ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Conceptual Framework
    Neural oscillation modulates the temporal bottleneck in accelerated speech comprehension
    GAO Yayue, FAN Jianing, WANG Qian, DENG Lifang
    2023, 31 (9):  1553-1559.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01553
    Abstract ( 557 )   HTML ( 13 )  
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    The natural speech rate is from two to six syllables per second. Listeners can understand speech accelerated up to three times. That is, the temporal bottleneck of speech is 8~12 syllables per second. This temporal bottleneck closely aligns with the alpha band of neural oscillations. Moreover, alpha oscillation may dictate the temporal resolution of perception. The faster alpha oscillation, that is, the shorter alpha cycle, leads to a shorter threshold of the fusion of two stimuli. Thus, the current study investigates whether and how accelerated speech comprehension depends on the speed of alpha oscillation.
    Firstly, we aim to ascertain whether the temporal bottleneck of accelerated speech comprehension is consistent with the speed of alpha oscillation. This relationship will be investigated both between and within subjects. In the between-subject experiment, we will test whether individuals with faster alpha oscillations show a shorter threshold in accelerated speech comprehension. In the within-subject experiment, we will examine the consistency between prestimulus alpha speed and speech comprehension in each trial. We’d like to find that, while listeners have a faster alpha oscillation, they comprehension of accelerated speech is better.
    Secondly, we will investigate how the speed of alpha oscillation modulates accelerated speech comprehension. To be specific, we will manipulate alpha oscillation at a slower (8 Hz) or faster (12 Hz) speed, and then observe the following speech comprehension performance at a syllable rate of 10 Hz. Especially, we aim to find whether this influence occurs at a higher processing beyond the sensory level. Therefore, we design two experiments to manipulate the speed of alpha oscillation. In one experiment, we will use pure tones with different amplitude modulations to induce different alpha oscillations. In the other experiment, we will use transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to modulate oscillatory activity. To investigate the alpha band impact on higher-level processing, we will place electrodes of tACS not only in the temporal cortex but also in the frontal cortex. We’d like to find that: 1) The speech comprehension will be better under the faster (12 Hz) alpha oscillation than under the slower (8 Hz) alpha oscillation; 2) This influence will be detected under alpha modulations in both temporal and frontal cortex.
    Finally, we will explore how the speed of alpha oscillation affects the neural representation of speech. The neural representation of speech will be analyzed by the temporal response function (TRF), which shows how speech envelope is encoded in neural response. We will analyze how the speed of alpha oscillation modulates the TRF, and how this neural modulation will predict the behavioural performance of speech comprehension. We'd like to find the underlying neural mechanism of how alpha oscillation affects the neural processing of speech comprehension.
    In sum, we propose a hypothesis to explain how alpha oscillations influence the bottleneck of accelerated speech comprehension. It is hard to process two or more stimuli simultaneously within one cycle of alpha oscillation. Therefore, when the speech rate is slower than the speed of alpha oscillations, one syllable lasts across multiple alpha cycles, allowing for speech to be fully processed and recognized. However, as speech speed gradually increases beyond the frequency of alpha oscillations, multiple syllables exist within one alpha oscillation cycle, leading to competition for cognitive resources and incomplete processing, resulting in difficulty with speech comprehension. Together, we will utilize accelerated speech to investigate the modulation of alpha oscillations on the temporal bottleneck of comprehension. We’d like to find whether alpha oscillation is attributed to higher cognitive processes and explored how alpha oscillation manifests in neural representations of stimuli. We aim to gain a better understanding of how neural oscillations regulate the temporal resolution of perception and to further investigate the general mechanisms underlying the impact of neural oscillations on rapid temporal processing.

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    The cognitive mechanism and neural substrates enabling self-control to reduce the decision to procrastinate
    ZHANG Shunmin, LI Keqian
    2023, 31 (9):  1560-1568.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01560
    Abstract ( 1265 )   HTML ( 52 )  
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    Procrastination often prevents individuals, businesses, and governments from completing set tasks on time, hindering people's work, studies, and disease prevention and treatment. Self-control is the main ability to autonomously reduce procrastination, but it is a relatively limited cognitive resource. Uncovering how self-control works can help reduce procrastination more effectively. This project intends to investigate the mechanism and neural basis of self-control based on the decision mechanism of “do it now or do it later” in the temporal decision model. The temporal decision model holds that decision to procrastinate depends on the individual's trade-off between the process utility and outcome utility of task. When considering implementing a task immediately, the present-self will feel a high negative process utility but a low positive outcome utility. Therefore, the present-self is unwilling to execute it immediately. When anticipating to do a task in the future, the present self expects that the future self has a higher outcome utility, forming a feeling of “I will definitely do it in the future”. According to the temporal decision model and the mode of action of self-control, there may be three ways for self-control to reduce procrastination in decision-making. First, regulate negative emotions and thus reduce procrastination by reducing the utility of negative processes. Second, focus on task’s positive outcome and reduce procrastination by enhancing positive outcome utility. Third, regulate the allocation of attention, and reduce procrastination by paying less attention to negative processes or more attention to positive outcomes when making decisions. Based on the three ways, Study 1a will construct the corresponding three types of models, and compare the goodness of fit of these models to determine the efficient mode of self-control. Subsequently, Study 1b will use the experience sampling method to track the procrastination-reducing effect of different self-control ways, so as to test the stability of its effect. Study 2a will develop a brain imaging experimental paradigm capable of ecologically modeling task evaluation (process utility and outcome utility) and decisions to procrastinate, based on the temporal decision model. Specifically, the study will set up difficult target tasks with monetary rewards, and easy distractor tasks without monetary rewards. When the subjects choose the target task, it can be considered that they have chosen “execute immediately”; when they choose the interference task, it can be considered that they have chosen to delay the target task. Study 2b will use neurostimulation technology to enhance the excitability of neurons in the self-control brain area on the basis of study 2a, and investigate the effect and mechanism. In general, this project will systematically investigate “how self-control reduces procrastination” from two aspects of cognitive mechanism and neural basis based on the decision-making mechanism of “do now or later” in the temporal decision model. In terms of theory, this project was able to incorporate the failure of self-control to explain procrastination behavior into the theoretical framework of the temporal decision model. On the practical side, this project can provide theoretical and practical guidance for designing new procrastination intervention programs. Among them, the research results of cognitive mechanisms can help design behavior training programs based on self-control strategies, while the research results of neural foundations can provide more precise and personalized targets for interventions such as neural stimulation and neurofeedback training.

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    Tendency to time anthropomorphism and its impact on prosocial behavior
    XU Xiaobing, CHENG Lanping, SUN Hongjie
    2023, 31 (9):  1569-1582.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01569
    Abstract ( 1116 )   HTML ( 42 )  
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    Time anthropomorphism refers to the process of assigning human characteristics, motives, intentions, or emotions to time. This phenomenon has a subtle and far-reaching influence on our behavior, yet little is known about who is susceptible to it, how it operates, and its impact in various contexts, so focusing on time anthropomorphism and its influence on consumer behavior is an important topic with both theoretical and practical implications. Therefore, this study proposes that time anthropomorphism is specific in its cause and plays a unique role in consumption decisions and behaviors.
    This study proposes that time anthropomorphism is influenced by the need for structure motivation, which is a desire for simple, structured, and organized things and environments. Time is abstract, powerful, ubiquitous, and part of human existence compared to other physical anthropomorphic objects, we argue that time anthropomorphism also differs from other anthropomorphisms in its genesis. Existing anthropomorphism research suggests that anthropomorphism has three main motivations: efficacy motivation, social motivation, and contextual knowledge, which reflect a passive feedback to the cognitive object. We propose that time anthropomorphism has initiative differences in motivation, and that this difference is independent of the cognitive object, that is need for structure motivation influences people's tendency to time anthropomorphism. People cannot know the nature of time, so individuals with high structural needs prefer to construct their own cognition about time by a simple human-time-relationship, and time anthropomorphism is a means to achieve this purpose. This motivation is reflected in different variables, first is gender, women show higher tendency of risk aversion and ambiguity aversion, so we believe that women have higher tendency of time anthropomorphism; the second is social class, middle class consumers have limited resources and are more concerned about environmental order, so we believe that middle class consumers have higher tendency of time anthropomorphism; the third is power distance, those with high power distance have higher hierarchy and order requirements, so they have a higher tendency to anthropomorphize time.
    Furthermore, we propose that time anthropomorphism has an effect on consumers' prosocial behavior. Existing studies on the influence of anthropomorphism have focused on consumers' perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral changes toward anthropomorphic objects, but the abstract, generalized nature of time makes it possible for anthropomorphism to affect individual human decision making patterns and consumption behaviors across domains and objects by changing consumers' self-perceptions and perceptions. Time contains rich emotional factors, and time cues tend to stimulate consumers' emotional responses, while anthropomorphizing time can induce consumers to transform their relationship with time into a social relationship, which triggers emotion-based decision-making patterns., making consumers expect more positive emotional experiences and guiding their behavior with this goal. Prosocial behavior leads to positive affective rewards, so we argue that time anthropomorphism increases prosocial behavior and emotion-based decision making mediates this effect. This is due to the fact that anthropomorphism evokes an immediate emotion in consumers, and this immediate emotion is neutralized when consumers have other emotional states, so we argue that consumers' affective states at the time moderate this pathway, and that time anthropomorphism even has little effect on consumers' prosocial behavior when they are in a certain strong emotional state.
    This study takes the motivation of time anthropomorphism as the starting point and the decision pattern as the entry point to examine the tendency of time anthropomorphism and its influence on consumers' prosocial behavior, and further explores the psychological mechanisms involved. The development of this study achieves a theoretical development of existing research. In terms of the causes of anthropomorphism, this study contributes to a better understanding of the qualities of time anthropomorphism and directs attention to the active tendency and individual differences of consumer anthropomorphism; from the perspective of psychological mechanisms, this study explores the impact of temporal anthropomorphic cues on current consumption decisions and explores the related emotional mechanisms based on a decision-making process perspective, which provides a new way of thinking about anthropomorphism; in terms of the consumer decision perspective, the consumer prosocial behavior brought about by our exploration of temporal anthropomorphic tendencies is specific to general consumption situations, arguing that the overall individual affective and cognitive changes brought about by time anthropomorphism, which migrate and affect consumer prosocial behavior.

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    The double-edged sword effects of team virtuality: A team development perspective
    LIANG Yongyi, DENG Jiayin, YAN Ming, MA Jie, LI Aimei
    2023, 31 (9):  1583-1594.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01583
    Abstract ( 548 )   HTML ( 27 )  
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    Team virtuality refers to the extent to which team members disperse in different working locations and collaborate through use of virtual communication tools. Many organizations have reacted to the development of digital economy by enhancing team virtuality. However, whether team virtuality is beneficial or detrimental to team performance is still unclear in the extant literature. This not only leads to a lack of systematic and integrated understanding on the effects of team virtuality, but also confuses practitioners on whether they should enhance team virtuality, and if yes, then on how to leverage team virtuality to improve team performance. To address this research question and grasp the means to maximize the benefits and minimize the drawbacks of team virtuality, the current project comprising three studies investigates the dynamic contingency factors, mechanisms, and intervention strategies that could influence the effect of team virtuality on team performance.
    First, based on the team development theory, this project explores the moderating of team development stage that could influence the relationship between team virtuality and team performance. Specifically, team virtuality is expected to inhibit team performance during the team welcoming stage, but enhance team performance during the team working and wrapping-up stages.
    Second, drawing upon the team development theory and the literature on teams as information processors, this project investigates the underlying mechanisms whereby team virtuality promotes or inhibits team performance as well as the relative strengths of these effects and mechanisms at different stages of team development. Specifically, team virtuality simultaneously enhances team performance through team information transfer capabilities and decreases team performance through team members’ intention to share information. The positive effect of team virtuality on team performance is stronger than the negative effects during the team welcoming stage, while the negative effect of team virtuality on team performance is stronger than the positive effects during the team working and wrapping-up stages.
    Third, this project explores team leaders’ intervention strategies on the effects of team virtuality on team performance during different team development stages. It suggests that team leaders could enhance the positive effect and weaken the negative effect of team virtuality on team performance by implementing Team-ICT matching intervention during the team welcoming stage, conducting process monitoring during the team working stage, and giving performance feedback during the team wrapping-up stage.
    This project contributes to the literature on team virtuality by constructing a novel and systematic theoretical framework for understanding the double-edge effects of team virtuality. It also provides valuable management insights into how organizations can select and train team leaders, and how team leaders can enhance their management capabilities in virtual work environments.

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    The psycholinguistic mechanism of large-scale online sales promotion inducing future-oriented emotions
    LU Changbao, WANG Ating, LU Cuimei
    2023, 31 (9):  1595-1610.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01595
    Abstract ( 689 )   HTML ( 37 )  
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    Using inflammatory language to induce consumption emotions is the key to not only build all sales promotions into sales accelerators, but also strengthen promotional inducements and form a huge appeal with the help of a large number of advertisements in large-scale online sales promotion. In order to explore the impacts of different promotion languages on future-oriented emotions, based on the theories of psycholinguistics, prefactual thinking and future-oriented emotions, this research takes conditional clause presented by the combination of conditional limitations and material incentives as a point of penetration, and combines the research findings of psycholinguistics in sentence pattern, grammar, vocabulary and sentence structure to explore the following six psycholinguistic mechanisms of future-oriented emotions induced by large-scale online sales promotion. First, drawing on the appraisal model of emotion, this research explores the cognitive antecedents of future-oriented emotions including anxiety, hope, anticipated regret and anticipated rejoice by considering the relationship between conditional clause and prefactual thinking. Second, based on the relationship between upward or downward prefactual thinking and positive or negative emotions, as well as the priority of upward prefactual thinking inducing motivation, this research clarifies the dominant role of positive future-oriented emotions in the decision process in large-scale online sales promotion. Third, in the light of the links between anticipatory or anticipated emotions and probability or anticipated outcomes, this research investigates the mechanisms of both conditional words inducing anticipatory emotions and incentive words inducing anticipated emotions. Fourth, as different auxiliary words are different in concrete degrees, part of speech and emotional orientations, this research explores the influencing mechanism of different auxiliary words strengthening future-oriented emotions, using the linguistic category model. Fifth, according to the constrictive conditional clause presented by complex discounts such as “X off on purchase of Y”, and the relationship between the surface structure and the deep structure of sentences, this research reveals the framing mechanism of the surface structure influencing future-orientated emotions from the psycholinguistic perspective, and therefore laying a solid foundation for the further exploration of the psycholinguistic mechanism in promotion framework. Sixth, considering the characteristics of the combinations of conditional limitations and material incentives in large-scale online sales promotion, this research explores the attenuation mechanism of promotional inducements combination inducing future-oriented emotions caused by cognitive miserliness, and the differences between abstract and concrete promotional text in inducing anticipated and anticipatory emotions. In general, this research innovatively adopts a psycholinguistic perspective rather than a traditional information model to explore sales promotion, making up for the deficiency of the existing research by using promotion design principles to explain the occurrence of future-oriented emotions and the impacts of specific emotions on rapid decision-making. This research also breaks through the limitations of the existing research which pays one-sided attention to negative emotions such as “anticipated regret”,and its findings will make theoretical contributions to decision-making in large-scale online sales promotion, future-oriented emotions and psycholinguistics. Practically, this research is also of great help to summarize the principles of promotional communication and to enrich the understanding of how to use better language creativity to induce future-oriented emotions.

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    The double-edged sword effect of product green attributes information on consumer decision making: The formation mechanism and boundary mechanism
    GONG Siyu, SHENG Guanghua
    2023, 31 (9):  1611-1625.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01611
    Abstract ( 519 )   HTML ( 33 )  
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    Academics have primarily focused on how green marketing strategies, particularly product green transformation and upgrading strategies, influence consumers' value judgments and decision-making behaviors. Studies have shown that disclosing information about product green attributes can help emphasize the unique environmental characteristics that differentiate products from alternatives, thereby enhancing consumers' perceived green value and purchase preferences. However, some studies hold a contradictory view that green attributes may not only negatively impact the functional value of products but also lead to consumer skepticism, rejection, and resistance. Therefore, product green attributes are not always assets and can even be liabilities in the consumption decision process, a phenomenon referred to as the double-edged sword effect (positive and negative coexistence) of product green attribute information in this study. Sustainable consumption behavior has become a popular research topic in marketing in recent years, but research on the negative outcome effects of product green attribute information has only emerged since 2015, and there is a lack of a systematic research framework to reveal the mechanisms underlying this effect in the consumer decision-making process. However, correcting the deviation between green attitude-behavior and establishing a long-term mechanism to promote green consumption are not only essential for companies to enhance their green competitiveness, but also an important element for the transformation and upgrading of green and low-carbon consumption for society as a whole.
    The purpose of this study is to address the research gap in the fragmented and inconsistent understanding of the double-edged sword effect of product green attribute information on consumers' decision-making behavior. To achieve this, the study proposes a multidimensional integrated model that incorporates three research perspectives, including perceived risk-benefit, cognitive balance, and hedonic-utilitarian motivation. The study systematically classifies the connotation structure of product green attribute information and standardizes the experimental paradigm to verify and measure the double-edged sword effect. Specifically, the study aims to analyze whether different content-oriented green attribute information stimulates different levels of consumers' perceptions of environmental utilitarian benefits, self-expression benefits, quality perceptions, and green authenticity perceptions, which lead to differentiated decision-making behaviors of consumers. Furthermore, the study suggests that green attributes information will promote consistency in consumer beliefs and facilitate consumer decisions for typical green products, while atypical green products will lead to negative attitudes, behavioral intentions, and product evaluations due to contradictory inherent perceptions. Moreover, the study concludes that consumers pursue hedonic goals by seeking pleasure and gain at the sensory and mental levels. Under the hedonic motivation, information on product green attributes can stimulate consumers' flow experience and promote consumption decisions. On the contrary, under the utilitarian motivation, green attributes with high relevance to the core function of the product are not compatible with the decision goal of maximizing the use value of the product, so it is difficult to stimulate the flow experience in the consumption process. Additionally, the study explores the moderating role and boundary mechanism of product green attribute information from both individual psychological representation factors and external contextual factors.
    This study presents valuable insights that have significant practical implications for marketers and enterprises looking to improve the marketability and competitiveness of green products. The findings offer fresh ideas for developing targeted publicity and promotional strategies, as well as new strategic directions that can be leveraged to strengthen the position of environmentally-friendly products in the marketplace. Overall, this study offers valuable guidance to marketers and enterprises seeking to remain relevant and competitive in an ever-changing and increasingly environmentally-conscious marketplace. The insights gained from this study can serve as a roadmap for developing effective marketing and business strategies that align with consumer values and preferences, while also promoting sustainable and eco-friendly practices.

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    Research Method
    Two sides of testing: The influence of interim tests on the misinformation effect and its mechanism
    HE Ning, LI Meng, KANG Bin, WANG Mengyun, YUE Yunfan
    2023, 31 (9):  1626-1641.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01626
    Abstract ( 323 )   HTML ( 8 )  
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    The misinformation effect is the idea that post-event misinformation changes individuals’ memory of the original event. In the classical misinformation paradigm, interim tests have two distinct effects on the misinformation effect: In some studies, participants who received an interim test were less likely to respond correctly on the final memory test and more likely to report misinformation, which is referred to as “retrieval enhanced suggestibility” (RES). In other studies, interim tests instead weakened the misinformation effect and improved participants’ memory performance, which is referred to as “Protective effect of testing” (PET). This paradox makes the effect of misinformation on primary memory more uncertain on the one hand, and calls into question the well-proven test effect in the field of learning on the other. Therefore, it is necessary to further clarify the effect of interim tests on the misinformation effect and its mechanism.
    First, a systematic review of the theoretical explanations of RES and PET and their underlying mechanisms reveals that these two phenomena can be explained by the reconsolidation account, the attention capture hypothesis, and the retrieval fluency hypothesis (for RES), or by the memory strength theory, the retrieval effort theory, and the discrepancy detection theory (for PET). For RES, existing explanations include two main perspectives: On the one hand, an interim test may reduce the accessibility of the original memory, resulting in participants’ inability to report the original information correctly. On the other hand, an interim test may enhance participants’ learning of misinformation by promoting dissociation, increasing attention, and stimulating motivation, making individuals more likely to report misinformation. For the PET, when the original memory is sufficiently strong or when participants expend sufficient cognitive effort to retrieve the memory, the interim test can prompt participants to become aware of the differences between the information and thus reduce suggestibility. Further, the interim test is more conducive to weakening the misinformation effect when the same type of test is used as the final test. Second, the existing theories adopted different explanatory perspectives of “encoding” or “extraction” to explore the mechanisms of the interim test in different stages of the misinformation paradigm. Based on the differences in focus and the linkage of the underlying mechanisms, the existing theories are incorporated into a new, more macroscopic theoretical model that unifies the two different phenomena of RES and PET, and elucidates in more detail the mechanism of the effect of an interim test on the misinformation effect. Finally, the boundary conditions for the role of an interim test include the original information material, the type of interim test, and the characteristics of misinformation, which are potential influencing factors for the separation of RES and PET.
    Future research should be conducted in the following two areas. First, the new theoretical model needs further empirical study to validate and improve it, so future research can directly validate each path in the model or further explore the interrelationships and relative contributions between different paths. Second, in order to broaden the scope of research, future research should further examine the effects of individual differences and social factors (e.g., need for cognition, information sources), and develop targeted interventions to reduce the negative impact of misinformation in everyday life.

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    Original article
    Individual differences in spatial navigation: A multi-scale perspective
    ZHANG Fengxiang, CHEN Meixuan, PU Yi, KONG Xiang-Zhen
    2023, 31 (9):  1642-1664.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01642
    Abstract ( 689 )   HTML ( 19 )  
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    Spatial navigation is an essential aspect of daily life that exhibits significant individual differences. The decline in spatial navigation is considered a critical early behavioral manifestation of various brain disorders, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the biological and environmental origins of such differences remain poorly defined. In this study, we conducted a multi-scale review of the latest research on spatial navigation to explore the formation mechanisms of individual differences.
    We summarized the multi-level individual differences in spatial navigation from a measurement perspective, including personal long-term experience or learning in real environments, virtual reality technology, and online games and big data. We then reviewed and discussed the formation mechanisms from both genetic and environmental factors. In terms of genetic factors, we found that the heritability of spatial ability was approximately 60%. Several candidate genes, including Bcl-2, S100B, and APOE and a few other genes, were proposed to affect spatial navigation behaviors. The mechanism of action studies gradually shifted from the biological perspective to the brain mechanism perspective. The hippocampus, retrosplenial cortex (RSC), and parahippocampal place area (PPA) were identified as important brain regions where genetic factors act on spatial navigation. However, the complete neurogenetic pathway model has not been established yet.
    Regarding environmental exposure, cultural background, living environment, early life experience, navigation software use, and lifestyle were found to shape individuals' spatial navigation ability. However, the environmental associations were relatively superficial. Related studies mostly focused on the structure and function of the hippocampus, and further investigation of its mechanism of action, particularly the brain mechanism, is still lacking.
    To overcome these limitations, we propose a gene/environment-brain-behavior model to map the links between genetic and environmental factors and individual differences in spatial navigation. Future research could be developed in three directions. Firstly, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) can be used to comprehensively reveal the key genetic variations influencing spatial navigation ability. Bioinformatics methods, such as polygenic score or polygenic risk score, genetic correlation, and enrichment analysis, can explore the key pathways of related genetic factors. Secondly, gene-environment interaction studies can reveal the complex pathways among genetics, environment, cognition, and behavior, and big data can help make it possible. Finally, brain imaging genetics research can correlate genetics, brain imaging, cognition, and behavior. Through international multicenter collaborations and cohort databases, spatial navigation-related imaging metrics can be correlated with multimodal genetic information to comprehensively reveal key genes and genetic mechanisms affecting brain networks of spatial navigation.
    In conclusion, integrative analysis of multi-omics and clinical data would be promising for future studies concerning the complex pathways of spatial navigation. Results will help us understand the development patterns of spatial navigation and further explore the potential clinical applications relevant to brain diseases.

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    The global Inhibitory effect within the motor system in response control: Evidence, mechanism and controversy
    WANG Lihui
    2023, 31 (9):  1665-1675.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01665
    Abstract ( 358 )   HTML ( 19 )  
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    In daily life, we often encounter situations where we need to stop an ongoing response or suppress a response tendency. This process, termed response inhibition, has long been thought to occur at a response effector only when it interferes with the current task goal. However, a growing number of studies have shown that inhibition is associated with multiple response effectors, suggesting that global inhibition can occur across the entire motor system. In this review, we propose a new taxonomy of response inhibition based on the different response effectors of the motor system, and on the task contexts that engage inhibition. Specifically, we classify response effectors as task-interfering effectors, task-irrelevant effectors, and task-required effectors, where task contexts are classified as response-conflict tasks or non-conflict tasks. Based on this new taxonomy, we summarize evidence from recent studies showing inhibitory effects in the three classes of effectors for both conflict and non-conflict task contexts. The new taxonomy adds to the existing classification models of response inhibition by providing clearly defined boundaries between different kinds of inhibition.
    Two alternative models proposed by recent studies are introduced to explain how the inhibition of multiple effectors is implemented in the brain. The dual process model proposes that the inhibitory processes at different effectors are controlled by different brain areas respectively, whereas the spot-light model proposes that they are controlled by a single system. We also examined the degree to which the spot-light model corresponds with the normalization model, which is a fundamental model of neural computation. The normalization model accounts for global inhibition of the motor system, and thus enhances its explanatory and predictive power of multiple cognitive functions such as visual selective attention, multisensory integration, and value-based decision-making. The collective evidence suggests that the normalization model is a common neural computational mechanism underlying a broad range of cognitive phenomena.
    As empirical evidence regarding response control is lacking, in this review, we propose specific hypotheses that can be tested in future studies. One hypothesis is that the behavioral cost of inhibition is dependent on the competition strength between different response effectors. The other hypothesis is that the degree of inhibition of a specific response effector is dependent on the representational distance in the brain between this effector and the task-required response effector. In both hypotheses, the factors affecting the inhibitory effect are highly quantifiable and can be specified in the normalization model. In combination with the normalization model, the global inhibition framework can be tested using signals recorded at the molecular, cortical, and behavioral levels. Integrating evidence from multiple levels of neural processing may help to reveal the common mechanisms of response control.
    The evidence reviewed here challenges the traditional view of response inhibition and demonstrates the scope of global inhibition within the motor system. The global inhibition framework provides an integrated explanation for the inhibitory effects of multiple effectors and multiple task contexts, and also offers a new perspective for treating response control as a coordinated and integrated process involving multiple response effectors. This new perspective highlights the cognitive flexibility and computational efficiency of the neural system, with significant applications in the clinical and industrial domains. Many mental conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and addiction are characterized by deficits in motor inhibition. Dysfunctional global inhibition may be a sensitive biomarker that could be useful in diagnosing and predicting relapses of these mental conditions. Furthermore, according to the framework of global inhibition, the efficiency of response control is more likely to be improved by training schemes that focus on motor flexibility versus inhibition using a specific response effector. This inspires the industrial application to employ training schemes in more ecological situations rather than in highly controlled laboratory settings.

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    The cognitive mechanism of syllable frequency effects in speech production: A cross-language perspective
    PAN Jiabing, ZHANG Qingfang
    2023, 31 (9):  1676-1687.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01676
    Abstract ( 443 )   HTML ( 15 )  
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    High-frequency syllables are spoken faster than low-frequency ones in spoken word production, which is termed the syllable frequency effect. Compared with alphabetic languages, syllables’ frequency might have different processing mechanisms in Mandarin Chinese with fewer syllables and no resyllabification in connected speech. We review theories and studies about the syllable frequency effect in spoken word production. Specifically, we review the syllable frequency effect across languages, comparing Mandarin Chinese as a non-alphabetic language with alphabetic languages such as English, Dutch, and French.
    In the article, we first distinguish different definitions for syllabic neighbors in Chinese and alphabetic languages, and introduce two distinct measures of syllable frequency. The first is the token measure of syllable frequency, which refers to the accumulated word frequency of all syllabic neighbors. The second is the type measure of syllable frequency, which refers to the number of syllabic neighbors. A few studies in alphabetic languages found that the token syllable frequency plays an inhibitory role in lexical selection due to the competition among activated words at the lexical level, while other studies reported that the type syllable frequency plays a facilitative role in spoken word production. Mixed findings indicated that different measures of syllable frequency influence spoken word production distinctly.
    In alphabetic languages, studies have observed facilitatory, inhibitory, or the null effect of syllable frequency. Most studies confirmed that the effect arises at phonetic encoding in spoken word production. The direction of the syllable frequency effect depends on the balance of the inhibitory effect during lexical selection and the facilitation effect during phonetic encoding. According to the findings of syllable frequency effects in alphabetic languages, three hypotheses have been proposed to explain the facilitation effect, including the mental syllabary theory, the mixed model, and the dual-route model. All models consistently assume that syllable-sized motor programs can be retrieved from the mental syllabary during phonetic encoding, but they have different explanations for the facilitation effect of syllable frequency. The debate concerns the different processing mechanisms among high frequency syllables, low frequency syllables and novel syllables, which are stored in the mental syllabary or assembled online.
    According to the proximate units principle, syllables are retrieved during phonological encoding in Chinese speech production. Using a picture-word interference task, studies revealed that syllable frequency facilitates phonological encoding or phonetic encoding in Chinese speech production. One possibility is that high frequency syllables are retrieved faster than low frequency ones during phonological encoding, resulting in a facilitation effect. Another possibility is that as a tonal language, the syllable-sized motor programs in Chinese are prepared through syllable-to-tone association in phonetic encoding. Speech is one of the most practiced motor behaviors, and practice leads to the storage of motor programs. Thus, the programs of high frequency syllables are retrieved faster than those of low frequency ones. Studies also showed an inhibitory effect in word reading-aloud tasks. We propose a theoretical framework to interpret the cognitive mechanisms underlying syllable frequency effects (including facilitatory and inhibitory) in Chinese speech production.
    So far, only a few studies have distinguished the effects of token syllable frequency and type syllable frequency, but it remains unknown about the role of two measures of syllable frequency in speech production. Future studies should clarify the cognitive mechanism of syllable frequency effects underlying different measures. Whether there is a mental syllabary in Chinese speakers is still controversial, and there is little evidence of Chinese syllables’ positional frequency effect in spoken word production. It is necessary to elucidate the mechanism of the facilitation effect of syllable frequency in Chinese speech production, and investigate the processing stages and neural mechanisms of Chinese syllable frequency effects through a variety of techniques and paradigms.

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    Synchronized or not: Developmental characteristics of basic facial expression recognition in infants
    ZHU Liya, MO Fan, ZHANG Zhihao, ZHAO Ke, FU Xiaolan
    2023, 31 (9):  1688-1697.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01688
    Abstract ( 519 )   HTML ( 9 )  
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    Facial expressions are emotional signals conveyed through muscle movements, such as those in the eyes and mouth. Facial emotion recognition plays a crucial role in infant’s social and communicative development. The development of basic facial expression recognition in infants is asynchronous: the recognition of positive expressions occurs earlier than that of negative expressions, and the development of emotion perception is earlier than emotion understanding.
    Infants recognize positive facial expressions earlier than negative ones. They can distinguish happy expressions when they are 2 months old, and negative expressions when they are 4-6 months old. Infant’s ability to perceive emotions develops earlier than their ability to understand emotions. The 7-month-old infant has initially possessed the emotion perception ability. They can not only distinguish the basic facial expressions, but also form a classification perception and master the visual observation strategy similar to that of adults. The development of emotional understanding is relatively lagging behind, and 12-month-old infants cannot accurately understand the emotional meaning conveyed by different the negative valence expressions. Infants' basic facial expression recognition undergoes a shift from positive bias to negative bias. In the first half of infancy, infants show an attentional bias to happy expressions, and from 5 months onwards, infants show an attentional bias to fearful expressions.
    The development of infant’s ability to recognize basic facial expression recognition reflects the process from the activation of basic emotions to the formation of emotional schemas. Basic expressions are a preset system that humans evolved to adapt to the environment, and infants are born with the innate ability to express and recognize them. Once basic emotions are activated by the environment, infants acquire corresponding recognition abilites. Emotional schemas are acquired through postnatal development, and are the result of the dynamic interaction process between emotions and cognition. Both individual cognitive development and environmental stimuli play important roles in the formation of emotional schemas. The experience-expectant mechanism in the human brain enables infants to recognize positive expressions earlier than negative expressions, which helps infants to receive more feedback from adults. From the second half of infancy, infants may develop an attentional bias towards negative expression, which can aid in their better understanding of others’s feelings. There may also be a sensitive period during the second half of infancy for the development of the ability to recognize negative emotions. Moreover, the experience-dependent mechanism in the brain determines the plasticity of the brain's emotional neural network. The mother-infant relationship, family, social environment, race, and culture all can affect the development of an infant's ability to recognize facial expressions.

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    Regular Articles
    The optimization effects of daytime light exposure on sleep and its mechanisms
    HE Meiheng, RU Taotao, LI Le, LI Siyu, ZHANG Chenze, ZHOU Guofu
    2023, 31 (9):  1698-1713.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01698
    Abstract ( 865 )   HTML ( 34 )  
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    As a dominant Zeitgeber (i.e., time giver), ambient light can affect sleep-wake behavior patterns by regulating circadian rhythm through the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), which are known as the central circadian pacemaker in human beings. Artificial light at night (ALAN) has been well established to inhibit melatonin secretion, delay circadian rhythm, increase sleep disturbance, and reduce sleep quality. In contrast, field- and laboratory-based empirical studies have revealed beneficial effects of daytime light on sleep, suggesting that exposure to a high-level or larger amount of light exposure during the daytime could advance the sleep onset time, improve sleep efficiency, shorten sleep latency, decrease sleep disturbance, and improve sleep quality. However, such benefits are not always reported and the above-mentioned effects of daytime light on sleep can be governed by the parameters of daytime light (e.g. light level and spectrum), temporal factors (time of day, duration), and the light mode. The magnitude of the effects of daytime light on improving nighttime sleep can be predicted by constructing mathematical equations that couple the variables of light level, duration, and human psychological response threshold. The additional studies are required to further explore the effect of daytime light exposure on sleep.
    In addition, light affects nighttime sleep through two pathways. On the one hand, light can indirectly influence the sleep-wake cycle by resetting circadian rhythms through the SCN, on the other hand, light can also directly affect sleep through the projection of melanopsin expressed by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) to sleep- and wakefulness-related brain regions. The sleep-wake cycle of the organism is regulated by the interaction of the circadian process and sleep homeostatic process. Whereas whether daytime light exposure could affect nocturnal sleep by regulating sleep homeostatic process remains largely unknown., it’s still necessary to explore the mechanism underlying the effect of light on sleep.
    Furthermore, in practical life, the de-synchronization between the natural light-dark cycle and human inner rhythms is becoming more and more pronounced, resulting in a higher risk of circadian rhythm disturbances and subsidiary health complaints such as sleep and affective disorders. Therefore, how to create a healthy lighting is still a key and attractive research topic concerned by academia and industry in the modern society where artificial light pollution is everywhere. Future research can integrate the personal physical and psychological requirements, for light and the diversity of working scenarios together to design a “human centric lighting”, which is of important economic and social value for enhancing people’s work efficiency, regulating mood, optimizing sleep, and improving well-being.

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    Original article
    The pleasurable effect of aggressive behavior
    ZHOU Bingtao, LIU Yuping, ZHAO Hui, YANG Bo
    2023, 31 (9):  1714-1727.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01714
    Abstract ( 1128 )   HTML ( 59 )  
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    Aggressive behavior can make individuals produce positive emotions, indicating it has a pleasurable effect. It is supported by evidence from at least three aspects. First, the direct emotional experience of aggressive behavior is pleasurable, which exists not only in reactive aggression but also in proactive aggression. Secondly, this effect is also reflected in the association between some personality traits (such as sadism, sensation-seeking, and psychopathy) and aggression, among which the most typical is sadism. In addition, this effect is supported by neuroimaging studies of aggressive behaviors, in which aggressive behaviors activate reward-processing regions represented by the nucleus accumbens and weakens the prefrontal cortex's regulation of these areas. The opponent-process theory and the reinforcement model of aggression explain the formation of this effect. The former pays close attention to the change of individual level, focuses on extreme violence, and thinks that individuals will produce intense negative emotions when they first attack, and aggression will gradually become pleasurable as the experience of violence accumulates. While the latter explains the causes from the perspective of population evolution, focusing on everyday aggressive behavior and arguing that humans have developed an inherent link between aggression and reward over time. They illustrate the gradual internalization of motivation for aggressive behavior from different perspectives. The long-term accumulation of this effect will make individuals gradually form “aggressive behaviors can make people happy” cognition. On this basis, when making decisions, an individual will have the anticipative pleasurable experience of the possible attack scenes in the future, which will facilitate him to continue to make aggressive behavior. This explanation path can be incorporated into the meta-theoretical framework of the aggression-General Aggression Model, enriching its short-term and long-term effect models. The pleasurable effect of aggressive behavior indicates that we should avoid using cathartic therapy singly or excessively in psychotherapy, especially in violent criminals with reward preference. At the same time, the neurophysiological basis of aggression also suggests that aggression and addiction have similarities, and the future needs to explore the common mechanism between them. Future research should consider the physiological arousal of emotion based on the measurement of its valence and monitor the emotional changes in real-time during aggression through emotion computing and other technologies. It is also necessary to further explore the factors that affect the pleasurable effect of aggressive behavior, such as gender, the perception of the victim's pains, and the type of aggression. In addition, the future should conduct research in real situations to further improve the ecological validity of the field, using the empirical sampling method to avoid possible ethical issues.

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    The mechanisms and promotion strategies of cooperation in the intergenerational dilemma
    CHEN Yanyan, WU Junhui, LUAN Shenghua
    2023, 31 (9):  1728-1741.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01728
    Abstract ( 641 )   HTML ( 32 )  
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    Intergenerational dilemma refers to situations that involve conflicts between one’s self-interest in the present and the interest of others in the future, which are ubiquitous in any human society. How people make decisions in such situations can affect individuals, organizations, and even the welfare of all human beings. Different from traditional social dilemmas that reflect the conflicting interests between individuals and the group they belong to, intergenerational dilemmas involve “generations” across time and space, who are broadly defined as individuals or groups playing a specific role during a limited period. Moreover, intergenerational dilemmas are characterized by three unique features, namely power asymmetry (i.e., the behavior of the previous generation affects the interests of the next generation, but the behavior of the next generation does not affect the interests of the previous generation), lack of direct reciprocity (i.e., the next generation cannot directly reciprocate the cooperative behavior of the previous generation), and longer psychological distance (i.e., greater time lag, social distance, and uncertainty for the outcomes of future others). These features are the key reasons why the overall level of intergenerational cooperation tends to be low. To explore why people cooperate in intergenerational dilemmas, researchers often measure intergenerational cooperation using participants’ willingness to cooperate in hypothetical scenarios or observe their actual behavior in incentivized game tasks, both of which have their own advantages and limitations. Overall, previous research has suggested three main factors—personality traits, decision contexts, and social norms—that influence intergenerational cooperation. Based on these factors and two unique features of intergenerational dilemmas (i.e., lack of direct reciprocity and longer psychological distance), we propose four boosting or nudging intervention strategies to promote cooperative behavior in intergenerational dilemmas: (a) to cultivate gratitude and prosocial traits starting from early childhood, such as writing gratitude diaries and expressing gratitude to specific people, (b) to enhance the reputational effects of intergenerational cooperative behavior, such as increasing the publicity of individuals’ behaviors that have consequences for future generations, (c) to increase individuals’ affinity with future generations, such as asking them to record the potential future risks of climate change or write to future others, and (d) to decrease individuals’ perceived uncertainty about future outcomes, such as providing them with accurate value information about the behavioral consequences for carbon emissions and carbon reduction.
    Notably, despite the accumulation of research on intergenerational dilemmas, there remains three major unanswered questions that are worthy of future research. First, future research should examine the ecological validity of extant research paradigms, particularly distinguishing the intergenerational cooperation measured by different paradigms and examining how they correlate with real-world intergenerational cooperation. Second, future research should investigate the roles of reputational cues in intergenerational dilemmas and explore the situations in which they promote intergenerational cooperation. Finally, in the context of global climate change, how to promote intergenerational cooperation and sustainable development is a common challenge faced by all countries in the world, but the conclusions drawn from a single cultural background cannot be directly applied to different cultural groups. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the cross-cultural differences in intergenerational cooperation and the sociocultural variables (e.g., individualism-collectivism, cultural tightness-looseness) that may explain these differences. Addressing these issues will provide useful insights for how to make policies that promote intergenerational cooperation more effectively.

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    From anthropomorphic attribution to alliance establishment: The effect of human-chatbot relationships on engagement
    MO Ran, FANG Jiandong, CHANG Baorui
    2023, 31 (9):  1742-1755.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01742
    Abstract ( 914 )   HTML ( 33 )  
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    With the rapid development of artificial intelligence (AI) technology, AI chatbots have shown great potential in simulating human guidance to improve the engagement and efficacy of Internet-based self-help interventions (ISIs). Given that studies on the mechanisms of chatbots are still in the early stages, there is a need to conduct research that can help deepen our rational understanding of designing more targeted chatbots and further promoting the effectiveness of ISIs. Recently, researchers have focused on human-chatbot relationships (HCRs) and have attempted to explain the mechanisms of chatbot effectiveness from this perspective. As HCRs share some similarities with human-human relationships (HHRs), some HHR theories, such as social penetration theory, may be used to explain HCRs in ISIs. However, relying solely on HHR theories to explain HCRs in ISIs has some limitations, such as overlooking the early cognitive processing of human-computer interactions (HCIs) and ignoring the core goals of psychotherapy in ISIs. In response to these limitations, we propose a theoretical model that is particularly suitable for the ISI context from the perspective of HCI. Our model suggests that chatbots can gradually develop relationships with users through four stages: anthropomorphic attribution, utilitarian value judgment, attachment relationship development, and the establishment of the digital therapeutic alliance (DTA). These can ultimately promote user engagement through HCRs. First, when users interact with chatbots, they unconsciously treat them as if they were actual persons due to their human-like qualities or conversational ability, resulting in anthropomorphic attribution. As a result, users tend to interact with chatbots through interpersonal communication strategies. The effect of anthropomorphism will be amplified as the frequency of interaction increases, thereby promoting the development of HCRs. Consequently, we propose that anthropomorphic attribution be the primary starting point for developing HCRs. Second, users tend to judge the utilitarian value of chatbots in the early stages of HCR development to determine whether their actual needs can be met. Therefore, whether or not chatbots can demonstrate their true effectiveness based on user expectations in terms of usability, ease of use, and expectation confirmation is likely to influence user acceptance and engagement with them. With the growth in users’ recognition, familiarity, and confidence in chatbots, their notion of anthropomorphism improves, indirectly enhancing user attitudes and further developing HCRs. Third, user participation in ISIs is influenced by anthropomorphic attribution and utilitarian value judgment in the short term. Given that emotional factors are becoming increasingly important in sustaining user engagement over time, users are likely to further anthropomorphize chatbots based on social motivation and establish an attachment relationship with them. The positive emotions experienced when interacting with chatbots deepen the HCRs, shifting relationships from “tools” to “partners.” When users’ attachment to chatbots is transferred to their attachment to ISI tasks, they are more likely to actively engage in the treatment, allowing for the effective use of chatbots in psychotherapy. Finally, to achieve better therapeutic goals of ISIs, HCRs should be further developed into DTA—a deliberate and purposeful HCR model. Additionally, the stage-wise development of HCRs has laid a good foundation for establishing DTA. As the development of DTA can enhance and stabilize user engagement, future research can make valuable contributions by evaluating key HCR theories and constructing chatbots based on these theories. Apart from the topics stated above, there is a need to examine additional variables that affect HCRs, standardize operational definitions of engagement, and develop appropriate methods for measuring engagement. Ultimately, by developing our theoretical model, we contribute to the improvement of chatbot effectiveness in the field of psychotherapy through the promotion of a deeper rational understanding of HCRs.

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    The impact of audio-visual representation of a brand name on consumers and its mechanisms
    XIAO Tingwen, WEI Haiying, CHEN Siyun, LIU Fu
    2023, 31 (9):  1756-1774.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01756
    Abstract ( 728 )   HTML ( 28 )  
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    As a special kind of vocabulary, the formal representation of brand name is divided into visual representation (the visual characteristics of printed letters) and auditory representation (the overall characteristics signature of a word), which can convey meaning to consumers independently of the meaning of the word. For brand names, the font style can provide visual representation through letter case (all uppercase, all lowercase and mixed case), font (structure, font, form and layout) and colour (hue, saturation and brightness); speech can provide auditory representation through phonemes (pronunciation and arrangement characteristics), syllables (spelling and number features), and accent/tone (positional/combinatorial characteristics). Brand name font style and speech appear frequently in various marketing materials, which have critical impacts on consumer psychology and behaviour, and both occur in the perceptual processing stage of vocabulary. Revealing the difference and connection between the two effects can not only provide a holistic research perspective for understanding brand name font style and speech but also provide inspiration for theoretical research and marketing practice.
    The consequences and mechanisms of the audiovisual representation of brand names have dissimilarities and commonalities. Although they both affect consumers’ experiences, perceptions, attitudes and behavioural intentions, different dimensions of experience are influenced, with the former mainly involving aesthetic experience and legibility and the latter emotional experience and brand memory. Embodied cognitive theory and motoric fluency theory help explain this difference. The internal mechanism of brand name font style/speech affecting consumers has certain commonalities, such as perceptions of evaluation, potency and arousal (EPA) dimensions and perceptions of symbolic meaning and country-of-origin associations, but the specific types of neurobiological mechanism, processing fluency mechanism and metaphorical understanding mechanism differ. In addition, the brand name font style effect is moderated by individual characteristics, cultural values, external clues, and brand/product type, while the speech effect is moderated by personal experience, self-regulation, and brand/product type. There are also similarities and differences between the moderating factors of these two effects. In addition to vision and auditory effects, brand names also have interactive effects with other senses.
    In addition, there is a cross-channel connection between the audiovisual effects of brand name. There is both consensus and controversy in academia over the cross-channel connection of the audiovisual effect of brand names: the consensus is that if font style and speech bring consistent perceptions of brand personality/product attributes, the two will have an additive effect, and the brand attractiveness, popularity, perception of quality and memory level will all increase. However, there is some disagreement about the relative weight of font style and speech in the integration effect: one point of view is that brand name font style and speech have an interactive effect on consumer response, but neither of them plays a dominant role. Another view is that brand name font style plays a more important role than speech when communicating brand meaning to consumers in emerging markets.
    Future research should consider practical problems associated with the moderation of the psychological effect of brand name font style by other visual elements, the psychological speech effect of Chinese brand names, the weight distribution of brand name font style and speech in nonadditive effects, and the impact of brand name font style and speech variants on consumer psychology.

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