ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Conceptual Framework
    Neural mechanism of food-related working memory in individuals with overweight/obesity and related intervention
    LIU Yong, CHEN Hong
    2023, 31 (10):  1775-1784.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01775
    Abstract ( 620 )   PDF (611KB) ( 868 )   Peer Review Comments
    In 1997, the World Health Organization recognized obesity as a global epidemic. In China, the prevalence of overweight/obesity among adults has surpassed 50%, with unhealthy dietary behaviors accounting for 70% of the causes. Working memory has been shown to play a protective role in maintaining long-term healthy dietary goals by diverting attention from tempting stimuli. Therefore, this research project aims to investigate the role of food-specific working memory in individuals with overweight/obesity through cross-sectional, prospective, and intervention studies. The research will explore temporal dynamics, neural oscillations, brain spatial activation, and real-life implications. The project's objectives are as follows: (1) to explore the cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in food-specific working memory updating in overweight/obese individuals; (2) to examine the predictive function of food-specific working memory updating and related neural activity on an individual's dietary management and weight changes; (3) to investigate the effectiveness of food-specific inhibitory control training in enhancing food-specific working memory updating and promoting healthy dietary habits in individuals with overweight/obesity.
    Study 1 will employ electroencephalography (EEG) techniques to investigate the electrophysiological activity underlying working memory updating in overweight/obese individuals. This study will use a 2-back task with general and food-specific stimuli. The study will examine the temporal characteristics of brain activity associated with general and food-specific working memory updating in overweight/obese individuals and investigate whether there are similar behavioral and neural patterns between general and food-specific working memory updating. It is hypothesized that overweight/obese individuals will exhibit significantly different performance in the 2-back task compared to normal-weight individuals, and the neural correlates may involve changes in N2 amplitude, P3 amplitude, theta and alpha power, among others. Additionally, due to the rewarding effects of food, general and food-specific working memory updating in overweight/obese individuals may exhibit different neural patterns.
    Study 2 will focus on the relationship between food-specific working memory updating and related brain activity, and the development of overweight/obesity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This study will consist of two experiments—a cross-sectional study design and a prospective study design. The study will explore the predictive role of food-specific working memory updating and related brain activity on dietary management and changes in body weight in the overweight/obesity population. The study will first utilize food-specific 1-back tasks with inhibitory control and then collect data through follow-up surveys and body composition measurements. It is hypothesized that overweight/obese individuals will display poorer performance in the working memory task and exhibit less brain activation in control-related brain regions, as well as greater activation in reward-related brain regions, compared to normal-weight individuals during the task.
    Study 3 aims to explore effective interventions for overweight/obesity by employing food inhibition control training combined with fMRI techniques. The study will include a general and a food-specific inhibition control training delivered through general or food-specific go/no-go tests. Both trainings will be investigated, with the hypothesis that both types of training can improve food-specific working memory updating performance, and both trainings can enhance the activity in control-related brain regions involved in food-specific working memory in overweight/obese individuals, but food-specific training will yield better results.
    In summary, this project delves into the behavioral and neural mechanisms of working memory in individuals with overweight/obesity. By investigating the cognitive processing, spatial activation patterns, and the interplay between food-specific working memory and overweight/obesity, the research aims to provide reliable evidence and a comprehensive understanding of the cognitive and neural mechanisms in this population. The project will also examine the interdependent relationship between food-specific working memory and related brain activity, and the development of overweight/obesity, with the goal of obtaining a wholistic view of the underpinnings between working memory updating and overweight/obesity and providing evidence for the establishment of a more complete neurocognitive model. Furthermore, the project will employ inhibition control training as an intervention for overweight/obesity, laying a practical foundation for effective solutions to obesity-related issues and facilitate the innovative translation of basic research findings.
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    How does mindfulness reduce unethical behavior? Insights from the dual-system theory
    MING Xiaodong, FU Jingyu, BAI Xinwen, YANG Jianfeng
    2023, 31 (10):  1785-1799.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01785
    Abstract ( 543 )   PDF (630KB) ( 720 )   Peer Review Comments
    Unethical behavior in the workplace poses significant harm to organizations, thus necessitating the exploration of intervention strategies in the context of management practices. While previous research has focused predominantly on intervention methods for unethical workplace behavior from a rational ethical decision-making standpoint, exploration of such methods from an intuitive ethical decision-making perspective has been limited. This project asserts that mindfulness has the potential to impact both the rational ethical decision-making system and the intuitive ethical decision-making system, consequently mitigating workplace unethical behavior.
    In relation to the rational ethical decision-making system, this study proposes to identify moral imagination and moral disengagement as two crucial mechanisms linking mindfulness to unethical behavior. Moral imagination has long been recognized as a significant factor in reducing unethical behavior. Mindfulness has the potential to enhance awareness, perspective-taking, and creativity, which are key dimensions of moral imagination. As a result, mindfulness can facilitate the cultivation of moral imagination, thereby contributing to a reduction in unethical behavior. Furthermore, moral disengagement represents a risk factor that can contribute to unethical behavior. Mindfulness, by fostering heightened self-monitoring among individuals, has the capacity to diminish moral disengagement. Therefore, moral disengagement acts as a mediator in the negative relationship between mindfulness and unethical behavior.
    Regarding the intuitive ethical decision-making system, this study proposes to identify emotional exhaustion and moral emotion as two significant mechanisms that link mindfulness to unethical behavior. Individuals experiencing emotional exhaustion are more susceptible to impulsive engagement in unethical behavior due to depleted self-control resources. Mindfulness has been shown to be advantageous in replenishing these self-control resources, thereby reducing emotional exhaustion. Consequently, emotional exhaustion acts as a mediator in the negative relationship between mindfulness and unethical behavior. Furthermore, moral emotions play a crucial role in encouraging individuals to avoid unethical behavior instinctively. Mindfulness, with its emphasis on cultivating a compassionate attitude, has the potential to foster virtuous qualities and enhance moral emotions. Consequently, moral emotion serves as a mediator in the negative relationship between mindfulness and unethical behavior.
    By integrating the rational and the intuitive ethical decision-making systems, a dual-system model of the relationship between mindfulness and unethical behavior is developed. Nevertheless, this project also proposes certain boundary conditions that influence this dual-system model. In terms of contextual factors, ethical climate is posited as a significant boundary condition. Ethical climate can help individuals with high levels of mindfulness recognize moral dilemmas, thereby enhancing the impacts of mindfulness on moral disengagement and moral emotion. Regarding individual factors, this project identifies moral identity and moral attentiveness as two important boundary conditions. Moral identity can strengthen the relationship between mindfulness and moral imagination, as individuals with a strong moral identity are more likely to engage in imaginative moral reasoning. On the other hand, moral attentiveness may negatively moderate the relationship between mindfulness and emotional exhaustion. This possibility suggests that among individuals with high levels of moral attentiveness, the relationship between mindfulness and emotional exhaustion may be weaker.
    This project endeavors to examine the influence of mindfulness on unethical behavior from the perspective of the dual-system theory of ethical decision-making, thereby contributing to the interdisciplinary exploration of mindfulness and behavioral ethics. By proposing a comprehensive theory of the relationship between mindfulness and unethical behavior, this study offers valuable insights for future research in related domains. Additionally, this project identifies several potential boundary conditions that may impact the relationships between mindfulness and its outcomes. While the effectiveness of mindfulness may vary across individuals, research exploring the boundary conditions that moderate the effects of mindfulness remains scarce. Thus, by investigating these possible boundary conditions, this project seeks to enhance our understanding of mindfulness in a comprehensive manner.
    In terms of practical implications, this project identifies mindfulness as a significant factor that influences both the rational and the intuitive ethical decision-making systems, thereby offering valuable insights for intervening in unethical behavior in the context of management practices. Previous intervention methods targeting unethical behavior in organizations have focused predominantly on the rational ethical decision-making system. However, it is crucial to recognize that many instances of unethical behavior occur impulsively rather than as a result of deliberate planning. Mindfulness, with its capacity to enhance both the rational and the intuitive ethical decision-making systems, emerges as an ideal approach to both impulsive and deliberate workplace unethical behaviors. By cultivating mindfulness among employees, organizations can create an environment that promotes ethical decision-making and mitigates the occurrence of unethical behaviors. This fact suggests that incorporating mindfulness-based interventions into management practices can effectively decrease unethical behaviors in the workplace.
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    The dynamic mechanism of voice behavior oriented human resource practice promoting employee subsequent voice behavior
    FU Chunjie, ZHANG Qian, JIANG Jianwu, LI Rui, WANG Wei
    2023, 31 (10):  1800-1813.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01800
    Abstract ( 221 )   PDF (750KB) ( 297 )   Peer Review Comments
    Voice behavior, as a kind of discretionary extra-role behavior that is both constructive and challenging, could improve organizational performance, promote organizational innovation, and enhance team creativity. In recent years, research area of voice behavior tends to focus on dynamic evolution patterns of voice behavior and the generation mechanism of subsequent voice behavior. Previous research has made some progress, while there are still several limitations. Firstly, from research path perspective, there is lack of "phenomenon-driven" findings and lack of conclusion about effective voice behavior practices in local firms; secondly, from an antecedent mechanism perspective, existing studies have not explored the role of organizational human resource practices sufficiently at the meso-level, the measurement only focused on employees' perceptual level, and neglected the differences of effects between subjective perception and objective implementation; finally, from a process mechanism perspective, most studies adopted quantitative research to reveal mediating mechanisms and boundary conditions, while have not described the dynamic process of the evolution of employee voice behavior in detail.
    Based on the above background, our study adopts the "phenomenon-driven" approach to conceptualize the effective voice behavior practices in the local firms, and proposes the concept of "voice behavior oriented human resource practice." Then, according to AMO theory, we conclude a three-dimensional framework which comprises skill-enhancing practices, motivation-enhancing practices, and opportunity-providing practices. Furthermore, our study constructed a two-stage framework of employee voice behavior's self-regulation process, which includes "initial induction" and "follow-up reflection" stages, and explored the differential moderating effects of individual perception and objective implementation of voice practices in these two stages in order to describe the dynamic evolution mechanism of voice behavior. Lastly, based on self-regulation theory, we reveal the multi-stage dynamic evolution process of subsequent employee voice behavior through case study method, which contains three stages: initial induction in "cognitive creation" stage, responsive interaction in "cognitive experimentation" stage, and enhanced efficacy in "cognitive gain" stage.
    This study mainly contributes in the following three aspects. Firstly, it promotes the development of the emerging research topic of voice behavior practices. While previous studies on strategic human resource practices have yielded fruitful results, they have specific objectives and contexts that make them difficult to effectively address the practical demands shaped by voice behavior. This study explores the concept, dimensions, and mechanisms of voice behavior practice, which enhance our understanding of the effectiveness of local voice practice and complement existing research findings on strategic human resource practice
    Secondly, it complements the dynamic investigation of variability tendencies in employee voice behavior. Previous work on the antecedent mechanism of voice behavior has mostly focused on the initiation of voice behavior in employees, with limited attention to the dynamic evolutionary properties of voice behavior. This study extends the focus to subsequent voice behavior, constructing a two-stage model of "initial induction" and "follow-up reflection" of employee voice behavior from the perspective of actors. It delineates the generative details of subsequent voice behavior and its relation to previous voice experiences, thus complementing theoretical achievements related to the dynamical properties of voice behavior.
    Finally, it sheds light on the mechanisms by which voice behavior-oriented HR practices promote subsequent voice behavior in employees. To address the limitations of quantitative studies in revealing the dynamic and complex processes of voice behavior, this study combines quantitative and qualitative research methods to extract dynamical process theories and provide detailed descriptions of the specific processes through which voice practices promote subsequent voice behavior. On the one hand, using empirical research methods, it explores the differential moderating effects of subjective perception and objective implementation of voice practices in the "initial induction" and "follow-up reflection" stages of individual voice behavior. On the other hand, through multiple case studies, it constructs a three-stage process model of voice practices promoting subsequent employee voice behavior, that is, "cognitive creation" stage in initial induction, "cognitive experimentation" stage in responsive interaction, and "cognitive gain" stage in enhanced efficacy. This series of endeavors has the potential to improve the understanding of how to motivate subsequent employee voice behavior and to provide implications for employee voice behavior practices in local firms.
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    Proactive endeavors to foster organizational performance via a bottom-up approach: Job crafting from a dynamic process perspective
    CHEN Zhijun, JI Shunhong, ZHANG Huihua
    2023, 31 (10):  1814-1827.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01814
    Abstract ( 225 )   PDF (642KB) ( 287 )   Peer Review Comments
    By proactively changing and crafting their jobs, employees can effectively compensate for the lack of motivation due to a top-down approach adopted by firms. Therefore, our research focuses on job crafting by exploring how to enhance organizational performance via job crafting behaviors enacted by individuals and work teams. First, drawing on the action theory, we flesh out the nature of job crafting behavior and propose a dynamic process model. Accordingly, we elaborate on the dynamic process via which job crafting occurs such that it has interactive implications at the individual and team levels at the same time. Next, we explore how individual job crafting shapes individual job performance via two distinct mediating mechanisms. Last, drawing on a team process view, we delineate how team job crafting contributes to team performance.
    In summary, our research makes several contributions to the job crafting literature. To start with, it enriches our understanding of the job crafting concept and evolution. Drawing on ontology and action theory, we focus on exploring the definition of job crafting and offer a comprehensive view of the dynamic development of job crafting by revealing two specific processes. In contrast to the consequences of job crafting, the nature of job crafting behaviors is understudied in previous studies. Moreover, far too little attention has been paid to the association between individual and team job crafting. Based on the dynamic process model of job crafting, we provide a nuanced examination of the elements and structures of job crafting activities and explain the interaction between individual job crafting and team job crafting. Therefore, our study not only enhances the knowledge of what job crafting is but also offers insights into how this bottom-up behavior grows and changes.
    Second, we contribute to the individual job crafting literature by introducing a new theoretical perspective to explore the mechanism of how individual job crafting influences job performance. Previous studies investigating this process are limited to work engagement, job satisfaction, and well-being. These findings, however, have ignored the individuals' self-awareness and adjustments after crafting their jobs. Beyond the traditional theoretical views, such as the JD-R model and social exchange theory, applied in prior research, our study introduces the social distance theory to explain the differential impacts of individual approach and avoidance job crafting on job performance, and reveals the moderating role of task time pressure. This new theoretical perspective advances the outcomes of individual job crafting and encourages more future research to analyze the cognitive mechanisms at the individual level.
    Third, the present study contributes to the team job crafting literature by examining the mechanisms and boundary conditions. Current research has majorly focused on the effects of job crafting at the individual level. However, few studies have investigated how team job crafting influences team outcomes. In this research, our model addresses the gap by differentiating the mediating roles of team reflection and team conflict in the relationship between team job crafting and team performance. In addition, we highlight that the team transactive memory will moderate these two pathways. By conducting studies from a team-level view, our research contributes to a more thorough understanding of the distinctions between team approach job crafting and team avoidance job crafting, and improves the comprehensiveness of the current theoretical framework of job crafting.
    Finally, our research extends the application of theories in job crafting literature by building a flow-based integrative model. Previous studies have mainly focused on individual social learning, job demands and resources, and attribution theory to explain the effects of job crafting. In this study, we integrate theories from different levels and explore changes and links in the job crafting process by the flow, instead of particular variables. Additionally, the flow-based model will contribute to empirical studies and managerial practices.
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    The positive effects of perceived overqualification in the team context: A research proposal with integrated composition approach and compilation approach
    ZHANG Jianping, ZHANG Guanglei, LIU Shanshi, ZHOU Guolin, LI Jianling
    2023, 31 (10):  1828-1842.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01828
    Abstract ( 192 )   PDF (706KB) ( 279 )   Peer Review Comments
    Owing to the economic recession and reduced employment opportunities, overqualification has become a common phenomenon in organizations worldwide (Hu et al., 2015; Zhang et al., 2016) and has attracted wide attention from industry and academia. In the research field of organizational behavior and human resources, scholars focus primarily on the perceived overqualification of employees—that is, individual employees' subjective feeling that their qualifications surpass the actual needs of job their work. Previous research has shown that perceived overqualification leads to many negative emotional experiences and organizational behaviors in employees, such as reduced job satisfaction and organizational commitment, decreased physical and mental health, increased turnover intention or even actual resignation, increased counterproductive behavior, and reduced organizational citizenship behavior (Harari et al., 2017; Erdogan & Bauer, 2021). However, previous studies have focused primarily on the negative effects of perceived overqualification at the individual level, while the exploration of its potential positive effects have been insufficient. In fact, the perceived overqualification of employees also has a positive effect (Thompson et al., 2013; van Dijk et al ., 2020). In addition, previous studies have neglected to address collective perceived overqualification at the team level (Erdogan & Bauer, 2021; Sierra, 2011; Li et al., 2021). Consequently, this study analyzes and explores the composition and influence of perceived overqualification in the team context by combining the composition approach and compilation approach. The composition approach mainly measures and analyzes the components of perceived overqualification of the team based on the team mean, while the compilation approach mainly measures and analyzes the components of perceived overqualification of the team through team standard deviation. The research for this study focused primarily on three aspects. First, based on social identity theory and the analytical framework of the I-P-O (input-process-output) model, to explored the positive impact and mechanism of the composition of team-perceived overqualification on team work output. Specifically, we explored the positive influence of the aggregate mean of team member's perceived overqualification through a positive team process on team work output, and the moderating effect of the aggregate standard deviation (team differentiation) of team member's perceived overqualification on this process. Second, based on social identity theory, we explored the cross-level positive effect and mechanism of the components of team-perceived overqualification on individual work output. To be more specific, we explored the indirect positive influence of the team mean value of team member's perceived overqualification, and mediating effect of individual team identity, and the boundary effect of team differentiation of team member's perceived overqualification on the above process. Third, based on the expectation states theory, we explored the positive effect of individual-perceived overqualification on individual work output under the effect of team differentiation of team member's perceived overqualification. Specifically, we explored the indirectly effects of individual-perceived overqualification on individual work output through informal team status in the condition of team differentiation of perceived overqualification. In summary, this paper is expected to expand the research on perceived overqualification in the team context and to better guide the practice of enterprise management.
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    Effects of action video games on different attentional subnetworks: Evidence from a meta-analysis
    CONG Xinrui, WU Zeyu, MAN Zula·aishanjiang, JIANG Yunpeng, LIU Yan, WU Xia
    2023, 31 (10):  1843-1855.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01843
    Abstract ( 318 )   PDF (1084KB) ( 564 )   Peer Review Comments
    Action video games (AVG) require participants to rapidly process and accurately respond to multiple complex pieces of information within a wide field of vision. Attention, which is the direction and concentration of consciousness to a certain object or location, plays an important role in cognitive processing and everyday life. However, whether AVG can boost attention development has been a controversy issue in previous studies. Some studies indicated that the AVG could enhance players' attention ability, while others reported that the attention of players was not impacted by AVG. The reason for this controversy may be that the previous researchers had not taken into account the varying characteristics of the subnetworks of attention. In order to further clarify the mechanisms of AVG's effects on players' attention, this study will examine the effects of AVG on different attentional sub-networks (alertness, orientation and executive control) and, at the same time, use behavioral indicators as moderating variables to provide more clarity on the relationship between AVG and different attentional sub-networks.
    The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the relationship between AVGs and attentional subnetworks. English and Chinese literature was searched from January 2009 to December 2021. Studies were included in the analysis if they clearly distinguished between action video game groups and non-action video game groups to examine the relationship between action video games and player attention, if the study clearly reported the sample size of subjects and the study methodology, and if the study provided detailed statistical information related to the amount of effect that could be calculated (e.g., sample size, mean, F-value or t-value, p-value, etc.) and did not contain obvious errors .The studies were obtained by searching the keywords action video game, shooter game, attention, visual search, orienting, etc., from the full-text databases of China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, Web of Science, PubMed and PsycInfo. Leading to the inclusion of 28 studies and 71 independent effect sizes. Data coding and analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta Analysis 3.0 to examine main and moderating effects. Random effect models were employed to assess heterogeneity in alertness, orientation and executive control. Funnel plot and Rosenthal's Nfs test of publication bias revealed no significant publication bias.
    The main effect test found that AVGs had various influences on attentional, alertness, orientation and executive control, with the alertness network (d = 0.75, 95%Cl = [0.41, 1.10]) exhibiting the strongest effects. However, presenting moderately low effects on orienting (d = 0.58, 95% Cl = [0.42, 0.74]) and low effects on executive control (d = 0.39, 95% Cl = [0.25, 0.53]), the results suggest that AVG has an effect on all attentional subnetworks, but compared to the effects on orienting and executive function networks, the effect on the vigilance network the effects were somewhat stronger for the attentional network. Whereas all three attentional subnetworks were significantly moderated by behavioural indicators, the results showed that the value of the effect of accuracy was greater than the value of the effect of reaction time, indicating that the effect of AVG on attention was more sensitive to response time compared to accuracy. To sum up, these results indicate that AVGs are most closely associated with attentional alertness, and are influenced by response times.
    In sum, this meta-analysis not only elucidates the disputes and contradictions in earlier studies, but also elucidates the association between AVGs and attention, thus furnishing new evidence for the evolution of brain plasticity and the educational implications of AVGs. This study can contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between AVGs and attention, providing a basis for comparing results across different studies.
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    Regular Articles
    The cognitive map and its intrinsic mechanisms
    WU Wenya, WANG Liang
    2023, 31 (10):  1856-1872.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01856
    Abstract ( 451 )   PDF (1486KB) ( 528 )   Peer Review Comments
    Spatial navigation is vital for the survival and reproduction of humans and other animals living in complex environments. Effective spatial representations, also known as cognitive maps, are the basis of efficient spatial navigation. Prototypical properties of cognitive maps include selectivity, flexibility, and hierarchy. Several brain regions such as the hippocampus, the scene-selective areas and the prefrontal cortex are involved in the construction of cognitive maps. There are two theoretical disputes in the representational formats of cognitive maps, namely Euclidean map and topological graph, neither of which can fully account for the navigational behavior. Therefore, several hybrid theories have been put forward in order to reconcile this controversy such as the labeled graph hypothesis, the reference frame network theory, etc. Future researchers are suggested to focus on dynamic changes of hierarchical organization during the process of constructing cognitive maps, expansion of spatial dimensions and categories, and limitations in the concept of cognitive maps.
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    From imbalanced visual inputs to imbalanced visual attention: Seeking the neural mechanisms for short-term ocular dominance plasticity
    SONG Fangxing, WANG Jue, BAO Min
    2023, 31 (10):  1873-1882.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01873
    Abstract ( 144 )   PDF (3484KB) ( 212 )   Peer Review Comments
    During the development, the structure and functions of the visual system can be affected by visual experiences and environments. This is called visual plasticity which is most prominent during the critical period of development after birth. Although the structures and functions of neural circuits tend to be stable in adult visual cortex, mounting evidence has shown that adult visual cortex still retains a certain degree of plasticity, including ocular dominance plasticity.
    Ocular dominance in humans refers to a phenomenon that one eye is functionally superior to the other eye. A common method for measuring perceptual ocular dominance is the binocular rivalry task. The typical stimuli in this task are two spatially overlapped but incompatible images, with one presented to each eye. At any moment, observer is usually aware of only one of the images which remains visible for a while before being consciously replaced by the other one. The ratio of dominance duration for each eye in a binocular rivalry task can be used to quantitatively assess observer's ocular dominance.
    One of the most commonly used ways to modulate ocular dominance in adults is monocular deprivation, which shifts ocular dominance to the deprived eye through the temporary occlusion of one eye. In recent decades, researchers have extensively investigated the monocular deprivation effect and its underlying mechanism by constantly changing the way of monocular deprivation, such as depriving the energy information (e.g. contrast) or phase information (e.g. contour) of monocular images. A consistent finding is that the imbalance of visual input between two eyes, whether achieved through complete or partial deprivation of visual information to one eye, leads to a shift of ocular dominance towards the deprived eye. The shift of ocular dominance may reflect neural plasticity in the early stages of visual processing, which is closely related to the reduction of GABA inhibition in the primary visual cortex. Meanwhile, one suggested mechanism for monocular deprivation is homeostatic plasticity, an inherent mechanism that stabilizes neuronal activity and prevents the neuronal system from becoming hyperactive or hypoactive. In the context of short-term monocular deprivation, an imbalance in visual input between the two eyes may trigger a homeostatic upregulation of neural response in the deprived eye to maintain a balance of neural activity within the visual system. This can lead to a shift in ocular dominance towards the deprived eye following the monocular deprivation.
    More recently, it has been found that even in the absence of visual input deprivation, directing a greater amount of attention towards one eye can effectively induce an effect of ocular dominance shift. For example, a “dichoptic-backward-movie” adaptation paradigm was invented to study eye-based attention induced ocular dominance shift. The ocular dominance is biased in favor of the eye (unattended eye) that has viewed a backward movie for long during which time the opposite eye (attended eye) is presented with a regular movie. This phenomenon indicates that the neural mechanisms of short-term ocular dominance plasticity not only occur at the lower level of visual processing stage but also receive feedback regulations from higher cortical sites. Notably, the boost of the unattended eye was not observed when testing stimuli were binocularly compatible. Therefore, the attention-induced ocular dominance shift may not be explicable solely by means of the homeostatic plasticity mechanism, because the involvement of homeostasis is not specific to binocular rivalry. Given the crucial role of interocular competition in attention-induced ocular dominance shift, this effect is currently explained by the adaptation of ocular opponency neurons that represents interocular conflict by computing differences between the input signals from the two eyes.
    Despite significant advancements in the investigation of short-term ocular dominance plasticity, there are many promising research directions for future studies, especially those that may further our understanding of the complicated mechanisms for short-term ocular dominance plasticity. The article then ends with the outlook in this regard.
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    Effects of task characteristics and individual traits on the aftereffects of event-based prospective memory and its mechanism
    XIN Cong, ZHENG Yuanxia, CHEN Zhongqi, LIU Guoxiong
    2023, 31 (10):  1883-1898.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01883
    Abstract ( 238 )   PDF (670KB) ( 330 )   Peer Review Comments
    The phenomenon in which an individual repeatedly performs an already completed prospective memory (PM) intention (commission errors), or the completed intention interferes with the performance of the ongoing task are the aftereffects of PM. On the one hand, participants may perform the completed-PM intention erroneously when encountering completed-PM targets. Conversely, participants may not have made commission errors when encountering the completed-PM targets. They may hesitate to respond to them, which would interfere with the ongoing task. The effects on the aftereffects of event-based PM have been explored in terms of PM task characteristics, ongoing task characteristics, and individual traits, but, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have systematically determined the effects of task characteristics and individual traits on the aftereffects of event-based PM. Moreover, previous efforts to organize the cognitive and neural mechanisms of such aftereffects have been inadequate, mostly focusing on one aspect of the formation or deactivation, without discussing the cognitive and neural mechanisms in detail.
    Based on the multiple processing theory of PM, a literature review revealed that task characteristics (PM task characteristics, ongoing task characteristics, task context) and individual traits modulate the aftereffects of event-based PM. Combining PM task characteristics, salient and focused cues, and increasing the strength of the cue-intention association promote spontaneous retrieval of completed-PM intentions. On the other hand, semantic cues may promote continuous monitoring of the aforementioned intentions, and both types of cues are susceptible to the aftereffects of event-based PM formation. The similarity of habitual PM tasks and the types of PM cues in the active- and completed-PM phases usually promotes the automatic processing of completed-PM intentions, which is more likely to facilitate the formation of the aftereffects of event-based PM. Regarding ongoing task characteristics, a high ongoing task cognitive load usually occupies more cognitive resources and is susceptible to the formation of the aftereffects of event-based PM. The match between the active- and completed-PM phases of the ongoing task promotes the spontaneous retrieval of completed-PM intentions, leading to the aftereffects of event-based PM. Task context is also related to the aftereffects of event-based PM. Increasing the time delay between the active- and completed-PM phases decreases the activation state of completed intentions and promotes the deactivation of intentional representations. Increasing the task load between the two phases may interfere with the extraction of completed-PM intentions. The cognitive aging associated with aging makes it difficult to deactivate completed-PM intentions and facilitates the formation of the aftereffects of event-based PM. Executive control and output monitoring abilities promote the deactivation of completed-PM intentions. Action-oriented individuals are better at initiating new intentions and suppressing completed-PM intentions, and are more likely to promote the deactivation of the aftereffects of event-based PM.
    Theoretical explanations of the processing mechanisms of the aftereffects of event-based PM include automatic, controlled, extraction-inhibition, stop-tag, and dual processing, and a dynamic multiprocess framework. Automatic processing is subdivided into reflexive-associative and discrepancy-plus-search processing, whereas controlled processing can be divided into strategic monitoring and inhibition processing. In the completed phase, individuals repeatedly execute completed-PM intentions, or such intentions interfere with the ongoing task to form the aftereffects of event-based PM. In particular, encountering completed-PM intentions and spontaneously extracting them is more likely to generate commission errors. Continuous monitoring of such intentions during the completed-PM phase leads to extended reaction times to the original PM cues and ongoing tasks, which can interfere with the ongoing tasks. The formation of aftereffects of event-based PM is more closely related to automatic and strategic monitoring processing. In the completed-PM phase, participants are usually told not to execute the original PM response when they encounter the original PM cues. This process involves inhibiting the extraction and execution of completed-PM intentions. Both stop-tag processing, dual processing, and dynamic multiprocess frameworks involve the idea of inhibiting processing. Moreover, to deactivate completed-PM intentions, cognitive resources would be invested in inhibiting them or forming a state of readiness not to execute when such intentions are encountered during the completed-PM phase. This demonstrates that the deactivation of aftereffects of event-based PM is more dependent on inhibitory processing. The processing mechanisms of the aftereffects of event-based PM need to be explored in-depth. Furthermore, future research should increase the investigation of aftereffects of PM in different types as well as natural contexts, and focus on exploring strategies to reduce the aftereffects of PM.
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    The effect of olfaction on social judgment and decision-making and its mechanism
    CHEN Shiting, YANG Wendeng
    2023, 31 (10):  1899-1911.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01899
    Abstract ( 303 )   PDF (720KB) ( 399 )   Peer Review Comments
    Olfactory stimulus can form human's perceptions and evaluations of an individual after detecting ambient odor or body odor. Scientists have long made significant revelations in olfactory sensing mechanisms. However, most of said this progress primarily focused on visual and auditory cues, with studies on how odors influence social decision (e.g., trustworthy, attractive, cooperativeness) still remaining as a novel scholarly perspective and is only scattered in various empirical studies with an overall lack of systematic summaries and reviews. This paper reviews existing research on the olfaction-decision making, thereby describing new insights into the mechanisms on how odor sensory experience might influence individuals' decision making on social domain from five perspectives: phylogenesis (evolutionary hypothesis), body interaction (pharmacological hypothesis), emotion-induced (emotion-induced hypothesis), cognition (embodied metaphor hypothesis), and interpersonal interaction(social construction hypothesis).
    From an evolutionary framework, the olfactory sense is perceived as an "adaptor" evolved by humans to address early pressures from survival and reproduction, creating an entire set of approach or avoidance behaviors across the course of human evolution. The sense of olfaction, as it relates to flavor perception, is adept at discriminating flavors from cooked food, working with various brain circuits to create food perceptions that humans want and crave, allowing us to recognize food and detect potentially harmful substances in its environment. Olfaction also plays an important role in partner selection through detect the degree of matching of MHC genes, and the decline in health of individuals due to cognitive disease processes affecting the normal function of olfaction or brain projection pathways. Human integrate multiple sources of information to make adaptive decisions in uncertain environments. In this way, olfaction serves as a safety mechanism, alerting us of the presence of harmful or offensive objects and predators, thus increasing our chances of survival and increase quality of life.
    The pharmacological hypothesis proposes that various odors can directly interact with and impact the autonomic central nervous system and/or endocrine systems, thus leading to changes in mood, physiology, and behavior. This, in turn, potentially influences our social judgements and decisions. Olfactory stimulation via scents has been shown to result in rapid alterations in physiological parameters such as changes in blood pressure, pupil dilation, skin temperature, pulse rate, brain activity, and so on. Although psychologists have long utilized human psychophysical data to construct hypothetical models for information processing in cognitive and perceptual tasks, there remains much debate surrounding said approach.
    The emotion-induced hypothesis is one of the most widely accepted hypotheses. Current studies show extensive evidence of odors having hedonic valence and can thus regulate moods and emotions either overtly or subliminally, thereby influencing decision-making behavior. In most studies, odors were found to induce not only pleasantness and disgust, but also emotions such as fear and anxiety. Growing evidence also suggests that humans possess the ability to deduce emotional states in conspecifics exclusively through ambient scent and body odor. Neuroimaging studies show that olfactory processes and emotional processing systems are highly overlapping in both human and non-human animal models.
    Following the embodiment theories, the individual's body functions act as a mediator between the external environment and the mind. Odors experienced by an individual play a role in organizing their understanding of various entities. Some studies found that scents affect the feeling of body heat, implying that prior associations with odors may impact bodily self-consciousness. The cognitive aspects of odor relate to an individual's sensory inputs and physical affordances, the way in which their actions shape their perceptions and concepts, and the information obtained from external environments. In comparison to other bodily contingencies, such as visuo-tactile sensations, scents may produce a milder cue to elicit illusory embodiment given its ability to operate at a subconscious level.
    Social constructivism argues that the routines and practices of daily life may exist independently of our conscious thought, and that their particular authenticity bears clear, current traces of such undeniable social origins and evolution of culture and the arts. The sense of smell activates an individual's innate cultural heritage, which then influences their decision making. Linguistic and socio-cultural norms triggered by odor stimuli may alter individuals' emotional and cognitive meaning of odors and sub-consciously influence an individual's social judgement and decision-making. Some reports of strong associations between certain odors and cultures imply that such odor-culture associations are likely acquired and may vary across different cultures. Indeed, smelling can also be lexicalized in complex ways, thus reflecting how people in different environments use and think about odors.
    Studies also show the methodological issues with dependent measures and stimuli, as well as a greater awareness of the effects of context and individual differences that shape odor effects (e.g., age, gender, cultural background, odor experience, and preferences), ultimately leading to inconsistencies in the data. Clearly, olfaction pervades all aspects of life, influencing mate selection, conception, and disease. Despite it having various issues that need further addressing, and it still remains an area worthy of further study.
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    Abnormalities in the brain of preschool children at risk for developmental dyslexia and early neural markers of dyslexia
    LI Kaiqian, LIANG Dandan
    2023, 31 (10):  1912-1923.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01912
    Abstract ( 214 )   PDF (556KB) ( 313 )   Peer Review Comments
    Children who are assessed to be more likely to develop dyslexia before school are called children at risk of developmental dyslexia. At-risk children have not received reading teaching, and the neurological abnormalities related to reading ability before learning to read will not be the result of reading experience. Therefore, investigating the neurological abnormalities of at-risk children is helpful to find the early neural markers of dyslexia, which is great important for early prediction and intervention.
    Research based on horizontal comparison shows that the brain function and structure of at-risk children are abnormal. In view of brain function, the electrophysiological mechanism of language and non-language processing in children at risk is abnormal. Perceived speech and non-speech induced mismatch response waves are smaller in amplitude and longer in latency. Children at risk have abnormalities in brain areas for verbal and nonverbal processing. Under-activation of regions such as bilateral temporoparietal, bilateral inferior frontal, and bilateral middle frontal gyrus during phonological tasks. Under-activation of bilateral temporoparietal and occipitotemporal regions during a word processing task. Under-activation of auditory processing areas such as the left hemisphere prefrontal and left temporal lobes during the perception of non-verbal stimuli.
    In view of the brain structure, the gray matter in the temporal parietal region and occipital-temporal region of at-risk children is small. And its sulcal pattern also has atypical manifestations. At the same time, at-risk children did not show the trend of left temporal plane. On the white matter connection, the FA values of the left arcuate tract and the left inferior frontal occipital tract are smaller than those of typical developing children.
    Children at risk may not necessarily develop dyslexia, and their brain abnormalities may only be the effect of risk factors. Only by longitudinal tracking to determine whether at-risk children will develop dyslexia can we find the neural changes related to reading development and reveal the early neural markers of dyslexia. Longitudinal research shows that MMR induced by speech processing, abnormal function of left temporal parietal region, visual word-shaped region and abnormal structure of left arcuate tract can distinguish whether at-risk children develop dyslexia, which is an early biological marker of dyslexia.
    Although some conclusions have been drawn from the current longitudinal research, the longitudinal research on the brains of at-risk children is relatively rare. And the limited sample size will amplify the influence of individual differences and lead to the decline of the reliability of the results. In the future, a longitudinal study based on a large sample is needed to examine the neural development track of reading and verify the current conclusions. A feasible solution is to combine data from different laboratories to improve the statistical power and reliability of the results. Secondly, a large number of researchers have paid attention to the group of children at risk, but the current research mainly focuses on alphabetic language, lacking evidence from children at risk of Chinese dyslexia. In the future, we can also compare the patterns of neurological abnormalities between children at risk of Chinese and alphabetic language. And exploring the particularity and universality of cognitive neurological risk factors for developmental dyslexia in Chinese. Children's early language skills are highly plastic. If neural indicators can be used for early screening of dyslexia, early prediction and intervention can be made to help at-risk children improve their reading ability and reduce the occurrence of overt dyslexia.
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    The effectiveness of learning by enacting and its mechanisms
    KUANG Ziyi, ZHU Wanling, CHENG Meixia, WANG Fuxing, HU Xiangen
    2023, 31 (10):  1924-1936.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01924
    Abstract ( 244 )   PDF (1077KB) ( 366 )   Peer Review Comments
    Learning by enacting is a generative learning activity that allows students to engage in task-relevant movements, such as manipulating objects. There are different theories to explain learning by enacting: embodied cognition theory and generative learning theory support the positive effect while cognitive load theory provides evidence for negative effect of learning by enacting. This comprehensive review of previous empirical studies aims to draw conclusions regarding the effectiveness of learning by enacting and explore the potential for future research. On retention test, a majority of the reviewed studies (11 of 13 studies, 85%) found that enactment could improve retention test scores, while a smaller proportion (2 of 13 studies, 15%) did not find a facilitation effect. The median effect size for enactment facilitating retention test performance was d = 0.57. When comparing physical enactment (experimental group) to virtual enactment (control group), 2 (50%) of 4 studies demonstrated that the physical enactment group outperformed the virtual enactment group on retention tests, while the other half found lower retention scores for the physical enactment group. The median effect size for physical enactment facilitating retention test performance, compared to virtual enactment, was d = 0.01. On transfer test, most studies (17 of 20 studies, 85%) found that enactment could improve transfer test scores, while a smaller proportion (2 of 20 studies, 10%) did not find a facilitation effect. 1 (5%) of 20 studies showed that learning by enacting decreased learners' transfer scores. The median effect size for learning by enacting facilitating transfer test performance was d = 0.63. When examining the effects of different types of learning by enacting on transfer tests, a minority of studies (3 of 23 studies, 13%) found better transfer test scores in physical enactment conditions than in virtual enactment conditions. While 4 (17%) of 23 studies found lower transfer scores for the physical enactment group. The majority of studies (16 of 23 studies, 70%) did not find differences between the two types of learning by enacting. The median effect size for physical enactment facilitating transfer test performance, compared to virtual enactment, was d = 0.01. On subjective experience, only five studies compared conditions with and without learning by enacting and measured subjective experiences. One study found that learning by enacting increased students' learning confidence. Two studies explored perceived cognitive load during learning by enacting, and three other studies measured learning interest (d = 0.21), but none found significant effects of learning by enacting on these subjective experiences. When comparing physical enactment and virtual enactment, four studies measured learning confidence. Half of the studies found that students in the physical enactment group perceived higher learning confidence than those in the virtual enactment group, while the other half found no difference. The median effect size for physical enactment improving learning confidence, compared to virtual enactment, was d = 0.28. Additionally, in the studies comparing physical enactment and virtual enactment, four studies measured cognitive load. Half of the studies found that physical enactment decreased cognitive load compared to virtual enactment, while the other half found no difference. The median effect size for physical enactment increasing cognitive load, compared to virtual enactment, was d = -0.16. Furthermore, two studies measured learners' learning interest, with both finding that physical enactment induced higher learning interest than virtual enactment. The median effect size for physical enactment increasing learning interest, compared to virtual enactment, was d = 0.40. These findings generally support the embodied cognitive theory and generative learning theory, suggesting that learning by enacting can be an effective method for improving retention and transfer test performance. Further research needs to optimize learning by enacting, identify influencing factors, and integrate and verify the theories that support this pedagogical approach.
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    The effects of mindfulness on eudaimonic well-being and its theoretical explanation
    HE Qi, LIU Xiaoming
    2023, 31 (10):  1937-1951.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01937
    Abstract ( 470 )   PDF (635KB) ( 817 )   Peer Review Comments
    Eudaimonic well-being occurs when people's life activities align with deeply held values, and they positively engage in activities to realize their potential. Eudaimonic well-being is characterized by a sense of purpose and meaning. It has become a flourishing arena of scientific inquiry and clinical practice. However, eudaimonic enhancement remains neglected in positive psychology. The self-determination theory (SDT) proposes that mindfulness is possibly the most centrally discussed intrapersonal factor influencing the pathway to enhance eudaimonic well-being. This review aims to explore the mechanisms by which mindfulness positively affects eudaimonic well-being. Investigating this question not only provides an essential extension of self-determination theory but also adds to our understanding of the value and generative manifestations of mindfulness. In addition, it may provide a theoretical foundation for developing mindfulness interventions focusing solely on eudaimonic enhancement. Recent research has found that mindfulness can be effective in improving well-being. Mindfulness traits were particularly strong in relation to eudaimonic well-being; meditators reported significantly higher levels of eudaimonic well-being orientation than non-meditators; and mindfulness traits moderated the negative relationship between stressful events and eudaimonic well-being. Attention awareness and acceptance can influence eudaimonic well-being by promoting positive qualities and experiencing fewer negative emotions in response to stress. Mindfulness-based training has been shown to improve eudaimonic well-being in clinical groups with psychological and physical symptoms, and non-clinical groups of middle school students, workers, and athletes. However, it is noteworthy that mindfulness training improved eudaimonic well-being only when practiced over a long period. The low intensity and short duration of this training may not have produced changes in eudaimonic well-being. Based on the S-ART model, self-determination theory, mindfulness-to-meaning theory, and empirical literature, this review proposed a model of mindfulness-self-regulation-eudaimonic well-being. Attention awareness and acceptance together explain how mindfulness positively affects eudaimonic well-being by improving cognitive regulation. Cognitive regulation processes include meta-awareness, Which reduces experiential fusion; cognitive reappraisal and perspective taking, which changes maladaptive self-schemas; and self-inquiry, which reduces cognitive reification. Moreover, mindfulness also positively affects eudaimonic well-being by improving emotional regulation. Emotional regulation processes include cognitive reappraisal, which reduces negative semantic narrative patterns and emotions during stressful events; savoring increasing positive emotions. Finally, mindfulness had a positive effect on eudaimonic well-being by improving behavioral regulation. Behavioral regulation processes include changing behavioral goals, such as increasing internal behavioral goals and decreasing external behavioral goals; and it also includes improving autonomous behavior, which involves reducing cognitive distortion and negative emotion-driven behavior, reducing automatic behavior, and transforming forced behavioral regulation. Furthermore, mindfulness positively affects eudaimonic well-being by promoting cognitive regulation, improving emotional regulation, and further improving behavioral regulation. Future research could focus on many aspects. First, different effects of the basic components of mindfulness could be analyzed, to further resolve the paradox between single-component and two-component views. Further analyzing of the role of attention awareness and acceptance is required when considering whether individuals experience stressful events and whether such events cause negative emotions. The single-component view of mindfulness requires an additional explanation of the differential roles of attention and awareness. Second, the mechanisms through which mindfulness benefits eudaimonic well-being can be explored. Mindfulness-to-meaning theory needs to be further validated using a variety of research methods, such as ecological momentary assessment, as the savoring and reappraisal hypotheses remain controversial. Besides improving autonomous behavior consistent with values in behavioral regulation, mindfulness may also improve behavioral abilities, like problem-focused thinking and coping competence. Third, researchers should develop targeted mindfulness-based training programs to improve eudaimonic well-being and identify the boundary conditions of the main effect from four aspects: practitioner, practice, relationship, and culture.
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    Effects and mechanism of therapeutic assessment and its development in Chinese culture
    YAN Wenhua, SHEN Zhiyu, YUE Bingjie, SUN Qiwu, WANG Ming
    2023, 31 (10):  1952-1965.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01952
    Abstract ( 175 )   PDF (575KB) ( 253 )   Peer Review Comments
    As an emerging evidence-based counseling and treatment technique, Therapeutic Assessment (TA) is a semi-structured model of assessment and intervention that uses standardized psychological tests to understand the client's psychological functioning and personality traits, and achieves assessment goals while being able to promote change in the client. The main effects are a reduction in symptoms, increases in self-esteem and a sense of hope, and motivation to participate in treatment.
    Based on a review of the literature, we summarized the strengths and limitations of TA. The advantages of TA are fourfold: First, TA can obtain better therapeutic results in a relatively short period of time. Second, it is suitable for most groups, such as individual clients of all ages and for marital and family therapy settings. Third, it is open-ended, and can be used both in conjunction with other counseling techniques and as a diagnostic tool or antecedent counseling, and can also be a driving force in breaking the counseling impasse. Fourth, it emphasizes evidence-based and the joint application of high-quality psychometric tools, giving specific evidence-based practice approaches across treatment schools and diagnoses. However, there are situations in which TA is not applicable. It is not recommended for clients who come to counseling involuntarily or who are in acute crisis or trauma. In addition, TA is usually not considered when the goals of the assessment can be achieved through traditional, non-collaborative testing.
    By combing through the existing literature, we believe that the mechanism of action for the effectiveness of TA can be interpreted in two ways: collaborative assessment and understanding of the client. Collaborative is a new application of psychometric tests in TA, which is the central mechanism for the effectiveness of TA. In TA, psychometric tests are not only a source of data, but the instruments themselves become "empathy magnifiers" and have therapeutic effects. We believe that collaborative sessions and feedback are more useful than traditional, non-collaborative assessments, allowing for a more coherent and fluid client narrative and an enhanced counseling alliance. In addition, TA's unique understanding of the client is an important prerequisite for its effectiveness, as it uses multiple concepts to understand the client's inner world in depth: unique narratives and stories, self-validation and curiosity, attachment patterns, and epistemic trust.
    Due to the recent development of the theoretical basis of TA and the short time of its application, there are still some shortcomings in the current research and many issues to be explored in depth. Examples of issues include small sample size, lack of population diversity, and fewer randomized controlled studies. In the existing studies, there are more studies on adults and fewer studies on children and adolescents. Future research should expand sample sizes and increase sample diversity with more studies on partners, couples, and children and adolescents. Second, research on the applicability of TA in cross-national and cross-cultural contexts is still not abundant. Most of the current empirical research related to TA has been conducted in the United States, and there have been some attempts in other cultures, but there is a lack of research in Asian cultural contexts. In addition, even within the same country, there are still some limitations to the cultural diversity of the subjects of TA research. Factors such as social class, religion, and sexual orientation do not appear much. Therefore, there is a need for research on therapeutic evaluation in more countries and in more diverse cultural contexts. Third, the mechanisms by which TA works are not clear. When does the person undergo the greatest or most significant change? What makes the change? How does each session of TA, as well as written feedback, affect the client? Is it the philosophy or the standardized process of TA that makes a difference compared to other counseling schools? Specific empirical research is needed to answer these questions. On this basis, the similarities and differences between the efficacy of TA and other counseling modalities also need to be more fully investigated.
    There are also some challenges and opportunities to use TA in a Chinese cultural context. The first is the Chineseization of the test instruments and their normative models, the Chineseization of copyright, and the Chineseization of research. The second is the training of Chinese evaluators to master TA. The third is the need for Chinese TA practice to be combined with empirical research, and the timely correction of parts of TA that are incompatible with Chinese culture based on research findings, along with the addition and improvement of parts of Chinese culture that are unique and useful.
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    Research Method
    Test mode effect: Sources, detection, and applications
    CHEN Ping, DAI Yi, HUANG Yingshi
    2023, 31 (10):  1966-1980.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01966
    Abstract ( 224 )   PDF (608KB) ( 237 )   Peer Review Comments
    International large-scale assessment programs (e.g., PISA, TIMSS, and NAEP), as well as small classroom tests, are increasingly using computers to administer tests. The test mode is undergoing a transformation from the traditional “paper-based testing (PBT)” to “computer-based testing (CBT)”. Before transforming the test mode, researchers and practitioners face a key issue: when the same test is administered with different test modes (such as PBT and CBT), the test results are not necessarily the same, so they cannot be blindly compared directly. Such difference in test function caused by the administration of the same test in different test modes is referred to as the test mode effect (TME). The existence of TME will have an impact on test fairness, selection criteria and test equating, so it is of great significance to accurately detect and interpret TME.
    This review aims to systematically sort out the whole process of TME from “generation to detection”, and to grasp the research ideas and development trends of TME by summarizing or commenting or comparing the source, experimental design and detection methods of TME. Specifically, firstly, the source of TME was sorted out from the test level, item level, subject level and rater level respectively, and how the differences in these four levels lead to the generation of TME was analyzed; secondly, three experimental designs (between-group design, within-group design, and balanced incomplete block design) used to control for subject characteristics in TME research were outlined, along with their applicable scenarios; thirdly, four TME detection methods were introduced, they were ANOVA (Analysis of Variance), MCFA (multi-group confirmatory factor analysis), DIF (differential item functioning) and MEM (mode effect model); and their pros and cons, scope of application, and implementation methods were summarized and commented as well; finally, the research results in the field of TME over the past 40 years were summarized and analyzed.
    Several future directions for research on TME can be identified. First, the interpretability and applicability of the MEM method can be further enhanced by including factors related to the source of TME in the existing MEM. Second, the range of test modes for TME research should be expanded. That is, TME may also occur between PBT and other test modes, including mobile-based assessment, phone or face-to-face interview, game-based assessment, and virtual and augmented reality-based assessments. Third, the rich TME research results can be applied to large-scale educational assessment programs in China to promote the use and development of CBT.
    In summary, this article (1) proceeds from practical issues, emphasizing the impact of TME on test fairness, selection criteria and test equating, which will help arouse the attention of test users; (2) systematically introduces and compares four methods for detecting TME, providing references for researchers to choose and use in practice; (3) sorts out the source, detection (including experimental design and detection methods) and future research directions of TME, providing a complete research idea for follow-up research.
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