems—short term memory and central executive—with general intelligence is strong or weak. Working memory and general intelligence are two independent constructs that have strong relationship to each other, with the former able to predict the latter. The reasons of such strong relationship between WM and general intelligence are principally that working memory and general intelligence share prefrontal cortex, controlled attention and complex strategic processes underlie performance on working memory span tasks as well as tests of general intelligence, while the overlapping of test content and the compound prediction of latent variable may exaggerate their correlation.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Choking Under Pressure Relate to Working Memory
    CHEN Ya-Lin; LIU Chang
    2009, 17 (4):  691-698. 
    Abstract ( 1463 )   PDF (747KB) ( 1834 )  
    xisting studies disagree as to whether the respective correlation of working memory as a whole and its two sub-systems—short term memory and central executive—with general intelligence is strong or weak. Working memory and general intelligence are two independent constructs that have strong relationship to each other, with the former able to predict the latter. The reasons of such strong relationship between WM and general intelligence are principally that working memory and general intelligence share prefrontal cortex, controlled attention and complex strategic processes underlie performance on working memory span tasks as well as tests of general intelligence, while the overlapping of test content and the compound prediction of latent variable may exaggerate their correlation.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Memory Reconsolidation and Its Potential Neurobiological Mechanism
    WU Yan;LI Yong-Hui;SUI Nan
    2009, 17 (4):  699-705. 
    Abstract ( 1331 )   PDF (760KB) ( 3022 )  
    New memory are stabilized after an initial learning by a process called consolidation, and the consolidation theory proposes the memories are stable once stored. However, another date indicate that reactivation of a consolidated memory can return it to a liable, strengthened, changed or even erased. This process has been named reconsolidation, and is hypothesized to be an important component of long-term memory process. The main point of this review focuses on the progress of studying on the potential neurobiological mechanism of memory reconsolidation. It will provide crucial insight into the mnemonic function and some exceptionally strong and salient disorder memory.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Which Factors Constrain the Accuracy of Metacomprehension Monitoring?
    CHEN Qi-Shan;CHANG Rui
    2009, 17 (4):  706-713. 
    Abstract ( 1152 )   PDF (740KB) ( 1099 )  
    Accurate metacomprehension monitoring is crucial to effective metacomprehension control and reading comprehension. However, previous research has showed that metacomprehension monitoring accuracy is far less impressive. Hence, the key issues were addressed in our paper: what factors constrain the accuracy of metacomprehension monitoring. Variables that affected the accuracy of metacomprehension monitoring include that the characters of texts, the orienting activity that may provide cues for the monitoring judgment, and the types of criterion tests. Finally, we made some suggestions and presented new ideas in terms of the research of metacomprehension monitoring accuracy. In particular, we proposed that concordance among monitoring judgment forms, monitoring cues, and criterion test is the key for accurate metacomprehension monitoring.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The Interaction of Emotion and Language Processing
    LIU Hong-Yan;HU Zhi-Guo;PENG Dan-Ling
    2009, 17 (4):  714-721. 
    Abstract ( 1904 )   PDF (743KB) ( 4983 )  
    The interaction between emotion and language has become a hot topic in the filed of affective neuroscience. On the one hand, emotion modulates language processing from the following three aspects: (1) The influence of embodied emotional information on language stimuli, including emotional words, sentences and discourses; (2) The influence of emotional context on language processing, including internal emotional state (e.g. depression, anxiety, happy and other types of mood) and external emotional background (e.g., emotional tone, emotional context, emotional picture / music); (3) The influence of internalized emotional reaction patterns (e.g., posture, face expression) on language processing. On the other hand, language influences emotional processing from the following three aspects: (1) The influence of semantic concept on emotion perception; (2) The influence of language instruction on emotional acquisition; (3) The role of language in emotion regulation. For future studies, the cognitive and neural basis underlying the interaction between emotion and language must be further investigated. Meanwhile, the scientific research should be linked to the education and clinical activity.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Automatic Emotion Regulation: Sociocultural and Neuroscientific Considerations
    FAN Zhao-Feng;YU Guo-Liang
    2009, 17 (4):  722-729. 
    Abstract ( 1327 )   PDF (748KB) ( 2218 )  
    Most prior research has focused on deliberate forms of emotion regulation but left out an important aspect of emotion regulation, namely, automatic emotion regulation (AER), which is prevalent in our daily life. Similar to automatic processing, automatic emotion regulation works effectively on any aspect of one’s emotions without making a conscious decision to do so, without paying attention to the process of regulating one’s emotions, and without engaging in deliberate control. Antecedent-focused AER (those mostly taking place before the emotion is fully initiated) seems to be relatively adaptive while response-focused AER (those mostly taking place after an emotion is initiated) seems to be relatively maladaptive. The neural correlates of response-focused AER are different from antecedent-focused AER. The notion of an adaptive type of AER is in line with sociocultural considerations. Sociocultural context plays an important role in shaping AER. Cognitive processing within AER can become automatized with repeated cultural norms and practices.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Emotion Regulation Strategies: Cognitive Reappraisal Is More Effective than Expressive Suppression
    CHENG Li;YUAN Jia-Jin;HE Yuan-Yuan;LI Hong
    2009, 17 (4):  730-735. 
    Abstract ( 3219 )   PDF (730KB) ( 7880 )  
    Gross suggested that emotion regulation is generated in emotion process. There are two commonly used emotion regulation strategies: cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. This review compares the two strategies with respect to their effects on emotional responses and their neural underpinnings. Moreover, the impacts of the two strategies on other cognition processes are discussed. Cognitive reappraisal not only reduces subjective emotion experience but also decreases the sympathetic responses and deactivates the emotion-related brain, while it will not impair other cognition process. Despite its usefulness in reducing subjective emotional experience, expressive suppression leads to sympathetic and amygdala activations. In particular, it will disrupt other cognitive processes. Therefore, cognitive reappraisal is more effective than expressive suppression, and is better for people’s physical and mental health.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Developmental Contextualism: An Instance of Development System Theories
    ZHANG Wen-Xin;CHEN Guang-Hui
    2009, 17 (4):  736-744. 
    Abstract ( 1874 )   PDF (859KB) ( 4614 )  
    Developmental Contextualism, as an instance of developmental system theories, represents a new and increasingly influential theoretical perspective on human development. The central idea of Developmental Contextualism lies in that changing, reciprocal relations (or dynamic interactions) between individuals and the multiple contexts within which they live comprise the essential process of human development, and that the goodness-of-fit of between the person and the context can foster the positive development of individual. In contrast with the notion of predetermined epigenesis as reflected in many stage theories of human development, theorists of Developmental Contextualism admit greater plasticity in development and believe that developmental changes are probabilistic in respect to normative outcome due to variations in the timing of biological, psychological, and social factors (or levels) that provide integrative base of ontogenetic progression. The circular effects research—a new research approach—has been proposed by Developmental Contextualism to investigate the circulate functions in development.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The Affecting Factors of Children’s Risk Taking Behavior
    ZHENG Rui;ZHANG Li-Jin
    2009, 17 (4):  745-752. 
    Abstract ( 1461 )   PDF (748KB) ( 2903 )  
    Risk-taking behavior is the individual will of facing the risk. It is a special type of decision-making. There are 3 aspects affect children’s risks taking behavior: the individual characteristics, family factors and social-situation factors. For individual factors, the child’s gender and age will affect their risk perception, the estimated risk of injury and the consequences of the acts attributed; cognitive decision-making capacity and the emotional-based factors may have an impact on the children’s judgment of the dangerous situation. For family factors, children’s parents, sisters and brothers have great impact on the children’s risk-taking behavior. The attitude and response of parents will affect the children’s participation of risk-taking behavior. As well as, the children’s sibling play very important role in their risk decision-making. From the perspective of the social-situation factors, the risk situation would put pressure on the children’s risky decision-making. The presence of peers will enhance the inclination of the children to participate in risk behavior. Comprehensive analysis of various factors of risk-taking behavior and its mechanisms, which are great significance for propose the reasonable interventions methods to reduce children’s accidental injury which is caused by risk-taking behavior.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Influence of Prenatal Maternal Stress on the Psycho-behavioral Development of Their Children
    CAI Chun-Feng;ZHOU Zong-Kui
    2009, 17 (4):  753-758. 
    Abstract ( 1364 )   PDF (764KB) ( 2979 )  
    Prenatal maternal stress has important influence on the development of their offspring. A significant body of evidence reveals that prenatal maternal distress negatively influences the emotional or cognitive development, resulting in an increased risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity, anxiety, and language delay in their children. One of the underlining mechanisms is the change of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the other is the activation of the sympathetic-adrenal system which caused by stress and anxiety. There are some methodological problems and unanswered questions such as the sensitive period and the sex-specific effects. Many important ways should be developed in this area of research. There is enough evidence now to warrant active research into prevention, intervention, and support programs to reduce stress or anxiety during pregnancy and their aversive effects on child outcome.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Social Functioning and Subjective Well-being in the Elderly
    LI Hai-;CHEN Tian-Yong
    2009, 17 (4):  759-765. 
    Abstract ( 1813 )   PDF (739KB) ( 4043 )  
    Social functioning in the elderly is the essential element of health aging. This article reviews the definition and evaluation of social functioning, social functioning theories related to subjective well-being, and influences on subjective well-being affected by social functioning. In the guidance of negative and positive aging viewpoints, there existed two research trends in this field: the former excessively emphasized on social support, pursued the hedonia well-being, while the latter paid attention on social participation, sought for the eudaimonia well-being. Taking positive aging as guiding point of view, further researches should emphasize on active social participation and eudaimonia well-being, and carry out related intervention programs as well.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The Process Research of Psychotherapy
    ZHANG Qian;ZHENG Yong
    2009, 17 (4):  766-773. 
    Abstract ( 1074 )   PDF (744KB) ( 2381 )  
    The research on psychotherapeutic process, aimed to identify the active ingredients and mechanisms of psychotherapy, was an important region in research on psychotherapy efficacy. The research progress manifested in the expanding of its research subjects, improvement of its research methods and its new research findings. And seven suggestions on future researches were proposed, which included viewing active ingredients as layering, combining researches on change mechanism in two lines with therapy process model, using for reference findings from related regions, improving the temporal design of RCTs, attending to qualitative approach, practitioners collaborating with researchers, and conducting researches in Chinese contest.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The Relationship between Forgiveness and Personal Characteristics and Environmental Events
    ZHANG Hai-Xia;GU Chuan-Hua
    2009, 17 (4):  774-779. 
    Abstract ( 1326 )   PDF (734KB) ( 2234 )  
    Large amount of research has been conducted on the relationship between forgiveness and such factors as social cognition, empathy, personality, interpersonal relationship, mental health, culture and aggressive events, and also on the application of these research results and valid clinical intervention style. This paper reviewed the research on the related factors of forgiveness, and the development of the measuring tool for Chinese people and the investigation of short and long effect of forgiveness on the individual and society should be paid great attention to.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    On the School Psychologist System of Japan and How It Can Inspire the Buildup of China’s School Psychology
    HUANG Xi-Shan;Liu Ming
    2009, 17 (4):  780-783. 
    Abstract ( 1601 )   PDF (755KB) ( 2240 )  
    This paper introduces the foundation, nature and goals of the subject of school psychology in Japan, and explains in detail the accreditation, requirements, classification, main functions and duties of the school psychologists in Japan. Two major problems in the school psychologist system in Japan are discussed. The conclusion of this paper is that the accreditation system, the integration of theory and practice, and the peer exchange in the school psychologist system in Japan are good examples for the development of the school psychology in China.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Two Approaches of Western Research of Moral Personality
    WANG Yun-Qiang;GUO Ben-Yu
    2009, 17 (4):  784-787. 
    Abstract ( 1345 )   PDF (722KB) ( 2358 )  
    The research of moral personality is a new theme of western moral psychology, which has two approaches: the trait approach and the social-cognitive approach. The trait approach view moral personality as some personality traits correlating with morality, and have done many researches on the natural conception of moral exemplar and real moral exemplar. The social-cognitive approach explains moral personality with social-cognitive schema, knowledge structure and cognitive-affective mechanism which reveals the individual inner dynamic psychological process. Future researches of moral personality should emphasize the connection of the two approaches, strengthen the researches of developmental process and influential factors, and pay attention to the integration of multi-levels and multi-disciplines.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Loss Aversion in Behavior Economics
    LIU Huan;LIANG Zhu-Yuan;LI Shu
    2009, 17 (4):  788-794. 
    Abstract ( 2192 )   PDF (763KB) ( 5937 )  
    Loss aversion, which meaned that people were, on average, roughly twice as sensitive to losses as to gains, demonstrated that people have a strong psychological and behavioral tendency to avoid losses than the same amounts of gains in risky and riskless decision. We first introduced the definition of loss aversion briefly from theoretic and behavioral prospective, and the different research paradigms used in risky and riskless fields. Loss aversion was accepted as both a description and an explanation of the phenomenon, it was widely used in economic filed to explain abnormal phenomenon, such as endowment effect, status quo bias, equity premium puzzle, the winner’s curse, and so on. Researchers did not only pay attention to the mediators of loss aversion, which can be divided into two categories: emotional attachment and cognitive perspective, but also focused on the mechanism of loss aversion. However, there were some problems with loss aversion which should be addressed in future research, such as the relationship with endowment effect and the difference from risk aversion. As loss aversion was an extensive-existed phenomenon, an associative understanding of the mechanism of loss aversion from emotional attachment, cognitive perspective and cognitive process would assist individual to recognize, predict and intervene the economic loss and irrational decisions caused by loss aversion.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Progress and Prospects in Research on Work Value
    HUO Na;LI Chao-Ping
    2009, 17 (4):  795-801. 
    Abstract ( 1539 )   PDF (766KB) ( 4780 )  
    Work values are some ideas and beliefs with different importance, which are beyond specific job situation and guide individual’s evaluation as well as selection to work behaviors and events, meanwhile, they point to the expected states and behaviors. Recently scholars are more and more concerned of research in this field. The existing related research mainly involves its structure, measurement, relationship with relevant constructs as well as Trans-Culture, Cross-generation differences and so on. In this paper, progress in researches of work values has been concluded comprehensively, and diversity of work values among the different genders, professions, generations, national area’s work values has been analyzed. Finally we have pointed out that future research should focus on issues related to measuring tool’s Trans-Culture applicability, the work values’ matching as well as its change mechanism and several other prospects and trends.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Integrated Study of Job Burnout and Work Engagement
    WANG Yan-Feng;QIN Jin-Liang
    2009, 17 (4):  802-810. 
    Abstract ( 2040 )   PDF (771KB) ( 4571 )  
    Work engagement is an emerging psychological concept, which was introduced by the organizational psychologist recently. Work engagement emphasizes particularly on the profession development and job pursuit of employees from positive psychology standpoint. At present, more and more people begin to pay attention to the integrated study between work engagement and job burnout. The study tropism of positive psychology promotes the actualization of integrated study; the energy and identification scale provides the tool of survey for integrated study; the dual-process model of positive and negative employee well-being is mostly model of integrated models; it has important value of theory and practice in the integrated study, which is also benefited to enhance employees’ health. In the future study, there are many aspects to improve: Interview study, case study and tracing study should be added in methods of integrated study; the factors of positive psychology should be more attended in contents of integrated study; the cross-national study should be advocated in the scope of integrated study; the existing integrated models should be innovated in approaches of integrated study.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The Influencing Factors and the Theoretical Discussion of the Communication Effect of Celebrity Advertising
    ZHOU Xiang-Xian
    2009, 17 (4):  811-820. 
    Abstract ( 1879 )   PDF (791KB) ( 7036 )  
    Celebrity advertising, as one of the most ordinary modes of advertising appeal at the present time, is an advertising that is expected to add value to the target product by associating celebrity image or reputation with the brand. It is found that the communication effects of celebrity advertising are obviously under the influences of many factors such as the traits of celebrity, the state of audience, the characteristics of products and advertisements, and the context of advertisement. Researchers had put forward some theories on celebrity advertising, for example, the Four “Fs”, the Model of Aspirational Reference Group, and the Associative Learning Theory. After a review of some relevant researches, a systematic discussion was provided about the problems that should receive consideration: The external validity was a lower, research methods should be innovated, and more factors influencing the communication effects of celebrity advertising needed to be studied.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    On the Relationship between Attentional Bias and Attribution Bias of Aggressors
    YU Feng;GUO Yong-Yu
    2009, 17 (4):  821-828. 
    Abstract ( 1391 )   PDF (744KB) ( 2019 )  
    Attentional Bias and attribution bias are especially important in the researches of aggressors’ cognition. Aggressors have preferences to hostile cues and also inclined to interpret the ambiguous situations in a hostile way. There are two possibilities of the relationship between attentional bias and attribution bias, which are Attention-First Model and Interpretation-First Model. Attention-First Model persists the idea that attention is at the beginning of the cognitive processes and left interpretation processes behind, but Interpretation-First Model do not. Each model has its supporting researches and the relationship between attentional bias and attribution bias is not clear. The innovation of research paradigm and experimental design and the importance of application researches must be considered in future.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Triangular Model of Significant Other-goal Associations
    MA Li-Li;GUO Yong-Yu
    2009, 17 (4):  829-835. 
    Abstract ( 1174 )   PDF (733KB) ( 1383 )  
    Interpersonal relationship is very important to the self-regulation process. Relationship partners influence the goals individuals choose to pursue in daily life, their success at attaining them, and the consequences of those goal pursuits. Just as importantly, the goals that individuals pursue shape and influence the course of their interpersonal relationships. Fitzsimons and his colleagues proposed a triangular model of interpersonal cognition that focuses on the essential role that goals play in the links between self and other. The present article introduces the triangular model, outlines the ideas about how the self’s goals are cognitively linked with representations of significant others, and the interpersonal and motivational factors that may moderate the effects of these associations, and proposes possible future research directions.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    A Review of Study on Stereotype Threat Effect
    RUAN Xiao-Lin;ZHANG Qing-Lin;DU Xiu-Min;CUI Qian
    2009, 17 (4):  836-844. 
    Abstract ( 1616 )   PDF (752KB) ( 4345 )  
    Stereotype threat refers to being at risk of confirming, as self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one’s group. Stereotype threat could lead to underperformance, disengagement and disidentification. Moreover, stereotype threat effect could be moderated by domain identity, group identity and ego. Early research focused on single mechanism of stereotype threat. Recently, some researchers suggested that there were three competing hypotheses for how blatant and subtle stereotype threat cues influence individual performance. Others suggested an integrated process model. Studies found that there were many intervention means such as reframing the task, creating identity-safe environment and so on. Great attention should be paid for the following issues in the future research: mental consequence study, the subsequent study of varied threat, field study and localization study.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The Application and Development of Stereotype Content Model and System Model
    GUAN Jian
    2009, 17 (4):  845-851. 
    Abstract ( 1779 )   PDF (740KB) ( 2774 )  
    Now days, a model of stereotype content (SCM) differentiate types of discriminatory behaviors, as outcomes of competence-warmth stereotypes and intergroup emotions by combining various theories and findings to predict specific inter-group behaviors. And then the proposed behaviors from inter-group affect and stereotypes (BIAS Map) systematically links discriminatory behavioral tendencies to the contents of group stereotypes and emotions, as rooted in structural components of inter-group relations. Emotions predict behavioral tendencies more strongly than stereotypes do and usually mediate stereotype-to-behavioral-tendency links.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Review of Sociometer Theory on Self-esteem
    ZHANG Lin;LI Yuan-Yuan
    2009, 17 (4):  852-856. 
    Abstract ( 1980 )   PDF (769KB) ( 5322 )  
    Sociometer Theory defines the essence and function of self-esteem from the perspective of Evolutionary psychology and Symbol Interaction Theory. At present, related researches involve essential viewpoints, theoretical assumptions and empirical studies currently on the Sociometer Theory. Moreover, the paper points that the theory tends to lay more emphasis on interpersonal influence upon self-esteem resulting in a neglect of others. therefore, only a merge of theories can modify Socimeter Theory.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Pride: Its Structure, Measurement, Nonverbal Expression and Recognition
    DU Jian-Zheng;XIA Bing-Li
    2009, 17 (4):  857-862. 
    Abstract ( 1688 )   PDF (740KB) ( 2704 )  
    The pride refers to a pleasurable subjective feelings that results from individuals attributing success events or positive events to their own abilities or efforts. As an important self-conscious emotion, the pride has two-dimensional structure, and can be divided into authentic pride and hubristic pride. The nonverbal expression and recognition of pride generalizes across cultures. For the measurement of pride, the main two methods which are using are self-assessment and nonverbal expression coding.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The Algebraic Models and the Underlying Processes of Crossed Categorization
    LI Qing;ZUO Bin;HU Ju-Ping
    2009, 17 (4):  863-869. 
    Abstract ( 1116 )   PDF (737KB) ( 1379 )  
    Crossed categorization has generally been considered as a way to effectively reducing intergroup bias. The algebraic models of crossed categorization included average pattern, additive pattern and equivalence, each of which had its evidence and among which the additive model received most approval. However, there were obvious limitations in the algebraic models of crossed categorization; that was, requiring all the crossed categories were weighted equally, which was not the case with social categories in real world. The underlying processes of crossed categorization mostly referred to category differentiation process in cognitive approach and social identity theory in motivational approach, and the former was classified into category differentiation elimination model and category differentiation reduction model.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The Commentary of the Research of the Predictive Validity and Construct Validity of Interview
    TIAN Xiao-Xun;CHE Hong-Sheng
    2009, 17 (4):  870-876. 
    Abstract ( 1375 )   PDF (740KB) ( 2240 )  
    Interview is the most widely used measurement tool in human resources selection. A large quantity of studies have confirmed that interview had an ideal predictive validity which varied from different types of interview. Though the predictive validity of interview has been confirmed, we still have not much idea about which constructs being measured by interview. It does have some practical value to enhance the incremental validity by studying the construct validity of interview. Compare to measuring the personality components, previous studies on interview had a more coherent understanding of measuring the cognitive components.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Applications of Nomological Network in Researches Thoughts to Relative Problems
    FENG Ming;REN Hua-Yong
    2009, 17 (4):  877-884. 
    Abstract ( 1328 )   PDF (767KB) ( 2432 )  
    One nomological network consists of the original model, antecedents, or consequences. Through the application of Structural Equation Model, researchers can test the nomological validity of various components and modify the original model. According to nomological network, the causation among multi-variables can also be scientifically revealed. And the problems which need to be pay attention to were discussed. Based on theoretical study and empirical study, researchers may (1) structure the basic theoretical framework of nomological network, (2) develop and validate measuring tools effectively by applying this method, (3) explore the influential factors of the validity.
    Related Articles | Metrics