ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


    2010, Volume 18 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    A Summary of Researches on Future Orientation
    LIU Xia; HUANG Xi-Ting; PU Bin; BI Cui-Hua
    2010, 18 (3):  385-393. 
    Abstract ( 1783 )   PDF (389KB) ( 2168 )  
    Future orientation refers to the orientation that individual’s thinking and behavior prefers to, meanwhile, it is also a process that individual thinks and plans about the future. There are three points of view about the psychological structure of Future orientation: the element perspective, the process perspective and the motivation-cognition-behavior perspective. The main methods to measure the future orientation include questionnaire method, projection method, circle test, tell me a story and story completion technique. Future orientation are mainly influenced by age, sex, personality and emotion . Future orientation also plays an active role in healthy behavior, substance abuse and academic achievement. At last, the future research should focus on the clarification of the future orientation functional mechanism, the improvement of the measurement tools, employing the sophisticated experimental design and investigating the brain mechanism of the future orientation.
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    Brain Mechanisms of Timing: Challenges to Internal Clock Model and New Approaches
    WAN Qun; LIN Miao; QIAN Xiu-Ying
    2010, 18 (3):  394-402. 
    Abstract ( 1295 )   PDF (355KB) ( 1276 )  
    People have thought internal clock to be the basis of interval timing for a long time, and believe that the dopaminergic system (e.g. basal ganglia) is specially related to the speed of the internal clock. Evidences for this model have been accumulated from neuropharmacology studies and symptoms of patients suffered from the Parkinson’s disease. Recently, this model is challenged by data from delicately designed behavioral experiments, micro-electrode recordings, and even re-analysis of results which support the internal clock model. Researchers have provided various new models to take place of the internal clock model, and two of them (the neural state model and the energy expended model) are most important and successful.
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    The Similarities and Differences Between Timing and Counting
    Bi Cui-Hua; HUANG Xi-Ting; Chen You-Guo; Liu Xia
    2010, 18 (3):  403-411. 
    Abstract ( 1365 )   PDF (364KB) ( 817 )  
    Timing refers to duration discrimination, and counting refers to number discrimination. There are some similarities that they have same principles, and that the memory of time and number are affected by time dalay, and that cross-modal and drugs play consistent roles. Based on Mode-control model, timing and counting share common mechanism. The viewpoint of Magnitude theory is that time and number possess the partial overlapping mental representation. The brain areas are involved prefrontal, parietal, cerebellum and basic ganglia. Many evidences have indicated timing and counting have some same properties as well as divergences. However the possibility whether there is shared common magnitude representation or their mutual action occurs response selection stages needs to be researched further.
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    The Advance of Parafoveal-on-Foveal Effects
    HU Xiao-Yu; BAI Xue-Jun; YAN Guo-Li
    2010, 18 (3):  412-419. 
    Abstract ( 1137 )   PDF (405KB) ( 1018 )  
    Parafoveal-on-foveal effects occur when lexical properties of word n+1 influence processing on word n during reading. This paper reviewed the researches about parafoveal-on-foveal effects in recent 10 years from following four aspects. Firstly, the parafoveal-on-foveal effects contained concurrent effect, inverted effect and null effect. Secondly, the research paradigms involved boundary paradigm, normal sentence reading and word pairs reading. Thirdly, the different assumptions and predictions about the parafoveal-on-foveal effects in reading from two basic eye movement control models, serial model and parallel model, were introduced here. Fourthly, the influential factors parafoveal-on-foveal effects containing lexical characteristics of word n+1, word n and misallocated saccades were interviewed. After analyzing the above factors, the future studies about parafoveal-on-foveal effects should pay more attention to the research paradigm and analyzing methods in details.
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    The Role of Prosody in Language Processing and Its Neural Mechanisms
    YU Ze; HAN Yu-Chang; REN Gui-Qin
    2010, 18 (3):  420-425. 
    Abstract ( 1100 )   PDF (340KB) ( 1007 )  
    This paper reviewed a mount of research using on-line methods on prosody processing in recent years. Firstly, the role of prosody on sentence comprehension was analyzed, including the role of stress, prosodic boundaries, and prosody units on sentence processing. Secondly, the brain mechanisms for the prosody processing were discussed. Although different hypotheses, such as functional hypothesis and acoustic hypothesis, are competing, none of which can account for all the range of experimental data. Finally, it was put forward that the important considerations and issues for future research should focus on the different stage of prosody processing and the relationship of prosody and other cognitive processes.
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    The ERP Studies on Neural Basis and Cognitive Processing Mechanism of Prospective Memory
    LU Huan-Hua; WANG Yan; GUO Chun-Yan
    2010, 18 (3):  426-431. 
    Abstract ( 1178 )   PDF (341KB) ( 1318 )  
    The ERP studies on prospective memory concerns two major aspects: neural basis and cognitive processing mechanism. The results on neural basis are as follows. Two-specific ERP components (N300 and prospective positivity) are elicited by prospective memory; Similar retrieval processes may sub-serve prospective and retrospective memory, but there are processes unique to prospective memory; There may be a different kind of neural mechanism of the older adults’ prospective memory. What’s more, the ERP studies on cognitive processing mechanism mainly provide evidences to support the preparatory attentional processes and memory processes theory.
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    Influencing Factors and the Mechanism of Empathy for Pain
    MENG Jing; CHEN You-Guo; HUANG Xi-Ting
    2010, 18 (3):  432-440. 
    Abstract ( 1908 )   PDF (383KB) ( 1841 )  
    Empathy for pain implies perception, judgment and affective response of the other’s pain. It is influenced by observers’ factors, objects’ factors and the relationships between them. Perception-Action Model, Pain Empathy Cognitive Model, Late Appraisal Model and Early Appraisal Model serve as the theoretical explanations for empathy for pain. Future research should explore the cognition mechanism, the emotional influencing factors and other research methods of empathy for pain.
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    Infant’s Inference of the Goal-Directed Action
    ZHENG Xiao-Bei; MENG Xiang-Zhi; ZHU Li-Qi
    2010, 18 (3):  441-449. 
    Abstract ( 1230 )   PDF (501KB) ( 1078 )  
    Inference of the goal-directed action is the foundation of most social cognition. Infants focus selectively on the behaviors that are relevant to the actor’s underlying intention when they are 6 months old. However, it is controversial that infant’s understanding of the goal-directed action is based on the experience or innate mechanism. Some researchers insist that the theory of mind roots from the understanding of the goal-directed action. Besides, inference of the goal-directed action is the base of language acquisition. For children, language acquisition is an intentional symbol connecting words and objects. The capability of intention understanding limits infinite possibilities of word-object association.
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    A New Way to Study Theory of Mind: Faux Pas Recognition
    LIU Xi-Ping; AN Xiao-Juan
    2010, 18 (3):  450-455. 
    Abstract ( 1709 )   PDF (496KB) ( 1559 )  
    Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to make inferences about others’ mental states. The typical paradigm is False Belief on which the adolescences and the adults show ceiling effects. Valerie E. Stone with her colleagues designed the Faux Pas Recognition to measure the ToM of the adolescences and the adults. The reasons of using Faux Pas Recognition, structures of new paradigm, application on different kinds of subjects, and the differences from the typical way of studying ToM are introduced, with the agreement of Stone. Meanwhile the limitations of the Faux Pas Recognition are analyzed, such as validity, dissociation from the performance of language, and dissociation from executive function. Finally the prospect of developing local standard Faux Pas Recognition and using it to study higher ToM has been discussed.
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    Adults’ Theory of Mind: Retrospect and Prospect
    LIN Jia-Yan; FU Gen-Yue; LIU Wen-Qing
    2010, 18 (3):  456-463. 
    Abstract ( 1305 )   PDF (493KB) ( 1392 )  
    There is an increasing concern about the research of adults’ theory of mind since the 1990s’. For the differences between adults’ and children’s theory of mind in developmental pattern and level, advanced theory of mind tasks have been widely used. However, the validity of various research paradigms has been questioned. The trend that the theory of mind of normal adults descends along with individual aging has been verified by most researches , thus closer attention has been paid to the development of special adults’ theory of mind. Moreover, adults’ theory of mind and executive function, language, social capacity are closely related. In addition to improving the validity of adults’ theory of mind tasks, future researchers need to expand the age range, emphasize on the practical value of studies on special adults’ theory of mind and widen research fields from the views of intervening and curing.
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    Psychological Issues in Researches of Children Adoption
    MA Yi-Dan; Xue Wei-Feng; ZHENG Yong
    2010, 18 (3):  464-471. 
    Abstract ( 1335 )   PDF (426KB) ( 969 )  
    Focusing on psychological adjustment, cognitive development and personality development of the adoptees, current researches abroad present that adoptees have showed the various development trends in diverse ages at adoption, pre-adoption experiences, and post-adoption background, reasons and intervention mechanisms were also examined in these researches. However, researches conducted in west countries still have disadvantages, such as samples with low discrimination and weak discussion of reasons. Current domestic researches may concentrate on elder adoptees with non-deprived pre-adoption experience, and comparison between relative and non-relative adoption, confidential and disclosed arrangements with pros and cons.
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    The Retrospect and Prospect of Facial Attractiveness
    LI Ou; CHEN Hong
    2010, 18 (3):  472-479. 
    Abstract ( 1453 )   PDF (401KB) ( 1941 )  
    Facial attractiveness is important in delivering social affective information. The judgment of facial attractiveness can be influenced by factors such as facial averageness, symmetry, sexual dimorphic feature. In recent years, research of facial attractiveness have been expanded to the dynamic faces. And by adopting functional MRI (fMRI) researchers have discovered that the amygdale, the orbit frontal cortex, the ventral occipital region and other brain regions were activated when subjects are asked to rate the attractive faces. Researchers have explained why attractive faces are preferred from evolutional and cognitive view. Several limitations existed in the previous research’s content, material and subjects, which exactly the direction of future research.
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    An Ecological Analysis of the Factors Influencing the Body Image
    DU Yan-Ying; LEI Li; MA Xiao-Hui
    2010, 18 (3):  480-486. 
    Abstract ( 1220 )   PDF (318KB) ( 1018 )  
    Body image is of great importance to individual’s development, which has been studied for more than 20 years. Based on Bronfenbrenner’s ecology system theory, from four facets, including microsystem (parents, peers, romantic partners), exosystem(media), macrosystem (social culture)and individuals who locate at the center of the system, this article concludes the factors that influence the body image and provides some reference for the body image interventions.
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    The Impact of Communication on Stereotype Maintenance, Transformation and Inhibition
    ZHAI Cheng-Xi; LI Yan-Mei; LI Shu
    2010, 18 (3):  487-495. 
    Abstract ( 1259 )   PDF (321KB) ( 1358 )  
    Communication is a tool for humans to exchange information, which establishes and maintains mutual relationship and social behavior. A stereotype can be defined as “a cognitive structure that contains the perceiver’s knowledge, beliefs, and expectations about a human group”. In recent years, researchers have explored various effects of communication on stereotype maintenance, stereotype transformation and stereotype inhibition. Results of these studies showed that 1) ingroup communication maintained stereotypes or led to a polarization of stereotypes with strategic choice of information and biased language; 2) intergroup communication, especially the vicarious intergroup communication, may constitute a possible approach to stereotype inhibition. Identification of these impacts would help to further understand the intergroup communication.
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    A Prospective on the Researches of Immigrant Acculturation
    SUN Li-Lu; ZHENG Yong
    2010, 18 (3):  496-504. 
    Abstract ( 1001 )   PDF (328KB) ( 1152 )  
    The researches of acculturation have been developing into an advancing section according to the popularization and complication of immigration worldwide, as it serves a further development of related studies. The purpose of the paper is to discuss the expanding of theory which be focused on the process models instead of transect models and the specifying of the immigrants who be focused on the generations and groups, while the studies on the context which influences on the acculturation styles, which are related to the disposition, scholar achievements and mental health. The ignition of several researches including the validation of the process models, the development of the methods and the popularization of the results in the future are raised, however the integration of the researches and some local problems are also being focused.
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    A Review of Multivariate Integrative Meta-Analysis
    YE Zi-Jing; SHI Wei
    2010, 18 (3):  505-510. 
    Abstract ( 1135 )   PDF (316KB) ( 1130 )  
    In traditional meta-analysis, only a single effect size estimate can be produced in each study to make each effect size estimate be independent from each other. If there are multiple effect size estimates in a single study, multivariate meta-analysis technique is needed to deal with the data. Multivariate meta-analysis includes multivariate linear modeling and multivariate integrative method, in which multivariate integrative method is one of the widest used approaches. Multivariate integrative method can solve the problem of multiple dependent effect sizes effectively and can also do the statistical analysis by fixed effects models and mixed effects models. However, some problems still exist in the appliance of multivariate integrative method, such as the development of the statistical software, the stability of the significance of homogeneity Q test and the feasibility of homogeneity test of heterogeneous synthetic effect sizes.
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    Application of Virtual Reality Technology for Neuropsychological Assessment
    ZHENG Xia; SAUZEON Hélène; ZHOU Ming-Quan; N’KAOUA Bernard
    2010, 18 (3):  511-521. 
    Abstract ( 1298 )   PDF (420KB) ( 1207 )  
    The balance issue of experiment control and ecological validity in traditional neuropsychological assessment is a growing concern for researchers. The emerging virtual reality (VR) technology brings the hope to improve this problem. It may not only imitate the real world and support the interactions between subjects and environments, but also can reproduce and extend the traditional tests. The VR assessment systems have more flexibility to control the contents and presentations of stimulus, the task complexity and the subjects’ responses and the final information acquisition is more accurate. Its initial applications have encouraging results on attention process (attention, unilateral visual neglect), memory (prospective memory, episodic memory, spatial memory, topographical orientation) and executive function. However, the up-to-date applications of VR assessments are still affected by the deficient technologies and instruments and have limitations on demanding the operation experiences of examiners and subjects. In order to push the extended application, standardization of the existing VR assessment systems and further development of basic conditions will be the aims of the future researches.
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    Development of Cognitive Diagnosis Models and Their Application Methods
    CHEN Qiu-Mei; ZHANG Min-Qiang
    2010, 18 (3):  522-529. 
    Abstract ( 1459 )   PDF (429KB) ( 1237 )  
    Derived from a combination of cognitive psychology and psychometrics, Cognitive Diagnosis Theory utilizes modern statistical methods and computer technology to determine subjects’ cognitive structures and processes. There are many cognitive diagnosis models, and each has distinct characteristics and application conditions. Selection of the models a are crucial to the outcome of cognitive diagnosis. This article discusses the development course, traits and merits of various cognitive diagnosis models, which will help researchers in making better decision at choosing specific model.
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    New Development in Test Theory: Multidimensional Item Response Theory
    KANG Chun-Hua; XIN Tao
    2010, 18 (3):  530-536. 
    Abstract ( 1083 )   PDF (316KB) ( 1224 )  
    Multidimensional item response theory is a new test theory based on factor analysis and unidimensional item response theory. According to the way how multiple abilities interact on each other when the subject is performing a task, multidimensional item response models can be divided to two types compensatory and noncompensatory models. Based on the compensatory models which are commonly used in practice, this paper investigated the development trend in the further research, which included MIRT models for polytomous data and higher dimensional space, developing parameter estimate program for the MIRT models, research of integrating compensatory and noncompensatory models, and Multidimensional test equating.
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    4PM Rectifying the Overestimation and Underestimation in the Tests
    Jian Xiao-Zhu; Jiao Can; Steven P. Reise; Peng Chun-Mei
    2010, 18 (3):  537-544. 
    Abstract ( 1338 )   PDF (322KB) ( 786 )  
    In the educational and psychological tests, there exist guessing phenomena that the low-ability examinee makes correct answers on the difficult items, and the sleeping phenomena that the high-ability examinee makes wrong answers on easy items, which would lead to errors. Many researches have been done on the issue of these phenomena, and various methods have been proposed to rectify the overestimation and underestimation. Usually when these methods are used, these responses on items that appear to be too easy or difficult for the examinee need to be down-weighted or omitted. However, responses of the examinees need not to be changed with the four parameter logistic model in which c parameter reflects the guessing phenomena and rectifies the overestimation, γ parameter reflects the sleeping phenomena and rectifies the underestimation. In the personality testes, there exist some items which have non-zero lower asymeptote or non-one upper asymeptote. Four-parameter model could better fit the response data for the test and raise accuracy.
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