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ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    Section: Prevalence of mental health problems of Chinese students
    Prevalence of mental health problems among primary school students in Chinese mainland from 2010 to 2010:A meta-analysis
    HUANG Xiaoxiao, ZHANG Yali, YU Guoliang
    2022, 30 (5):  953-964.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00953
    Abstract ( 1173 )   HTML ( 92 )  
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    In recent years, the age of mental health problems shows a descending trend. Primary school students, as a special group in the critical stage of personal growth, are experiencing increased mental health problems that has caught wide attention from society. If the mental health problems of primary school students are not screened, prevented, and intervened in time, they may develop into lifelong mental diseases, which are difficult to redress and treat. Hence, as the basic premise of improving mental health, it is particularly important to find out the prevalence of pupils' mental health problems, so as to understand their real mental health status, and make targeted detection and intervention in the future.
    However, the prevalence of primary school students' mental health problems described in literature shows inconsistent results, and the prevalence varied greatly, which has brought confusion to mental health educators and workers. Although some researchers tried to use meta-analysis to quantitatively integrate the existing research findings, avoid the influence of biased samples, demographic characteristics, and other factors, and attempt to explore the detection rate of primary school students’ mental health problems objectively and accurately, there were still some deficiencies. Firstly, it only revealed the prevalence of some mental health problems, and did not cover more comprehensive mental health problems. Secondly, it did not specifically analyze the mental health problems in recent 10 years. Finally, the inclusion and discussion of regulatory variables were not specific enough. Therefore, based on the research results in recent 10 years, it is necessary to integrate the prevalence of primary school students' mental health problems and explore its influencing factors by using meta-analysis method.
    In order to clarify the debate on the different prevalence of primary school students' mental health problems, we analyzed and estimated the detection rate of primary school students' mental health problems in mainland China from 2010 to 2020 and investigated its moderation effects. The meta-analysis technology was used to retrieve the research on anxiety, depression, somatization, withdrawal, sleep problems, aggressive and discipline behaviors in Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database and Web of Science core collection database from 2010 to 2020. Finally, a total of 101 research and 289396 primary school students were obtained: 9 articles about anxiety, 34 articles about depression, 12 articles about somatization, 10 articles about withdrawal, 11 articles about sleep problems, 13 articles about aggressive behavior, and 12 articles about disciplinary behavior. The software Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 3.3 and the random effect model was selected for analysis.The results showed that (1) The prevalence of mental health problems in primary school students from high to low were sleep problems (25.2%, 95%CI = [0.16, 0.37]), depression (14.6%, 95%CI = [0.12, 0.18]), anxiety (12.3%, 95%CI = [0.06, 0.23]), aggressive behavior (4.1%, 95%CI = [0.02, 0.10]), withdrawal (3.8%, 95%CI = [0.02, 0.06]), disciplinary behavior (3.7%, 95%CI = [0.02, 0.07]) and somatization (3.6%, 95%CI = [0.02, 0.07]); (2) Measurement tools, measurement standards and detection period were the key factors causing the fluctuation of prevalence of mental health problems among primary school students in China. Generally speaking, the overall mental health status of primary school students in China is acceptable except that the prevalence of sleep problems, depression and anxiety are high. In the future, we should develop mental health assessment tools and detection standards suitable for Chinese primary school students to provide support for the prevention and accurate intervention of mental health problems.

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    Prevalence of mental health problems among junior high school students in Chinese mainland from 2010 to 2020: A meta-analysis
    ZHANG Yali, JIN Juanjuan, YU Guoliang
    2022, 30 (5):  965-977.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00965
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    Junior high school students are in a stage of rapid development in physiology and psychology, and they are prone to some mental health problems when facing stressful events in life. In addition, with the advent of the digital age, contemporary junior high school students have become digital natives, and their mental health is facing greater challenges. Therefore, the mental health care of junior high school students is a realistic problem that can not be ignored. The prevalence of mental health problems of junior high school students is an important topic in many fields, but the results of the research on this problem are not consistent, and the detection rate varies greatly across studies, which brings confusion to mental health workers. It is necessary to integrate the original research and draw more general and accurate conclusions from the macro perspective, so as to provide high-quality evidence support for precise intervention of mental health. Therefore, based on literature review, the present study focuses on the prevalence of internalizing problems including anxiety, depression, sleep problems, suicidal ideation, and suicide plans, as well as the prevalence of externalizing problems including self-harm and suicide attempt among junior high school students.
    By searching the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database and Web of Science core collection database from 2010 to 2020, we obtained the final effective literatures including 50 articles about anxiety, 95 articles about depression, 21 articles about sleep problems, 26 articles about self-injury, and 30 articles about suicide. We used the software Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 3.3 and the random effect model for data analysis. The results showed that the prevalence of anxiety, depression, sleep problems, self-injury, and suicidal ideation were 26.9%, 23.9%, 16.7%, 22.4%, and 17.1%, respectively. The prevalence of suicide plans and suicide attempts were 6.6% and 3.9% separately. In addition, the moderating effect analysis found that in terms of anxiety, the moderating effects of publication year, measurement tools, detection time, grade, and economic region were significant, but the moderating effects of gender, only child or not and birthplace were not significant. In terms of depression, the moderating effects of measurement tools and detection time were significant, but the moderating effects of publication year, grade, gender, only child or not, birthplace, and economic region were not significant. In terms of sleep problems, the moderating effects of publication year, grade, gender and economic region were not significant. In terms of self-injury, the moderating effects of economic region were significant, but the moderating effects of publication year, measurement tools, grade, gender, only child or not, and birthplace were not significant. As to suicidal ideation, the moderating effects of measurement tools and gender were significant, but the moderating effects of publication year, grade and economic region were not significant. In terms of suicide plans, the moderating effect of grade was significant, but the moderating effects of grade, gender and economic region were not significant. Finally, in terms of suicide attempts, the moderating effect of publication year is significant, but the moderating effects of grade, gender and economic region were not significant.
    In conclusion, junior high school students faced different levels of mental health problems, among which the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and self-injury rank in the top three. The prevalence of mental health problems of junior high school students showed a deteriorating trend with the development of the years, especially anxiety and suicide attempt. The prevalence of mental health problems of junior high school students is affected by the inconsistency of measurement tools, detection standards and detection time. In addition, the prevalence of mental health problems increased with grade, especially that of anxiety; The prevalence of mental health problems in girls is higher than that in boys, especially that of suicide. Students in the central and western regions in China are more likely to have mental health problems, especially anxiety and self-injury. In the future, we should develop scientific measurement tools and screening standards based on Chinese culture, and establish a dynamic monitoring system of mental health and a school mental health service system.

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    Prevalence of mental health problems among senior high school students in mainland of China from 2010 to 2020: A meta-analysis
    YU Xiaoqi, ZHANG Yali, YU Guoliang
    2022, 30 (5):  978-990.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00978
    Abstract ( 806 )   HTML ( 39 )  
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    High school is the key period of psychological development, and it is also the frequent period of a variety of psychological problems. The mental health problems of senior high school students not only come from adolescents themselves, but also should attract extensive attention from families, schools and society. In order to improve the mental health of senior high school students and ensure the effective development of follow-up mental health work, it is necessary to understand the detection rate of mental health problems of senior high school students in China, so as to master the basic situation of mental health of senior high school students. Although many previous studies have involved the detection rate of mental health problems of senior high school students, there is no consistent conclusion on the detection rate of mental health problems of senior high school students in China in recent ten years. In order to clarify the detection rates and influencing factors of mental health problems of senior high school students in China in recent ten years, this study makes a comprehensive and systematic meta-analysis of the relevant detection rate articles of senior high school students (including higher vocational students) in recent ten years, so as to form a clearer understanding of the general situation of their mental health. Because there are too many indicators involved in mental health problems, this study focuses on the detection rate of two common problems in senior high school students: internalizing problems (including anxiety, depression, sleep problems, somatization, suicidal ideation, and suicide plan) and externalizing problems (including self injury and suicide attempt. In addition, this study also investigated the regulatory effects of publishing age, relevant factors of measurement tools (measurement tools, detection standards, detection time), and demographic variables (grade, region, gender, only child or not, birthplace) on the detection rate of mental health problems.
    By searching the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database and Web of Science core collection database from 2010 to 2020, 252 effective literatures were finally obtained, including 48 articles on anxiety, 99 articles on depression, 21 articles on sleep problems, 14 articles on somatization, 29 articles on self injury, and 41 articles on suicide. The results of meta-analysis showed that (1) The prevalence from high to low were depression (28.0%), anxiety (26.3%), sleep problems (23.0%), self-injury (22.8%), suicidal ideation (17.1%), somatization (9.8%), suicide plan (6.9%), and suicide attempt (2.9%); (2) In the past ten years, the mental health problems of senior high school students in China have deteriorated with the passage of time, especially anxiety; (3) The detection rate of mental health problems of senior high school students is affected by the relevant factors of measurement tools (measurement tools, detection standards and detection time); (4) The mental health problems of senior high school students increased with the increase of grade, especially sleep problems; (5) The mental health problems of senior high school students were affected by regions, especially in economically underdeveloped areas. It can be seen that the prevalence of mental health problems of senior high school students in China was affected by the year of publication, measurement tools, detection standards, detection time, grade and region. In the future, efforts should be made to prepare standardized evaluation tools, build a long-term mechanism of mental health education, and focus on the mental health problems of senior class and underdeveloped area senior high school students.

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    Prevalence of mental health problems among college students in mainland China from 2010 to 2020: A meta-analysis
    CHEN Yumeng, ZHANG Yali, YU Guoliang
    2022, 30 (5):  991-1004.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00991
    Abstract ( 963 )   HTML ( 75 )  
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    College students are a huge part and an important member of the young people. Their physical and mental health not only directly affects their own long-term development, but also has a significant influence on the future of the nation. Therefore, the mental health of college students has become the focus of families, schools and even the whole society. In recent years, some studies have conducted meta-analyses on the prevalence of a certain mental health problem (such as depression and sleep problem) among college students in China, but such studies cannot reflect the mental health status of college students comprehensively. And some of the previous studies cannot reflect the current status of contemporary college students’ mental health. Furthermore, the selection of moderator variables was not comprehensive enough to reveal the key factors affecting the prevalence. Therefore, we employed a meta-analysis in this study to estimate the prevalence of typical mental health problems among college students in mainland China from 2010 to 2020, and the moderating effects of publication year, measurement tools and detection standards, detection time, region, birthplace, only child or not were further analyzed. For the selection of indicators, mental health problems were divided into two categories: internalizing problems and externalizing problems. The indicators of internalizing problems include anxiety, depression, sleep problem, somatization, and suicidal ideation, while the indicators of externalizing problems include nonsuicidal self-injury and suicide attempt.
    Through the process of literature search and selection, 128 studies (136 effect sizes) of anxiety, 237 studies (244 effect sizes) of depression, 56 studies (58 effect sizes) of sleep problem, 49 studies (49 effect sizes) of somatization, 31 studies (31 effect sizes) of nonsuicidal self-injury, 51 studies (51 effect sizes) of suicide ideation, and 8 studies (8 effect sizes) of suicide attempt were included in this study. Homogeneity test indicated that random effects model was appropriate for the meta-analysis. The p-curve analysis illustrated no publication bias. Ultimately, the results of the main effect test showed that the prevalence rates of sleep problem, depression, nonsuicidal self-injury, anxiety, suicidal ideation, somatization, and suicide attempt were 23.5%, 20.8%, 16.2%, 13.7%, 10.8%, 4.5%, and 2.7%, respectively. The results indicate that internalizing problems, especially sleep problem and emotional problem, are more serious among Chinese college students compared to externalizing problems.
    The results of the moderating effect indicated that (1) The prevalence of anxiety, depression, sleep problem and suicide attempt among college students has increased significantly in the last decade, while the prevalence of self-harm has declined significantly; (2) The prevalence of anxiety, depression, sleep problem, and somatization varied significantly between measurement tools and detection standards, and the prevalence of suicidal ideation differed to a significant extent depending on the detection time. Therefore, the fluctuation of prevalence was accounted by measurement tools, detection standards and detection time. (3) There existed obvious regional differences in the prevalence of sleep problem and suicidal ideation, with the feature of the worst mental health among college students in western China and better mental health among college students in northeastern and central China. (4) The prevalence of mental health problems among demographical variables including gender, only child or not, and birthplace showed no significant difference, which indicated that gender, only child or not, urban or rural areas were not the critical factors influencing college students’ mental health.
    In summary, by employing the method of meta-analysis, this study is the first study to systematically investigate the prevalence of the typical mental health problems of college students in mainland China from 2010 to 2020. The results clarified the controversy over the inconsistent prevalence in previous studies and explored the main reasons for the inconsistent findings. Thus, this meta-analysis is conducive to promoting subsequent studies and educational practice.

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    Conceptual Framework
    The “double-edged sword” effect of competence frustration and intervention strategies: Behavioral and cognitive neuroscience perspectives
    FANG Hui, FU Huijian, ZHANG Huijun
    2022, 30 (5):  1005-1017.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01005
    Abstract ( 595 )   HTML ( 53 )  
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    Competence frustration refers to the feelings of inadequacy or failure. A growing number of the new generation of knowledge workers are experiencing short-term or long-term competence frustration. After their experience of competence frustration, what is going on the knowledge worker’s motivation in the subsequent task. If the experience of competence frustration has a positive effect on the subsequent work, how can we reinforce it? The experience of competence frustration makes negative consequences, how can we avoid or restore it? Existing researches fails to clearly answer these questions. Based on the self-determination theory, this study is intended to uncover the intertemporal effect of competence frustration on one’s autonomy motivation by integrating different approaches (e.g., behavioral experiment, cognitive neuroscience experiment and field experiment). In addition, this study will test the effectiveness of intervention strategies from both the organizational and individual perspectives. Specifically, this study employs four sub-studies to explore the "double-edged sword" effect and intervention strategies of competence frustration. First, we examine the intertemporal effect of short-term competence frustration on one’s autonomy motivation. Second, we explore the intertemporal effect of long-term competence frustration on one’s autonomy motivation. Thirdly, we construct respective intervention strategies of competence frustration, and explore the validity of intervention strategies such as developmental feedback, autonomous support, and achievement goal orientation through three ERP experiments. Fourthly, we test the effectiveness of intervention strategies in management practice.
    This study has important theoretical significance. Firstly, we explore the dynamic influence of basic psychological needs frustration, which may effectively extend the research scope of self-determination theory. Secondly, we examine the effect of perceived (short-term and long-term) competence frustration on one’s autonomy motivation in a subsequent task, expanding the research on antecedent variables of autonomy motivation. Thirdly, this study comprehensively examines the validity of intervention strategies, such as developmental feedback, autonomous support and achievement goal orientation, providing a new perspective for the recovery mechanism of competence frustration. Finally, we adopt cognitive neuroscience indexes to measure one’s autonomy motivation objectively and real-time in the process of participating tasks, which overcomes the shortages of traditional measurement methods and responds to calls for adopting cognitive neuroscience on motivation. Furthermore, our study extends the research of motivation from behavioral level to cognitive neuroscience level.
    In addition, the findings of the present study have practical significance for competence frustration management. Firstly, it helps managers to realize that sometimes employees are more brave and sometimes depressed. Scientific intervention of employees' competence frustration can improve their autonomy motivation, which will be conducive to improve enterprise performance. Secondly, we test the validity of intervention strategies through field experiments, which will further provide effective strategies for managers to scientifically manage the competence frustration of the new generation knowledge workers. Furthermore, for employees, they should actively find and create opportunities to satisfy their sense of competence in subsequent tasks if they experience short-term competence frustration, and pay attention to cultivate their own mastery goal orientation. It will help them to get more and more brave and avoid depression after setbacks, so as to boost their autonomy motivation.

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    Regular Articles
    The modality shifting effects in the multisensory integration paradigm
    GUAN Lei, LUO Wenpei, HAN Jiahui
    2022, 30 (5):  1018-1027.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01018
    Abstract ( 361 )   HTML ( 12 )  
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    Signals from different sensory channels can be integrated and processed in the brain. Compared with stimuli from a single sensory modality, individual responses are faster for multisensory target signals; this is defined as the redundant signal effect. One of the main theories explaining the redundant signal effect is the co-activation model. According to the co-activation model, the signal input through multiple sensory channels is integrated into specialized brain regions, such as the intraparietal sulcus, superior temporal sulcus, and prefrontal lobe regions. Related regions collaborate through neural oscillations. The strength of the integrated signal is stronger relative to the signal in single channel, which can trigger the reaction more quickly. However, the phase of cognitive processing at which the integration of the multisensory signals occurs is not confirmed.
    Task switching is an important paradigm for studying cognitive control. Participants are slower when completing the switch task than when completing the repetitive task. At the same time, the error rate is greater because of the switching cost. When a shift occurs between different modal stimuli, there is also a cost in relation to the sensory channel changing—the modality shift effect. That is, owing to the modality shifting between successive sensory channels, individuals have a longer reaction time. Nevertheless, few studies have thoroughly explored the neural mechanisms of the modality shift effect. When the task is switched between different modalities, modal and task are all shifted. The cost of task switching associated with the cross-modal is more than the single modality switching cost or the task switching cost but less than the sum of the two kinds of loss. This provides evidence for the hypothesis that the switching cost associated with different sensory channels is derived from inertia and interference of the task set. In addition, the modality shift effect also exists in the paradigm of the redundant signal effect. Due to the shift of the sensory channel, the reaction time of the participants would be slower for the single sensory channel. Therefore, the existence of modality shift loss provides a different approach to the two classical theoretical models to explain the source of the redundant signal effect. Moreover, when modality switching occurs between single-modal and multi-sensory signals, the modality switching cost will decrease or even disappear, which is due to the multisensory integration offsetting a part of the loss. This supports the co-activation model.
    Finally, if the stimulation in the task switch paradigm is present in a multisensory channel, there is simultaneous task shifting and multisensory integration. The redundant signal effect may offset the switching cost, affecting the synchronous changes in neural oscillations and the intensity of activation in the relevant brain regions. However, it is unclear how multisensory integration affects the neural processing of the task switch, which would require more brain and neural evidence to demonstrate. Further studies could try to solve this problem by combining the multisensory integration research paradigm with the classic task-switching paradigm, exploring whether task-switching and cross-modal shifting share a common cognitive processing center. Furthermore, future studies could help to determine the processing mechanism of the cross-modal shift, source of loss, and processing phase of multisensory integration.

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    Structure and mechanism of addictive impulsivity based on the interaction between drive and control
    ZENG Hong, AN Jingwen, HUANG Haijiao, ZHEN Jia, YANG Zhenzhi, WANG Mengcheng
    2022, 30 (5):  1028-1037.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01028
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    Impulsivity, consisted of driving forces and controlling forces, is an endophenotypic feature which predicts addiction. The driving force is the factor that determines the impulsivity of addiction, while inhibitory control plays the role of regulating the driving force. The addicts of different types all tend to act at a low level of inhibitory control and an abnormally high level of driving force. The imbalance of the two forces can result in drug abuse and relapse.
    Reward effect of substance is the main driving force of addiction. Besides, the stimulus-response association triggered by conditional learning, and the personality traits of addicts such as sensation seeking and negative urgency, are all factors associated with driving force. These psychological phenomena can trigger significant impulsivity and evoke habitual and compulsive drug use when inhibitory control is low.
    The controlling force mainly includes: the response inhibition characteristic that related to impulsivity personality trait, the cognitive control defect (waiting impulsivity) that cannot delay gratification. Behavioral and neurophysiological studies showed that addicts do possess the traits of low inhibitory control, including at least high sensation seeking and low response inhibition. Rooted in the unusual neurophysiological mechanism, these characteristics may result in the innate susceptibility to drug use and weak inhibitory control among individuals with addition. Waiting impulsivity based on ventral striatum - prefrontal lobe function may also relate to inherited personality traits.
    For individuals with addiction, response inhibition and executive control functions that regulate their impulsivity level are influenced by genetic factors and may deteriorate along the course of drug use. The inhibitory and executive control of addicts cannot regulate the tendency of drug use caused by driving forces, thus resulting in impulsive drug use in different stages of addiction.Empirical studies have found that inhibitory control functions remain largely unchanged after short-term abstinence. Moreover, the psychological phenomenon of impulsive personality, which is hereditary, is difficult to be changed within a short time. That is to say, even after a long-term abstinence, it is hardly possible for addicts to elevate the inhibitory control fundamentally. Therefore, one potential way to decrease impulsivity is to alleviate the driving force. Through reducing the reward effect, eliminating the S-R connection or reducing the appearance of related stimulus, the driving force can be decreased, thereby mitigating the impulsivity of drug use. This method might be effective in the treatment of addiction and the prevention of relapse with strong practicability and applicability.

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    Cognitive mechanism and neural basis of shyness
    LI Liang, LI Hong
    2022, 30 (5):  1038-1049.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01038
    Abstract ( 1852 )   HTML ( 91 )  
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    Shyness refers to individuals’ inhibition in a social situation; it can be an obstacle to participation in social interactions. In recent years, there has been an increase in cognitive neuroscience research on shyness. Within the frameworks of the metacognition model of shyness, the social fitness model of shyness, the lateralized brain-body emotion model of shyness, and the differential susceptibility to environmental influences model of shyness, researchers have explored the brain function differences, related brain networks, and cognitive processes underlying shyness. However, current cognitive neuroscience research on shyness is still in its infancy. For example: (1) researchers have mainly defined shyness from the perspective of personality; (2) the theoretical models of shyness are far from perfect; (3) the results of relevant empirical research have been unsystematic and inconsistent.
    Based on the above, this study proposes a psychological development model of shyness, which includes the following four perspectives. (1) Timeline of human evolution: the interaction of genetic factors (susceptibility genes), the internal environment (brain), and the external environment (such as school, family, and culture) affects the development of shyness. In the process of human evolution, human beings and their offspring showed different reactivity to the external environment, resulting in the survival of the fittest. The result of this process is that some individuals carry shyness susceptibility genes, which will not only determine their internal environment (brain) but also be affected by their internal environment (brain) and shape their metacognition and cognitive processes under the influences of school, family, culture, and other aspects of the external environment. The brain environment responsible for shyness is an expression of the interaction between the cognitive control system (centered in the prefrontal lobe) and the emotional system (centered in the amygdala-hypothalamus). Specifically, the cognitive bias/emotional arousal of shy individuals is the result of an imbalance in the regulation of the limbic system (centered in the amygdala-hypothalamus) by the prefrontal cortex. In other words, when facing an external stimulus, the amygdala of highly shy individuals is highly activated, which results in a highly emotional interpretation of low-level external stimuli, which is then projected to a wide range of brain regions including the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus then activates emotional expression by regulating the autonomic nervous system. In this process, the prefrontal cortex plays a top-down regulatory role, in which the strong activation of the right prefrontal lobe and the weak activation of the left prefrontal lobe of highly shy individuals leads to the disinhibition of the activated amygdala, hypothalamus, and other brain regions. Thus, the individual’s ability to regulate their emotions becomes weak and they cannot behave in an adaptive manner. The aspects of the internal environment that influence shyness include the differentiation of brain structure, the lateralization of brain function, and the uniqueness of the brain network. Moreover, in specific brain cognitive processing tasks, individuals with different levels of shyness have significant differences in the activity of different frequency bands and different cognitive components. (2) Timeline of individual development: the critical period of individual development affects the development of shyness. Specifically, the key development period of shyness is largely affected by the development of self-consciousness. With the maturity of self-consciousness, the externalized performance of individuals with different levels of shyness can be clearly distinguished. (3) Social situations: in specific social situations, the metacognition of shy individuals guides their cognitive processes, making them show differences in their physical, emotional, and behavioral performance. At the same time, different kinds of social situations will awaken individuals’ shyness to different degrees.
    Future research can be carried out from the following perspectives based on the psychological development model: (1) in terms of personality, clarify whether shyness describes a small number of extreme individuals or is instead a dimension that can sort the whole population; (2) explore the internal process of the emotional experience of shyness; (3) develop experimental research paradigms of shyness; (4) with the help of new brain technology, deeply explore the brain mechanism of shyness; (5) verify, expand, and improve the theoretical model related to shyness in the field of cognitive neuroscience.

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    Social motivation deficits in individuals with autism spectrum disorders
    XU Hui, WANG Tao
    2022, 30 (5):  1050-1061.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01050
    Abstract ( 521 )   HTML ( 39 )  
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    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that originated from childhood, social deficits are core symptoms of ASD. Previous studies, from a information processing perspective, proposed that a deficit in social cognitive is the cause of social impairment. However, research showed that the lack of cognitive ability was not the only reason for the social deficits of individuals with ASD, but also closely related to the social motivation deficits. Social motivation theory suggests that social motivation deficits exist in the early life of individuals with ASD and affect their subsequent development. Studying the social motivation of individuals with ASD is of great value to explain the causes of their social deficits and find the direction of intervention in the future. Therefore, this study summarizes the specific behaviors and internal and external influencing factors of social motivation deficits in individuals with ASD. In the future, it is important to comprehensively consider these factors, to strengthen the integrated research on the social motivation theory of individuals with ASD, so as to accurately understand the social motivation deficits of individuals with ASD.
    Social motivation theory suggests that social motivation is a powerful driving force to guide individual’s social behavior. The theory also highlights that social behavior is mainly manifested in social orientation, social reward and social maintenance, so this paper firstly summarizes the related researches on the behavioral level of social motivation deficits in individuals with ASD, which are mainly reflected in the following three aspects: (1) The results of social orientation research show that individuals with ASD often show impaired attention to social stimuli, reduced direct gaze on the face, reduced gaze on the eyes, etc. On the one hand, this deficit is related to their abnormal face processing strategies; on the other hand, they may have difficulties in representing the intrinsic reward value of social stimuli; (2) The results of social reward research show that social reward stimulation has no significant incentive effect on individuals with ASD. They lack the ability to experience the happiness of social interaction, can't get happiness from interaction and lack the desire to help others, which is related to the abnormality of reward processing system (amygdala, ventral striatum, prefrontal cortex and other brain regions). (3) The results of social maintenance research show that individuals with ASD have few social maintenance strategies, they are not good at maintaining social relationships with others, do not actively show their own advantages, do not actively imitate others, and lack the desire and motivation to establish and maintain good relationships with others.
    Finally, because the research conclusions of social motivation deficits in individual with ASD are not completely consistent, this paper comprehensively and systematically analyzes the influencing factors of social motivation deficits, and finds that it includes internal factors and external factors. The internal factors are mainly reflected in individuals' age, gender and physiological mechanism, while the external factors are mainly reflected in social communication environment, experimental stimulus materials, difficulty and nature of experimental tasks. In order to improve the credibility and effectiveness of the research on the social motivation of individuals with ASD, and fully and accurately grasp the characteristics of social motivation in individuals with ASD, in the future, it is important to study the social motivation deficits of individuals with ASD of different ages and genders, to optimize the experimental tasks, broaden the types of materials, further improve the experimental design, and to strengthen the integrated research on the social motivation theory of individuals with ASD, deeply explore the relationship among the behavioral, biological and evolutionary levels under this theory, and further analyze the relationship among the three behaviors of social motivation(social orientation, social reward and social maintenance).

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    Emoji image symbol’s social function and application
    JIN Yuchang, DENG Chenglong, WU Ping, LIN Xi, ZHENG Peixuan, AN Junxiu
    2022, 30 (5):  1062-1077.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01062
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    Nowadays, with the rapid development of the Internet, online communication has become increasingly popular and popular. However, due to the lack of nonverbal cues in face-to-face communication, it is difficult for people to detect the emotional state of each other, which hinders normal communication. Emoji, which compensate for nonverbal cues in online communication, have been introduced into cyberspace to compensate for the absence of gestures and facial attributes in online communication, and have been developing constantly. The development of Emojis has gone through Emoticon composed of ASCII characters, Emoji of pictographic icons and now emerging more vivid and interesting stickers. This paper will mainly comb, analyze and summarize the functions, influencing factors and interaction mechanisms of Emoji in network communication, as well as the current application of Emoji in different fields, and put forward the future research direction of Emoji based on the current research status of Emoji.
    At the beginning, Emoji is borrowed from Japanese animation symbols, and gradually developed into a widely used image symbol system. Since the creation of Emoji by Shigetaka Kurita in 1999, it has been enriched and developed continuously At present, Emoji has become a tool commonly used around the world to replace non-verbal cues such as body gestures and facial expressions in digital communication. In the process of continuous use in Internet communication, Emoji has been equipped with many functions, including expressing emotions, enhancing expression, changing tone, maintaining or enhancing interpersonal relationship, etc. At the same time, the use of Emoji is also affected by many factors, including age, gender, culture, context and platform. In addition, we also explore the interactive mechanism of Emoji in online communication from the perspective of symbol interaction theory, so as to clearly reveal the specific interaction process of people in online communication through Emoji.
    At present, with the continuous development and widespread use of Emoji, its application scope has been extended to many other fields besides Internet communication. In the field of sentiment analysis, Emoji has become an important object of sentiment analysis due to its rich emotions. In psychometrics, Emoji has been developed into a nonverbal tool for evaluating personality and depression which has the same reliability and validity as text items. In the field of commercial marketing, Emoji has begun to play a role in advertising marketing and attracting consumers, and can measure consumers' food-related emotions in the form of questionnaires. In the field of legal judgment, Emoji has gradually become a powerful evidence in judicial trials due to its widespread use. Through the above analysis and summary, we put forward the future research direction of Emoji from the following aspects: (1) explore the application and future development trend of Emoji in online communication; (2) study on the application of Emoji in other fields; (3) further explore the neurophysiological mechanism of Emoji; (4) discuss the positive effect of Emoji in online communication from the perspective of cognitive processing.

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    Fairness perceptions of artificial intelligence decision-making
    JIANG Luyuan, CAO Limei, QIN Xin, TAN Ling, CHEN Chen, PENG Xiaofei
    2022, 30 (5):  1078-1092.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01078
    Abstract ( 583 )   HTML ( 35 )  
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    Inequality is the biggest challenge for global social and economic development, which has the potential to impede the goal of global sustainable development. One way to reduce such inequality is to use artificial intelligence (AI) for decision-making. However, recent research has found that while AI is more accurate and is not influenced by personal bias, people are generally averse to AI decision-making and perceive it as being less fair. Given the theoretical and practical importance of fairness perceptions of AI decision-making, a growing number of researchers have recently begun investigating how individuals form fairness perceptions in regard to AI decision-making. However, existing research is generally quite scattered and disorganized, which has limited researchers’ and practitioners’ understanding of fairness perceptions of AI decision-making from a conceptual and systematic perspective. Thus, this review first divided the relevant research into two categories based on the type of decision makers. The first category is fairness perception research in which AI is the decision-maker. Drawn upon moral foundations theory, fairness heuristic theory, and fairness theory, these studies explain how AI characteristics (i.e., transparency, controllability, rule, and appropriateness) and individual characteristics (demographics, personalities, and values) affect individuals’ fairness perceptions. Existing research revealed that there were three main underlying cognitive mechanisms underlying the relationship between AI or individual characteristics and their fairness perceptions of AI decision-making: (a) individual characteristics and AI appropriateness affect individuals’ fairness perceptions via their moral intuition; (b) AI transparency affects individuals’ fairness perceptions via their perceived understandability; and (c) AI controllability affects individuals’ fairness perceptions via individuals’ needs fulfillment. The second category is fairness perception research that compares AI and humans as decision-makers. Based on computers are social actors (CASA) hypothesis, the algorithm reductionism perspective, and the machine heuristic model, these studies explained how individuals’ different perceptions of attributes between AI and humans (i.e., mechanistic attributes vs. societal attributes, simplified attributes vs. complex attributes, objective attributes vs. subjective attributes) affect individuals’ fairness perceptions and have revealed some inconsistent research findings. Specifically, some studies found that individuals perceive AI decision makers as being mechanical (i.e., lack of emotion and human touch) and simplified (i.e., decontextualization) than human decision makers, which leads individuals perceive that the decisions made by humans rather than AI are fairer. However, other studies found that compared to human decision makers, individuals regard AI decision makers as being more objective (i.e., consistent, neutral, and free of responsibility) than human decision makers, which leads individuals perceive that the decisions made by AI rather than human are fairer. Also, a small number of studies found that there is no significant difference in individuals’ fairness perceptions between AI decision makers and human decision makers. Such mixed findings reveal that individuals’ fairness perceptions of decision-making may be dependent on the specifical attributes of AI that individuals perceived in different contexts. Based on this systematic review, we proposed five promising directions for future research to help expand fairness perception literature in the context of AI decision-making. That is, (a) exploring the affective mechanisms underlying the relationship between AI or individual characteristics and their fairness perceptions of AI decision-making; (b) exploring the antecedents of interactional fairness perceptions of AI decision-making; (c) exploring fairness perceptions when robotic AI is the decision maker; (d) clarifying the boundary conditions when AI decision-making is considered to be fairer than human decision-making, versus when human decision-making is considered to be fairer than AI decision-making; and (e) exploring fairness perceptions when AI and humans make decisions jointly. We hope this review contribute to the understanding of individuals' fairness perceptions of AI decision-making theoretically and practically.

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    A three-dimensional motivation model of algorithm aversion
    ZAHNG Yuyan, XU Liying, YU Feng, DING Xiaojun, WU Jiahua, ZHAO Liang
    2022, 30 (5):  1093-1105.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01093
    Abstract ( 303 )   HTML ( 17 )  
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    In recent years, algorithmic decision-making has rapidly penetrated human social life by virtue of its speedability, accuracy, objectivity and applicability. However, although algorithms are often superior in performance, people are reluctant to use algorithm decisions instead of human decisions - a phenomenon known as algorithm aversion. The three-dimensional motivation model of algorithm aversion summarizes the three main reasons: the doubt of algorithm agents, the lack of moral standing, and the annihilation of human uniqueness. It simulates the intuitive thinking framework of human beings when faced with algorithm decisions, i.e., several progressive questions that humans are expected to ask when faced with algorithm decisions: First, are algorithms capable of making decisions? The answer to this question is often negative. Humans usually doubt and distrust the algorithm’s ability, thus causing algorithm aversion, which is the trust/doubt motivation. Second, even if algorithms are capable of making decisions, does it benefit individuals? Of course, the answer to this question is usually negative as well. The reason why algorithms cannot benefit individuals is that human beings tend to shift responsibility when making decisions, but the lack of moral standing and ability to take responsibility makes algorithms useless for the shifting of responsibility. Therefore, the second motivation of algorithm aversion is responsibility-taking/shifting. Third, even if algorithms are capable and trustworthy to make decisions and take moral responsibility, do algorithm decisions positively impact human beings? The answer to this question is also negative because humans will lose control due to algorithmic decision-making. This will result in the perception of dehumanization due to the annihilation of human identity, thus eventually rejecting the algorithms, which is the motivation of control/loss of control. Given these motivations of algorithm aversion, increasing human trust in algorithms, strengthening algorithm agents’ responsibility, and exploring personalized algorithms to salient human control over algorithms should be three feasible options to weaken algorithm aversion. Future research could further explore the boundary conditions and other possible motivations of algorithm aversion from a more social perspective, such as the need for cognitive closure and psychological connection.

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    The role of time perception in intertemporal decision-making: New exploration of time decision-making model
    BI Cuihua, QI Huaiyuan
    2022, 30 (5):  1106-1118.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01106
    Abstract ( 789 )   HTML ( 57 )  
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    Intertemporal decision-making is very frequent in life, and they require individuals to weigh the outcomes at different points of time before making a choice. Time and value are the basic dimensions of intertemporal decision-making, and decision-makers have to consider value as well as more about the impact of time interval. Although many studies have explored the value dimension, there are still many doubts in the time dimension. A growing body of research suggests that people's subjective perception of the time interval, as opposed to the objective time interval, is the direct factor influencing the intertemporal decision. Therefore, the traditional exponential discount and hyperbolic models do not explain the variability in intertemporal decision-making in terms of time perception. How does time perception affect individuals' intertemporal decision-making? What are the theoretical and neural mechanisms behind the role of time perception? What are the shortcomings of the existing theoretical models? Answering these queries is essential for further research on the relationship between time perception and intertemporal decision-making.
    The role of time perception on intertemporal decision-making mainly consists of three ways: (1) Time length perception, which refers to people's subjective estimation of the distance of delay time. The shorter the perceived time length, the less patience people have to wait for the delayed benefit. (2) Time resource perception, which refers to the estimation of how much time resources people have at their disposal. The less time resources people perceive, the more they prefer immediate benefits. (3) Time frame perception, which refers to the change of time description will affect individuals' decision preferences. For example, when the direction of time points to the future, and people are more likely to magnify the value of future gains subjectively.
    In terms of the neural mechanisms underlying the role of temporal perception, intertemporal decision-making at the micro-level is closely related to the activation of temporal length perception, subjective value assessment, and impulsivity-related brain regions. In contrast, intertemporal decision-making is closely related to cortico-limbic-striatal neural circuits at the macro level. Researchers have proposed different theoretical models to explain the behavioral dimension of the role of temporal perception. The mainstream theories mainly include the logarithmic/exponential time discount model, the perceived time based model, and the multi-attribute drift diffusion model. The logarithmic/exponential time discount model is constructed based on the exponential discount model, which replaces the original objective time distance with time length perception. The perceived time based model is built to describe the variability of individual time perception. The Multi-attribute drift diffusion model is mainly used to describe the contribution of the attention to the time or value dimension of the decision-making. We believe that the above models only expose the mechanism of time perception from one aspect of the psychological process and lack a unified theory to describe the process of intertemporal decision-making as a whole. In general, the existing models have two limitations: (1) The effect of time perception on intertemporal decision-making differs between the long and short time spacing conditions. (2) People's preferences for intertemporal decision-making differ in actual and expected situations. In order to more accurately describe and explain the psychological mechanism of time perception influencing intertemporal decision making, future studies should strengthen the exploration of the process mechanism and try to construct a unified theoretical model of time perception-intertemporal decision making. Meanwhile, the study of neurophysiological mechanisms should be strengthened, from which the rationality of the theoretical model can be verified. In addition, it is necessary to pay attention to the application value of the research and design the training method of time perception to reduce the probability of people's irrational decision-making.

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    Compensatory control in public emergencies
    RAO Tingting, ZHU Xiaowen, YANG Shenlong, BAI Jie
    2022, 30 (5):  1119-1130.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01119
    Abstract ( 509 )   HTML ( 19 )  
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    Public emergencies refer to social events that occur suddenly, cause, or may cause serious social harm and require emergency measures in dealing with them. Previous studies have focused on the psychological and behavioral responses of individuals during public emergencies. However, most of these studies have focused on describing psychological phenomena rather than exploring psychological mechanisms. Thus, the present article proposes that compensatory control theory can be used as a basic theoretical framework to understand a series of psychological and behavioral manifestations of individuals in the context of public emergencies. The core idea of this theory is that when individuals lack a sense of control, they tend to show a variety of reactions that have a common motivation; that is seeking structure. We analyzed the applicability of compensatory control theory to explain individuals’ psychological performance in the context of public emergencies from four perspectives. First, after major public emergencies occur, conspiracy theories on the cause of the event often follow. From the perspective of compensatory control theory, when individuals’ sense of control is threatened due to the occurrence of public emergencies, they tend to form conspiratorial thinking to some extent. Hence, they are eager to obtain a sense of order or structure to compensate. Since it is often difficult for authorities to immediately give a definitive answer about the cause of the incident, the conspiracy theory is often believed, which satisfies people’s search for causality and certainty. Second, during public emergencies, people tend to believe in and spread rumors. From the perspective of compensatory control theory, this can also be interpreted as individuals’ need to obtain a sense of structure brought about by deterministic information in a crisis, which leads to blind acceptance of unreliable information. Third, people exposed to public emergencies will also show stronger concern for moral issues, which, according to the compensatory control theory, is an individual’s search for certain social values. Further, the need for order and structure still matters when focusing on values. By emphasizing the objective standard of morality and strengthening the value that they believe in, people can achieve a sense of structure and order to some extent and thus, compensate for the lack of perceived control. Finally, in the context of public emergencies, there is another typical public behavior: irrational buying and hoarding of commodities required for daily life or event protection materials. This phenomenon can also be partially attributed to the performance of the individual need for structure. Due to the lack of a sense of control, individuals need to satisfy their internal needs for control and order through the possession of tangible material resources, which leads to their irrational purchasing behavior. These typical symptoms (belief in conspiracy theories, spreading rumors, moral concerns, and irrational hoarding) can also be explained by other social psychological theories to some extent. For example, by analyzing an individual’s fear of death and the worldview defense process used to overcome this fear, terror management theory can explain an individual’s focus on moral values. Similarly, the uncertainty management theory and meaning maintenance model can also explain some psychological and behavioral reactions of individuals in public emergencies. However, we believe that compensatory control theory has a unique advantage in understanding the above phenomena. This is because it has a clearer definition of antecedents (lack of perceived control) and consequences (need for structure) and shows a wide range of explanatory power and cross-cultural applicability. We suggest that in future studies, people’s psychological and behavioral responses to public emergencies should be further explored from the perspective of compensatory control. In addition, future research should delve deeper to explore this issue from theoretical, empirical, and practical perspectives.

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    Modesty brings gains: The mechanisms of individual psychology and social culture
    ZHENG Chuhua, WANG Xin, WU Yanhong
    2022, 30 (5):  1131-1142.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01131
    Abstract ( 497 )   HTML ( 38 )  
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    Modesty, or humility, is a character strength and virtue jointly advocated by Eastern and Western cultures, which promotes individuals’ well-being and helps us better cope with risks and difficulties. In the past two decades, researchers from different fields have studied the concept structure, measurement method, influencing factors, and effects of modesty, and made important progress.
    From the perspective of psychology, modesty has been regarded as an important personality trait, which involves the individual internal and interpersonal characteristics, such as moderate self-perception, low self-centeredness along with high pro-social tendencies, and less self-enhancing or boastful. The phenomenon of "modesty brings gains" is also reflected in individual and interpersonal aspects. Modesty helps individuals evaluate themselves objectively and accurately, reduces self-enhancement bias, and has a positive impact on the individuals’ mental health; modesty helps individuals succeed in interpersonal communication, reduces interpersonal conflicts, and maintains good interpersonal relationships; modesty can promote teamwork within the organization, maintain team harmony, and be helpful for the long-term development of the individual and organization. However, the question of how modesty functions has not yet been fully explained.
    Based on previous studies, the current work examined the mechanism of "modesty brings gains" from three perspectives: cognition, motivation, and norms. The cognitive hypothesis of "self-knowledge" suggests that modesty is an individual's willingness to seek objective and accurate self-knowledge or the ability to correctly view their strengths and weaknesses. It includes two internal processes: metacognition and low self-centeredness. From the perspective of metacognition, modesty involves the individual's static awareness and reflective evaluation of self-related information, as well as the dynamic process of self-regulation. Low self-centeredness means that modest individuals have low self-centered tendencies, no sense of entitlement and superiority, and are good at discovering the advantages of others and affirming their contributions.
    The motivation hypothesis of "social oil" focuses on the social characteristics of modesty and emphasizes the important role of modesty in creating, regulating, and maintaining harmonious interpersonal relationships. Modesty is a polite rule in social interaction, conveying the message of friendliness, cooperation, and altruism. People who take modest self-presentation strategy can avoid potential interpersonal risks, protect others' self-esteem, and maintain balance in interpersonal relationships. Modest individuals will not only in the aspect of behavior control their desire and impulse, and act more fairly in cognitive level, which helps to maintain social harmony.
    The normative hypothesis of "traditional virtues" pays attention to the cultural attributes of modesty, and emphasizes the influence of social and cultural environmental factors on the formation and adaptability of modesty. In Chinese culture, modest is not only a personal inherent trait but also an important social norm that affects people's behaviors in social interactions. The norm of modesty is a kind of social script, which limits the social behaviors that individuals should make in interpersonal interaction. Violating the norms of modesty can easily arouse people's resentment, even hostility and exclusion.
    Modesty is a complex psychological phenomenon involving multiple aspects such as personality, cognition, culture, and society. The current study provided explanations of the mechanism of "modesty brings gains" from three perspectives, and future research is encouraged to explore the connotation and psychological structure, the potential boundary conditions and neural basis of modesty.

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    Multiple team membership and its mechanism
    FANG Qi, LUAN Kun
    2022, 30 (5):  1143-1157.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01143
    Abstract ( 360 )   HTML ( 19 )  
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    Because of the continuous shortage of valuable knowledge workers, and the rapid development of digital technology, multiple team membership (referred to as MTM) becomes more and more common in organizations. Compared to the prevalence of MTM in practice, research on MTM and its influence lags far behind and is still in its infancy in China. In order to improve the theoretical studies of MTM and guide the effectiveness of management practice, we systematically review the relevant and important research findings of MTM, summarize and develop the theoretical explanations of MTM, and introduce several promising directions for future research.
    Previous literature defined MTM on different levels. Specifically, individual-level MTM is defined as a situation in which employees formally participate in multiple teams within a given period of time and invest corresponding time and energy in each team; organizational-level MTM refers to the average of team memberships owned by all employees in an organization. Extant studies on MTM have mainly focused on the “number of teams” and the “variety of teams memberships”, and looked at these two elements to examine the effects of MTM. They found that, on the one hand, MTM is likely to promote the effectiveness of resource utilization and help employees approach diverse information and ideas, resulting in a better productivity; on the other hand, with the increase in the number of teams and the variety of those teams, employees can become overloaded, and thus MTM might have negative implications on employee performance. In sum, although previous research has conducted several explorations of the effects of MTM, unfortunately, current results have failed to reach a consensus.
    To further clarify the connotation of MTM and deepen MTM research, we underscore two important characteristics of MTM: multiple team contexts and multiple team identifications. Multiple team contexts emphasizes the differences in team processes and team emergent states between teams in which employees participate simultaneously; multiple team identifications focuses on MTM employees' identification with multiple team identities nested within individuals. These two characteristics extend MTM research by drawing attention to the difference in team processes and team emergence states, and MTM employees’ multiple identifications, which are overlooked by previous MTM studies that focus on “number of teams” and “variety of team memberships”. The exploration based on the two characteristics further reflects the uniqueness of MTM and helps to explain the divergence of conclusions in existing studies.This review has further organized the current research progress based on attention resource perspective, social network theory and social identity theory. Attention resource perspective mainly focuses on employee resource allocation, wastage and efficiency caused by MTM, which provides a solid theoretical foundation for MTM research. However, the contradictory research findings indicate that it is not sufficient to analyze the mechanisms of MTM from the attention resource perspective only. Following studies begin to consider the multiple team contexts that employees need to face from the perspective of social network, and to explore the influence of multiple team identifications that employees need to handle from the perspective of social identity. However, relevant research has just started, and a large number of empirical studies will be needed to further explain the mechanisms of MTM.
    This review further provides five important research directions for future research of MTM. First of all, scholars could introduce the social network position and personal agency when they explore the influence of MTM based on social network theory. Second, based on social identity theory, scholars need to focus on how employees manage the relationship between multiple team identities, especially how they respond to the potential enhancement or conflict deriving from multiple team identities, and how the superordinate identity (i.e., organizational identity) could moderate the impact of multiple team identities on MTM employees. The third suggestion is to integrate different theories and to further deepen our understanding of the mechanisms of MTM. For example, future studies could explain how, based on social identity theory, MTM employees perceive and manage multiple team identities and predict their proximal motivations, and then combine the attention resource perspective and social network theory to further depict the distal mechanisms of MTM to influence employees and teams. We also encourage future studies to consider the influence of the time factor on the mechanism of MTM and to conduct more studies with a dynamic perspective. Fifthly, considering that in the digital era, a variety of collaboration technologies and artificial intelligence are being introduced in the workplace and affecting employee learning and career development as well as team work designs, how to design and deploy advanced technologies to promote MTM employees’ work productivity and collective performance will be a very meaningful research question in the future. Additionally, this review also discusses the practical implication of MTM and how to manage MTM especially in the digital era.

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    Psychological and behavioral responses of leaders toward proactive behaviors from subordinates
    GUO Yudong, OU Qiwen, DUAN Jinyun
    2022, 30 (5):  1158-1167.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01158
    Abstract ( 485 )   HTML ( 34 )  
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    Employee proactive behaviors have so many benefits for the actors and their organizations that it has received extensive attention from scholars and practitioners. Previous studies on the consequences of proactive behavior mainly explored it from different levels (individual, team or organization) or the direction of influence (positive vs. negative), and left the psychological and behavioral reactions of leaders underexplored. Enlightened by the followership research, which highlights the important and active role of employees in actively shaping leaders’ mind and behavior, and wise proactive behaviors, which call on scholars to do more comprehensive exploration about the consequences of proactive behaviors to provide more effective practical guidance and achieve optimal results, we thus believe that to review and summarize leaders' psychological and behavioral responses to employees' proactive behavior has great theoretical values and practical implications.
    Because of different orientations, the same form of proactive behavior (e.g., promotive voice vs. prohibitive voice; positive feedback seeking vs. negative feedback seeking) will lead to leaders’ different attitudinal (likes vs. dislikes) and behavioral responses (support vs. opposition), and the influence process will be shaped by many factors from different aspects. In specific, at present, scholars have made preliminary exploration on the function mechanisms how subordinate proactive behavior affects leaders’ psychological and behavioral reactions based on attribution theory, implicit following theory, self-other rating agreement theory and other explanatory theories. The results found that when facing subordinate proactive behaviors, leaders will experience a series of cognitive appraisal process, then determine their attitude according to the behavioral intention of focal subordinates and the potential benefits and costs of such behavior, and further take action to promote or restrain the development of the proactive behavior and strengthen or break their current relationship simultaneously. In addition, the factors from employees, leaders and situations will affect the leaders’ cognitive evaluation and attribution process about subordinate proactive behaviors, and enhance or weaken the leaders’ various psychological and behavioral responses. Specifically, the factors from employees, such as employees’ demographic characteristics, personal traits and some abilities, will affect the attribution process of leaders, which will lead to different coping responses of leaders. As for the factors from leaders’ side, for example, leaders' traits and resources will affect leaders' internal expectations of employees' behaviors. When employees' proactive behaviors conform to or deviate from such expectations, leaders' cognitive evaluation and behavioral responses will change accordingly. The situations, like organizational goals, atmosphere and other situational factors, may reflect leaders' work demands or orientation, and whether employees' proactive behavior is helpful to the realization of leaders' such goals will determine the nature of leaders' responses.
    Focusing on the perspective of leaders, this study reviewed and summarized the literature about effect of employees' proactive behaviors on their leaders. We found that scholars had explored the attitudinal and behavioral reactions of leaders toward employees' proactive behaviors, but the research on leaders’ emotional reactions and other psychological states was insufficient, which will limit our understanding about proactive behaviors. Besides, most extant studies inferred leaders’ internal responses from their behaviors or performance evaluations about the focal employees, which indicated the deficiency of straightforward and deep exploration about leaders’ internal responses. Therefore, future research can (1) refine the extant explorations about the relationship between subordinate proactive behaviors and leaders’ attitudes, examine leaders’ responses directly and deepen the research on its influence mechanism; (2) further explore the potential psychological and behavioral responses of leaders induced by subordinate proactive behavior, such as leaders’ self-efficacy; (3) explore the bi-directional causal relationship between employee proactive behaviors and leadership style, and development trend of such bi-directional relationship; (4) expand the multi-level research on leader's responses to employee proactive behaviors.

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    Research Method
    Types, characteristics and application of termination rules in computerized classification testing
    REN He, HUANG Yingshi, CHEN Ping
    2022, 30 (5):  1168-1182.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01168
    Abstract ( 195 )   HTML ( 10 )  
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    Computerized classification testing (CCT) can adaptively classify test-takers into two or more different categories, and it has been widely used in qualifying tests and clinical psychology or medical diagnosis. As an essential part of CCT, the termination rule determines when the test is to be stopped and to which category the test-taker is ultimately classified into, directly affecting the test efficiency and classification accuracy. According to the theoretical basis of the termination rules, existing rules can be roughly divided into the likelihood ratio, Bayesian decision theory, and confidence interval rules. And their core ideas are constructing hypothesis tests, designing loss functions, and comparing the relative positions of confidence intervals, respectively. At the same time, when constructing specific termination rules, the requirement of different test scenarios (e.g., the number of categories and the number of tests’ dimensions) should also be considered.
    There are advantages and disadvantages to each of the three types of termination rules. Specifically, the likelihood ratio rule is based on the likelihood ratio test, with better theoretical properties. However, the method requires prior determination of the indifference interval and the type I and II error rates, introducing the impact of subjective factors. Also, it is more challenging to extend the method in complex test situations, such as multidimensional and multicategory CCT. Bayesian decision theory rules make classification decisions based on the loss function. It can dynamically optimize the decision from a more global perspective since it works backward from the final stage of the test. In addition, the variety of loss functions makes the method very flexible in form and makes it easy to be applied to different test situations. However, in practice, the flexibility will inevitably result in the uncertainty of the choice of loss function, and the inappropriate loss function may be biased. The confidence interval method is the most straightforward because of its relatively simple principle and low computational effort. However, this method is less robust and has a relatively low test efficiency.
    Currently, CCT is mainly applied in eligibility tests and clinical medicine questionnaires. In eligibility tests, all three types of termination rules have the potential to be widely applied. However, in practice, the principles of the likelihood ratio rule and the Bayesian decision theory rule are not easily understood by the general public, and these methods are also accompanied by the problem of over-exposure of items for their preference of cut-point based item selection methods. Therefore, the confidence interval rule, which is relatively simple in principle and has alleviated item exposure, has been widely used in existing qualifying tests. Bayesian decision theory rules are more applicable in clinical questionnaires because of their finer control over various classification losses.
    The following can be considered for future research on CCT termination rules. First, Bayesian decision theory rules can be improved by considering non-statistical constraints with the help of the flexibility of its loss function. Second, termination rules can be developed for multidimensional and multicategory CCT to meet more practical needs. Third, termination rules that integrate response time can be developed to improve test efficiency and classification accuracy. Fourth, it is possible to construct termination rules under the framework of machine learning.

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    Moderation analysis and its effect size based on a two-level regression model
    FANG Jie, WEN Zhonglin
    2022, 30 (5):  1183-1190.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01183
    Abstract ( 548 )   HTML ( 25 )  
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    In recent years, multiple regression has been widely used in social sciences to analyze the moderating effect. However, this practice was found to have at least four weaknesses. First, the concept of moderation is artificially treated as interaction. Second, the role of the predictor X is confounded with that of the moderator Z. That is, the roles of the predictor and the moderator are statistically indistinguishable, or the moderation effect of Z equals that of X. Third, the assumption of homoscedasticity of error variances across different values of X and Z is often violated by data in social and behavioral sciences. Violating this assumption often results in an inflated Type Ⅱ error rate and a low power. Fourth, △R2 does not directly measure the effect of moderation as conceptually defined. That is, a measure that reflects the impact of Z on the relationship between X and Y (i.e., X→Y) should be used to quantify the moderating effect.
    Compared to multiple regression, the two-level regression model has many advantages in the analysis of moderating effect. First, the two-level regression model does not require the homoscedasticity assumption in moderation analysis. Second, the two-level regression model allows the regression coefficients of a dependent variable Y on predictor X (i.e., X→Y) are further regressed on moderator variables Z. Therefore, the two-level regression model permits estimating the percentage of variance of each regression coefficient that is due to moderator variables (i.e., the moderation effect size). The two-level regression model directly shows us to what extent a moderator explains the variance of the regression coefficient between the dependent variable and the predictor.
    At the present study, we propose a procedure to analyze the moderating effect based on the two-level regression model. The first step is to determine the moderating effect using the two-level regression model. If the variance of the error εi1 of the level 2 slope equation is statistically significant, the result of the two-level regression model and the corresponding effect size should be reported. Otherwise, go to the second step. In the second step, multiple regression was used to work out the moderating effect. If the Bayesian information criterion of the two-level regression model is smaller than that of the multiple regression, the result of the two-level regression model and the corresponding effect size should be reported. Otherwise, the result of the multiple regression and the corresponding effect size △R2 should be reported.
    We exemplify how to conduct the proposed procedure by using Mplus. It is noteworthy that, with this software, a two-level regression model could be built via a “trick” for 2-level model with single level data. The Mplus syntax is offered to facilitate the implementation of two-level regression model in analyzing moderated mediation effects. The program can be managed easily by empirical researchers.
    Directions for future study on two-level regression model are discussed at the end of the paper. First, if data contains outliers or heavy tails, robust methods of two-Level regression model should be adapted. Second, if the measurement error of the variables needs to be taken into account, two-level moderated latent variable model should be adapted. Third, two-level regression model could be used to analyze the mediated moderation model and moderated mediation model.

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