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ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    Conceptual Framework
    Regulation of facial trustworthiness evaluation: The proposal and empirical verification of the experience transfer hypothesis
    QI Yue, QIN Shaotian, WANG Kexin, CHEN Wenfeng
    2022, 30 (4):  715-722.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00715
    Abstract ( 1953 )   HTML ( 109 )  
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    The impression of trustworthiness based on facial appearance plays an important role in interpersonal trust and cooperative behavior. Previous research results have indicated that a variety of additional information (e.g., facial features, context) could affect facial judgments by both bottom-up and top-down processes. However, the mechanism of the two adjustment factors is still unclear. Focusing on this issue, our previous research has found that the top-down process is dominant when both approaches work together. Based on previous findings, the current research proposes the “experience transfer hypothesis”, that is, whether additional information could adjust the trustworthy evaluation of the current face is depended on the evaluator’s previous experience and its generalization results. Experience generalization determines the success of experience transfer. When new cues are lack of similarity to the cues from previous experiences or when previous cues are not strongly associated with the propensity to trust, the experience of trust will not be transferred to the new condition and thus the adjustment factors will fail. When people face two conflicting adjustment cues, the cue which is more similar to the previous cues that are closely related to trust tendencies will dominate the adjustment effect. Under the experience transfer hypothesis framework, this research will design and conduct behavioral experiments to verify the critical role of previous experience in adjusting facial trustworthiness. At the same time, we will use neuroimaging techniques to explore the cognitive neural mechanism of facial trustworthiness adjustment. For this purpose, three studies have been designed in the present research. Study 1 is designed to investigate the cognitive mechanism of the bottom-up and top-down adjustment factors and verify the moderating effect of experience transfer on the evaluation of facial trustworthiness. Regarding the adjustment effect, Study 2 will explore the boundary conditions of experience transfer from three different aspects: the similarity of visual cues, the correlation between visual cues and the tendency to trust, and the contrast effect of different visual cues. Referring to the adjustment process, by using neuroimaging techniques, Study 3 will explore the influence of adjustment direction, and clarify the neural mechanism of facial trustworthiness evaluation.

    This project proposes the “experience transfer hypothesis” theoretically and introduces the variable “experience” into the process of facial evaluation adjustment, providing new ideas and empirical evidence to deepen our understanding of how interpersonal trust builds. Moreover, this research will systematically answer the question that how people use previous experiences to adjust the evaluation of facial trustworthiness on a given first impression. We will explore the boundary conditions of experience transfer, the influence of adjustment directions on the evaluation of facial trustworthiness, and find out the reason for the failure of facial evaluation adjustments. The solution to the above problems will help to deepen the exploration of the mechanism of trust behavior and improve the theory of facial evaluation. It has important theoretical significance for our in-depth understanding and discussion of the regulation mechanism of interpersonal trust. Meanwhile, it can help people improve interpersonal trust while maintaining their original appearance through the establishment of external experience. This research will provide the empirical basis for further prediction and adjustment of interpersonal trust behavior, offer suggestions for creating a harmonious and credible interpersonal relationship and social atmosphere, and guide people to adjust their own trust levels more effectively.

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    User acceptance mechanism and usage promotion strategy of AI services based on mind perception theory
    DENG Shichang, XU Qi, ZHANG Jingjing, LI Xiangqian
    2022, 30 (4):  723-737.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00723
    Abstract ( 771 )   HTML ( 34 )  
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    Many enterprises have adopted AI services to respond to customer needs, yet several studies indicate that users are not always satisfied with AI in service. This study explores the key factors that drive users' attitudes toward AI services and usage promotion strategies based on the generation and influence of users' mind perceptions of AI, which including

    (1) Mechanism analysis: How do the cues and experiential factors of users' early contact with AI lead to the perception that AI is “good at computing but not feeling”? This study argues that past frustrations with AI in emotional-social service scenarios and mass media portrayals of AI as “highly intelligent and low in emotional intelligence” have led users to develop the perception that AI is good at computation but lacks feelings. This makes users willing to use AI for functional purposes only in cognitive-analytical tasks, but not like to establish empathic connections with AI in emotional-social tasks.

    (2) Moderating effects: How do different internal user states and external AI features moderate the formation and activation of this mind perception toward AI? This study believes that higher frequency of AI use and technology use self-efficacy make individuals more likely to establish para-friendship relationships with AI, those two factors that inhibit the formation of mind perceptions that users believe AI is good at computing but lacks feeling. On the other hand, the degree of anthropomorphism and the degree of flexibility in the task influenced individuals' cognitive cues to AI, those two factors that inhibit the activation of the user's mind perception toward AI.

    (3) Facilitation strategies: With the reverse utilization of mind perception, how can the mimicry of AI as warmth animals and the provision of technical assistance enable users to accept services from AI in a wider range of scenarios? This study proposes that by designing an information framework that demonstrates the computational power of AI and at the same time, mimics AI as an animal with “high warmth” quality, it can reconcile the paradox of “AI is good at computation but lacks feeling” and promote the user's perception of AI's empathic ability. This will increase users' willingness to use AI in emotional-social tasks. On the other hand, providing users with tips and technical assistance when interacting with AI can help build a joint interaction model between AI and humans, reduce users' concerns about AI's lack of empathic capacity, and increase people's willingness to use AI in emotional-social tasks.

    This study attempts to construct a new model of AI service acceptance based on the theory of mind perception at the theoretical level and provide a psychological reference for theoretically explaining users' ambivalent attitudes toward AI services. At the practical level, this study attempts to propose two pathways to facilitate users' acceptance of AI services with the help of mind perception theory and provide a technical reference for enterprises to enhance the effectiveness of AI applications in their service processes.

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    Meta-Analysis
    Early screening tools for Autism Spectrum Disorder in infancy and toddlers
    CHEN Guanghua, TAO Guanpeng, ZHAI Luyu, BAI Xuejun
    2022, 30 (4):  738-760.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00738
    Abstract ( 921 )   HTML ( 44 )  
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    The purpose of screening research is to provide a comprehensive understanding about the risks of early identification of autism spectrum disorder. This study comprehensively and systematically reviewed the commonly-used screening tools for early detection of autism in infants and preschool children. Under the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA), we queried the topic “screening tools for autism spectrum disorder” against the three major literature retrieval databases (WOS, Scopus, PubMed) and obtained 175 articles, of which 35 articles and 18 corresponding screening tools were further evaluated to comply with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) checklist. These tools were analyzed from the aspects of application level, psychometric and measurement properties, cultural adaptability, diagnostic criteria and classification accuracy. From the aspect of application level, the screening tools were categorized into three levels based on the types of screening samples, wherein Level- I screening tools, totaling up to 4, focus on general-purpose screening of population and the examination of other developmental disorders, and the evaluation is mainly based on the reports from parents; Level-II screening tools, totaling up to 8, were mainly based on the clinical reports from well-trained clinicians or the observations from the interactions between trained professionals and children; the hybrid-level screening tools, totaling up to 6, were based on the Level-I general population and the Level-II clinical samples. From the aspect of psychometric and measurement properties, existing studies only adopted several metrics of reliability and validity, e.g., internal consistency reliability, rater reliability, test-retest reliability and criterion validity, to evaluate the psychometric properties of screening tools,, whereas the other metrics such as split half reliability, measurement error, content validity, structural validity, cross-cultural validity and hypothesis test were seldom adopted except in only a few studies, and one-third studies did not carry out any psychometric evaluation, potentially resulting in the high-risk bias of QUADAS-2. From the aspect of cultural adaptability, the series of M-CHAT tools(M-CHAT, M-CHAT/F,M-CHAT-R/F), subjected to extensive evaluation in multiple languages, have demonstrated obvious cultural adaptability, and were recognized as the most widely-used and the most famous screening tool based on parent reports. However, there is an increasing trend that screening tools developed to be localized to the culture and languages in communities or countries with scarce resources. From the aspect of diagnostic standards, the DSM-IV or DSM-IV-TR (accounting for 43%) were still used as the main reference standard instead of the DSM-5 manual (accounting for 34%). It was concluded from sensitivity and specificity that the tools for preschool children outperform those for infants in terms of classification accuracy. The tools rated as good level for infants include M-CHAT-R/F and PDQ-1, and the tools rated as excellent level for children include OERA and TIDOS, wherein M-CHAT-R / F is one of the most promising screening tools for estimating the risks of autism spectrum disorder. Lastly, we discussed the limitations of QUADAS-2 and the necessity of choosing stringent quality assessment measures and the importance of further validating these measurements.

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    Challenge-hindrance stressors and innovation: A meta-analysis
    WANG Jiayan, LAN Yuanmei, LI Chaoping
    2022, 30 (4):  761-780.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00761
    Abstract ( 527 )   HTML ( 43 )  
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    Employee innovation is the focus of current organizational behavior research, and the high demand for employee innovation and change in enterprises lead to the high pressure that employees face at work. Several studies have been conducted by researchers on the relationship between work stressors and employee innovation. Current empirical research findings on the relationship between challenge-hindrance stressors and employee innovation vary, for example, in terms of relationship strength and relationship direction. Employee innovation is found to have positive, negative, and nonlinear relationships with the challenge-hindrance stressors. Furthermore, the mechanism and boundary conditions for the challenge-hindrance stressors that affect employee innovation have not been fully revealed. Based on the current state of research on the relationship between the challenge-hindrance stressors and employee innovation, this study used the challenge-hindrance stressors model to investigate the relationship between different types of challenge-hindrance stressors and employee innovation through the meta-analysis method.

    According to literature retrieval and screening, keywords such as challenging stressor(s) (workload, job complexity, task conflict, and time pressure), hindrance stressor(s) (role stress, interpersonal conflict, and job insecurity), and innovation (individual creativity, individual innovation behavior, and individual innovation performance) were included. Finally, 149 independent studies with 141 articles were included for the analysis, with a total sample size of 46,261. For the analysis, we used the psychmeta meta-analysis package in R, which included publication bias tests, main effect tests, heterogeneity tests, and moderating effect analyses.

    The publication bias results showed that the p values of Egger’s regression coefficient and Begg rank correlation test for challenging stressor, hindrance stressor, and their subgroups were insignificant (p > 0.05). The heterogeneity test was significant, indicating that the random effect model was suitable for the study. The main effect results showed that the task complexity and task conflict in challenge stressor and subgroups had a positive effect on employee innovation. Hindrance stressor had a negative impact on employee innovation. Cultural differences, data sources, and data collection time had different moderating effects on the relationship between different stressors and innovation, which can be expressed as follows. (1) Compared with individualism orientation, under the background of high collectivism orientation, high power distance, and a long-term orientation, the hindrance stressor had a stronger and significantly negative correlation with employee innovation, while under the background of high collectivism orientation, the hindrance stressor had a significantly positive correlation with employee innovation. (2) Compared with other-rating, when the data comes from employee self-rating, challenge stressor had a stronger and significantly positive correlation with innovation, and hindrance stressor had a stronger and significantly negative correlation with innovation. (3) compared with longitudinal study, in the cross-sectional study, challenging stressor has a stronger positive effect on employee innovation, while data collection time has insignificant moderating effect on the relationship between hindrance stressor and employee innovation.

    Consequently, we aimed to investigate the strength and direction of the relationship between binary work stressors and employee innovation in a large sample and consider the potential moderating effects of cultural differences, data sources, and data collection time points. The results of this study will provide a reference model for future enterprise management practices, such as maintaining a reasonable pressure level and category control, encouraging employee innovation within the organization, and improving the innovation performance and core competitiveness of individuals and organizations.

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    A meta-analysis of the relationship between leadership styles and employee creative performance: A self-determination perspective
    LIN Xinqi, LUAN Yuxiang, ZHAO Kai, ZHAO Guolong
    2022, 30 (4):  781-801.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00781
    Abstract ( 780 )   HTML ( 61 )  
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    Facing the complex challenges from the environment, if organizations want to survive and develop continuously, they must insist on innovation. Employee creative performance affects the innovation of the entire organization deeply. Thus, managers, scholars, or policymakers are paying more and more attention to employee creative performance. Among the factors that affect employees’ innovation, leadership style plays a vital role. Plenty of leadership styles (e.g., transformational, transactional, and authentic leadership) may influence employee creative performance. Which kind of leadership style has a higher correlation with employee creative performance? To answer this question, drawing on self-determination theory (SDT), we proposed a theoretical framework, to explain the differences of correlations between different leadership and employee creative performance. To begin with, we hypothesized that transformational leadership, transactional leadership, authentic leadership, ethical leadership, servant leadership, inclusive leadership, empowering leadership, and leader-member exchange are positively related to employee creative performance. Among these leadership styles, authentic leadership had the highest correlation. Then, we hypothesized in the following situations(1) when the sample comes from a country with high individualism, (2) when the creative performance is evaluated by others, and (3) when the data is collected at multiple time points, the correlations between leadership style and employee creative performance were lower. Finally, we detected the potential moderating effects of the measurement of leadership and creative performance

    We used meta-analysis to summarize evidences from 432 independent empirical studies (229 Chinese studies and 203 English studies, with a total sample size of 161599 to test our hypothesis. To begin with, we searched the studies from multi-databases. Then, we coded the necessary information from the previous survey studies. Next, the Hunter-Schmidt random effect meta-analysis method was used to correct statistical artifacts (e.g., measuring error and sampling error) and evaluate the true score correlations. Finally, subgroup analysis was used to detect the potential moderating effects.

    The results showed that: (1) transactional leadership (ρ = 0.273), ethical leadership (ρ = 0.300), transformational leadership (ρ = 0.364), servant leadership (ρ = 0.400), leader-member exchange(ρ = 0.401), empowering leadership (ρ = 0.402), inclusive leadership (ρ = 0.457), and authentic leadership (ρ = 0.475) had significant positive correlations with employee creative performance, and their correlations showed an upward trend; (2) individualism, methods of performance appraisal, the time point of data collection, measurement of leadership, measurement of employee creative performance and publication language partially moderated the relationship between leadership styles and employee creative performance.

    Based on the SDT, this research proposed a theoretical model to explain the different effects of different leadership styles on employee creative performance and test the model robustly based on the meta-analysis technology. Therefore, the theoretical implication of this research mainly focuses on this model. First, this research promotes the development of theories related to leadership styles and employee creative performance. Second, this research promotes the development of self-determination theory and expands the scope of application of self-determination theory. The practical implication is that, when organizations need employees to show higher creative performance, managers can try to adopt the authentic leadership style.

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    Regular Articles
    Modulating working memory related-oscillation via entrainment of neural oscillation
    WANG Xinlin, QIU Xiaoyue, WENG Xuchu, YANG Ping
    2022, 30 (4):  802-816.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00802
    Abstract ( 628 )   HTML ( 31 )  
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    The study of the neural oscillation mechanism of working memory (WM) is one of the current research hotspots in the field of memory. Previous studies have provided abundant evidence for the relationship between working memory process and brain oscillation by magnetoencephalography (MEG)/ electroencephalography (EEG). However, that naturally invites a question: it is yet not clear whether neural oscillations are only a concomitant phenomenon in the WM process, or if they are directly involved in and can help regulating the WM processing. Several studies have found that brain neural oscillatory activity could be driven by external rhythmic stimuli and gradually synchronizes with the phase of external rhythmic stimuli via a phenomenon known as "neural oscillatory entrainment". Based on this, a lot of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS) intervention studies conducted by modulating neural oscillatory activity provided more direct causal evidence of the relationship between neural oscillatory activity and working memory processing. We reviewed the rTMS/tACS studied on the field of human working memory which provided the casual evidence between the working memory processing (such as encoding, retention and retrieval) and neural oscillatory activity in specific frequency bands, phase-amplitude synchronization and phase synchronization between brain regions. Future studies may look into modulating multiple brain nodes underlying WM by a network approach via rTMS/tACS. Besides, to improve the effectiveness and repeatability of rTMS/tACS intervention, new research in the field should also clarify how to effectively apply rTMS/tACS intervention, supplemented with objective EEG recording to monitor the neural oscillation entrainment.

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    Why musical emotion can be induced by harmony? The effect and cognitive mechanism of musical consonance
    ZHANG Hang, MENG Le, ZHANG Jijia
    2022, 30 (4):  817-833.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00817
    Abstract ( 1678 )   HTML ( 78 )  
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    Music has a significant and far-reaching impact on human society. Archaeological evidence shows that music first emerged at least 3.5 billion years (Paleolithic Period) ago. Such evidence is an important indication that humans have the advanced capacity to process complex auditory information. Musicology has gradually formed a relatively complete theoretical system. However, it still has several fundamental problems in the theory and practice of modern music, such as the rationale for simultaneous consonance. The core of this problem is how our brain possesses musical chords composed of several tones and why some tone combinations sound relatively pleasant (consonance) while others sound unpleasant (dissonance). This question has fascinated scholars since the ancient Greeks. Physicists have been trying to find answers to the differences between acoustic features of consonance and dissonance harmony. Biologists argue that consonance perception is the basic emotional experience evoked by sound events in the auditory system. Psychologists are more inclined to examine whether musical consonance perception is nature or nurture. Such different content of disciplines can be summarized from three perspectives: 1) Emphasize the physical acoustics of musical stimulation. It is considered that certain acoustic characteristics cause a particular chord to be perceived as consonant, for instance, the simplicity of the fundamental frequency ratios of combined tones. Therefore, many theoretical explanations of musical consonance in mathematical physics had been advocated. 2) Emphasize the physiological or psychological basis of music processing, holding the sense of consonance is the basic emotional experience. For example, Hermann von Helmholtz proposed that the roughness (dissonant experience) is often generated by the dissonant intervals which contain frequency components that are too closely spaced to be resolved by the auditory system. Therefore, many biologists advocate for using physiological acoustics and psychoacoustics methods to reveal this universal processing mechanism. Both of the two theories consider the perception of music consonance is an innate ability of human being. 3) Emphasize the roles of culture aspects, arguing the musical cultural exposure and music training significantly affect consonance perception. This article reviews these empirical researches from various disciplines to analyze the basis of musical consonance and to systematically sorts out the theoretical debates going on for centuries. We also proposed that nature and nurture interact to shape how we experience musical consonance.

    Although musical consonance has been researched mainly using western theoretical perspectives, studying musical consonance in Chinese traditional music culture is urgently needed. Music is an advanced activity of human cognition and one of the universal ways of emotional expression in life. As the core element connecting music and emotion, the rationale for simultaneous consonance is still unsolved. We hope our work will facilitate further empirical research on musical consonance, especially in Chinese traditional music culture.

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    The function and mechanisms of prediction error in updating fear memories
    LI Junjiao, CHEN Wei, SHI Pei, DONG Yuanyuan, ZHENG Xifu
    2022, 30 (4):  834-850.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00834
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    The error-driven learning theory believes that the reinforcement brought by the stimulus must be surprising or unpredictable for the individual to form learning. The mismatch between the expected consequence of behavior and the actual result, known as prediction error (PE), is the driving factor of learning, according to this theory. The Rescorla & Wagner model, the Pearce-Hall model, and the temporal difference (TD) model are the three most common models for calculating prediction error. The RW model and the TD model, in particular, have had a significant impact on the research of prediction error-driven learning and memory. Under different learning models, prediction error is classified as reward or punishment prediction error (RPE or PPE); positive or negative prediction error; and singed or unsigned prediction error (SPE or UPE). As a type of salience, PE is different from other types of saliences. Salience includes stimulus novelty, valence evaluation, stimulus rareness and other salience. Physical salience, surprise (unexpected novelty), and expected novelty are all types of novelty, but only unexpected novelty can promote dopamine release; physical salience with no direct rewards can only cause a short spike in dopamine. Prediction error, on the other hand, are mostly related to the recognition, result perception, and valence evaluation processes.

    A large body of work investigated the role of prediction error in the formation and updating of fear memory. Firstly, prediction error is considered to be a necessary factor in the process of fear acquisition. Negative PE is the source of successful fear extinction. Secondly, under the framework of Reconsolidation Interference of conditioned fear memory, prediction error is demonstrated as a necessary condition of memory destabilization. Prediction error plays a key role in fear memory reconsolidation: (1) PE during memory reactivation is an important boundary condition for memory destabilization; (2) PE is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the triggering of reconsolidation. The degree of prediction error determines whether or not the memory can become unstable. PE's role in memory updating has progressed from a qualitative to a quantitative examination, which has become an important measure of such research development; (3) The size of PE required for memory destabilization is proportional to the memory’s original strength. Thus, it is critical to take both sides into account when evaluating a retrieval manipulation. We propose an integrated model of retrieval boundary conditions and memory features for the reconsolidation of fear memories based on these studies and previous models.

    However, until recently, the neural mechanism underlying the involvement of prediction error in fear memory update has remained largely elusive. Recent work has revealed the brain areas involved mainly include the amygdala, ventrolateral peri-aqueduct gray matter (vlPAG), hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex (PFC). The PFC, in particular, is a distinct area that may distinguish the fear extinguish with or without reconsolidation. While a range of neurotransmitters are linked to the role of PE in memory destabilization in terms of neuromodulation in brain circuits, the most significant of which is dopaminergic. However, glutamate’s participation in the same process is also worth mentioning.

    We propose that in the future direction of the research on fear memory updating, further exploration should be made on quantitative research based on the PE calculation model, integrating the interaction between PE and other boundary conditions, and investigating the role of different types of saliences in memory reconsolidation. Importantly, multidisciplinary methods are urgently need to be used to investigate the neural and molecular mechanisms of PE's role in fear memory renewal. Individual differences in the effects of PE, on the other hand, must be investigated in order to facilitate the translation of studies from bench to bedside.

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    Application of machine learning in prognosis and trajectory of post-traumatic stress disorder in children
    LIU Xiaohan, CHEN Minglong, GUO Jing
    2022, 30 (4):  851-862.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00851
    Abstract ( 517 )   HTML ( 32 )  
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    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) could have negative effects on the development of children, and its impact can even last into adulthood. The traditional method to identify and diagnose PTSD in children is for the clinician or researcher to compares the symptoms with the criteria in the diagnostic manual. Therefore, the child who meets the symptom criteria could be diagnosed with PTSD. In addition, risk factors for PTSD in children are identified by traditional multiple regression methods using hypotheses based on previous literature or experience. However, these methods rely on clinicians or researchers' personal experience greatly. Moreover, identifying child PTSD is subjective, and the selected statistical method could impact the predicted risk factors. Generally, researchers use prediction method based on regression models. However, the identification of risk factors is not comprehensive enough, which needs a lot of empirical data to discuss. Thus, machine learning, as an emerging method to deal with big data, is a data-driven method to summarize rules and features based on existing data. Through continuous data training, the program could make its own judgment on whether children in new data have PTSD, which is more objective, faster and more efficient than human diagnosis. When predicting risk factors, machine learning models have also developed from traditional decision trees and regression to the field of deep learning, with greatly improves the accuracy of diagnosis and simultaneous processing of multi-dimensional variables. Therefore, using machine learning to predict children's PTSD could make up for the disadvantages of traditional prognosis investigation, which is difficult to follow for a long time and has large missing values, etc. Machine learning may also better solve other related problems, such as failing to detect PTSD symptoms in time and missing the optimal healing period due to the late-onset of PTSD in children. The application of machine learning in predicting the outcome of children’s PTSD results could be divided into two methods. One is the "classification" of supervised learning, which is the possible classification result of the artificially set training data sets. The other is "clustering", that is, the data in the training set would be automatically divided into several groups based on characteristics or some potential concepts. Each group is called a cluster, and then the commonalities of these clusters are artificially summarized through unsupervised learning. Although machine learning has some advantages in the diagnosis and recognition of PTSD in children, its application is still in the initial stage, with opportunities and challenges coexisting. It is worth noting that machine learning also has limitations such as a single algorithm, limited accuracy of prediction, different prediction results based on different models, relatively insufficient research on treatment methods, and difficulty in collecting children's PTSD indicators. In the future, researchers need to further improve the accuracy of machine learning diagnosis and children’s PTSD recognition, and explore more combinations of machine learning and traditional diagnosis methods. With the development of the Chinese medical industry, machine learning has shown great potential in the field of psychiatry. It is believed that the practical applications of machine learning in children’s PTSD would be developed rapidly in the future, which could provide guidance and suggestions for the early prevention or treatment of children’s PTSD.

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    Behavioral intervention strategies to nudge hand hygiene
    GUO Mengxi, ZHANG Ning
    2022, 30 (4):  863-876.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00863
    Abstract ( 1093 )   HTML ( 31 )  
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    Maintaining optimal hand hygiene is an important strategy for infection control and prevention. However, how to increase adherence to hand hygiene practices has been a major challenge to prevent infectious diseases and reduce hospital acquired infections (HAIs), especially in the critical period of COVID-19 epidemic regular prevention and control. There are great differences in the effectiveness between different hand hygiene behavior intervention strategies, and the best hand hygiene intervention practice is still in development and requires further investigation. In order to develop intervention strategies for health care researchers and practitioners, the current research systematically summarizes hand hygiene behavior intervention strategies from the perspective of “nudge” for the first time. Traditional hand hygiene interventions are usually based on knowledge sharing and health education, which only produce weak or modest effects on hand hygiene practices. Recent research in behavioral science provides insights for developing effective behavioral interventions to optimize hand hygiene practices by helping people form better hand hygiene habits. Traditional intervention strategies tend to rely on people’s ability to engage in rational thinking and the availability of cognitive resources, that is, encouraging people to reflect on their hand hygiene behaviors and enhance their handwashing motivation in a rational and conscious way. The influences of external environmental factors are rarely taken into account in traditional intervention strategies. Similarly, the role of personal psychological factors is often ignored, so this kind of hand hygiene intervention strategy often shows limited effectiveness and low sustainability. In addition, there are many other common obstacles such as limited accessibility of hand hygiene products, people's overconfidence in their immune system to prevent infection, inertia, and habitual forgetting. Many research results show that even if traditional intervention strategies can increase risk awareness of poor hand hygiene and enhance hand washing intention in the target population, they may not lead to effective behavior changes in hand hygiene. Inspired by the research from behavioral sciences, researchers have tried to promote experiential, unconscious, and automatically triggered hand hygiene behavior through interventions of specific psychological or external environmental factors, so as to help people overcome the gap between hand washing intention and behaviors. Based on different influential mechanisms, hand hygiene nudging strategies can be classified into four categories and nine subordinate categories, including providing decision information (simplifying information, providing feedback, and harvesting the impact of social norms), optimizing decision options (simplifying options and making original options more attractive), influencing decision structure (increasing the accessibility and visibility of favorable options), and reminding decision direction (direct reminder and environmental hint). Previous studies have shown that behavioral science-based hand hygiene interventions, in general, achieved positive effects at a fairly low cost, which are worthy of further application. However, there are still many disputes concerning ethics and effectiveness for nudging intervention. Among these disputes, the two points often mentioned are whether nudging limits the decision-makers' freedom of independent choice and damages their ability of independent choice. These two disputes may have a relatively small impact on hand hygiene promotion, and the form of nudging intervention is more easily accepted by the public, which may be due to the fact that handwashing behavior essentially has a certain degree of “injunctive norm” tendency (i.e., the vast majority of people agree with maintaining hand hygiene). In addition, previous research on hand hygiene nudging intervention also has many limitations, including low accuracy of the evaluation criteria, sustainability, and generalizability of nudging strategies. Further research is warranted to develop more effective hand hygiene nudging interventions and apply them to diverse social contexts. The effectiveness of multi-facet nudging strategies has also been confirmed in hand hygiene practices, suggesting that another future research direction is to construct a hand hygiene nudging strategy classification system similar to the Behavior Change Technique (BCT) taxonomy, so as to design multi-facet nudging strategies for promoting hand hygiene in a specific social context. Based on China's national conditions, traditional hand hygiene intervention strategies such as health education cannot be completely abandoned. This kind of comprehensive new model of “traditional intervention + nudging strategies” and the personalization and specialization of nudging intervention strategies might be the focus of hand hygiene behavior promotion intervention in the future. However, there is still a lack of hand hygiene nudging intervention in Chinese sociocultural contexts. Another direction for future research is to carry out such nudging interventions in hospitals, schools, communities, and other public places based on the theory of behavioral change, so as to contribute to the prevention and control of infectious diseases and improve public health.

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    Value Analysis determines when and how to strive
    CAO Si-Qi, TANG Chen-Chen, WU Hai-Yan, LIU Xun
    2022, 30 (4):  877-887.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00877
    Abstract ( 695 )   HTML ( 38 )  
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    The optimization of effort investment, which minimizes the cost of effort and maximizes benefits, is a core issue in every field. “What factors influence how much effort we invest?” is gaining more and more attention. This study aims to review previous theoretical and empirical studies on effort. Based on the Paradox of Effort theory, this study expounds on the two sides of effort: inherent cost and potential value. Even though there are intrinsic costs associated with effort, the concept of effort solely in terms of costs is inadequate. The Paradox of Effort theory indicates that analyzing the value of effort at different time stages is more in line with daily activities. The key to effort-based decision-making is weighing the rewards and effort required to accomplish a goal. On this basis, we discussed the non-social and social factors and the neural mechanisms involved in effort investment according to the Expected Value of Control (EVC) theory. EVC theory discusses models of effort optimization in terms of conflict monitoring, cost-benefit integration of cognitive control, and implementation of control, emphasizing the role of integrating the expected value in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Both social and non-social factors have impacts on the adaptive control allocation during the integration, but few empirical studies have explored the two-level interaction. Therefore, we developed the topic of cost-benefit analysis in EVC theory and highlighted its application to motivational behavior in social circumstances, which is conducive to exploring the plasticity of social behavior. The cognitive and neural mechanisms of effort play an essential role in understanding the adaptive allocation of effort in social life and provide references for treating motivational disorders, shaping learned industriousness and prosocial behavior. Future research needs to explore the adaptive changes in the expected value of control during the dynamic process using methods of neurophysiology and combine computational modeling to complement and validate the EVC theory in social contexts.

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    Job crafting embedded in social contexts
    LIN Xinyue, MENG Liang
    2022, 30 (4):  888-905.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00888
    Abstract ( 373 )   HTML ( 18 )  
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    Most employees do not work in isolation. Thus, social contexts shape and influence one’s attitudes and behaviors at work, including whether to perform job crafting behaviors or not. Till now, a growing number of studies have incorporated the broader social context when studying job crafting. Based on the existing research findings, four research perspectives on the intricate relationships between job crafting and social contexts are systematically summarized (i.e., social contexts as targets of job crafting, social contexts being involved in job crafting, social contexts as antecedents of individual job crafting, and social contexts as moderators of job crafting). In addition, mechanisms underlying the effects of varied social context factors on job crafting, interactions of social contexts and individual characteristics on job crafting, as well as the effectiveness of job crafting in specific contexts are proposed and discussed. Illuminated by existing research on other constructs related to job crafting (e.g., proactive behavior, and proactive motivation), prospects for future research on job crafting embedded in social contexts are proposed. First, as employees are embedded in a broader social context beyond themselves, it is highly likely that one’s job crafting would influence other individuals (e.g., coworkers) in the workplace. Thus, researchers may systematically examine the influence of one’s job crafting on others in future studies, including how others would perceive and respond to one’s job crafting, and when and how one’s job crafting would promote others’ crafting behaviors (i.e., the crossover effect of individual job crafting). Second, team job crafting has gained increasing research attention as work teams have become the basic work unit of organizations and are fundamental to organizational performance. Given that team job crafting is not the simple addition of individual job crafting, individuals’ crafting behaviors embedded in teams are inevitably influenced by team job crafting. Future research can explore the multiple paths through which team job crafting drives individual job crafting, and determine potential mediators based on the three commonly identified mechanisms of emotional contagion, social learning, and social norms. Third, based on the proactive motivation model proposed by Parker and colleagues, the three motivational states (i.e., can do, reason to, and energized to) through which social contexts factors influence individual job crafting are identified. Future research endeavors may examine the underlying mechanisms based on these three states and search for potential mediators. Moreover, based on the interactionist perspective of organizational behavior, social contexts would make an even stronger impact on one’s behaviors when individual characteristics fit the specific social context. Thus, it is fruitful to have an in-depth exploration of interactions of social context factors and individual characteristics on job crafting. Last but not least, it is worth noting that job crafting was originally proposed in western managerial contexts by western researchers. As a self-oriented proactive behavior which mainly serves personal well-being, job crafting may be riskier in the Chinese sociocultural context where collectivism is highly valued. On the one hand, one’s job crafting may have an unintended negative influence on coworkers. On the other hand, direct managers vary in their perceptions of job crafting behaviors initiated by their employees. Thus, taking task and strategic contexts, social and relational contexts, and one’s own self-regulation into account are crucial for the effectiveness of job crafting. To sum up, future studies may pay close attention to the manners in which social context factors can better serve job crafting. It is widely known that supportive work environment facilitates individual job crafting. Researchers can take one step further to reflect on the social context factors that influence one’s job crafting, and then find the specific forms of supportive work environment that better facilitate job crafting. As a result, managers may pay attention to the supportive work environment that promotes employees’ job crafting behaviors, and adopt effective strategies to facilitate individual proactive behaviors.

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    Antecedents of abusive supervision
    WANG Haizhen, GENG Zizhen, DING Lin, SHAN Chunxia
    2022, 30 (4):  906-921.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00906
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    Abusive supervision refers to supervisors’ “sustained display of hostile verbal and nonverbal behavior, excluding physical contact,” as perceived by their subordinates (Tepper, 2000: 178). Given that such behavior has been shown to lead to various unfavorable work outcomes, it is essential for researchers and practitioners to understand why and under what circumstances supervisors might become abusive.

    Studies seeking to identify the causes of abusive supervision have approached the issue from the perspectives of supervisor characteristics, self-depletion theory, social learning theory, and victim precipitation theory. Studies that examine abusive supervision through the lens of supervisor characteristics suggest that around a dozen characteristics (e.g., conscientiousness and narcissism) increase the likelihood of supervisors becoming abusive. Research based on the theory of self-depletion suggests that abusive supervision reflects a lack of self-control and results from resource depletion; thus, stressors that consume supervisors’ self-control resources may cause abusive supervision. Empirical studies have identified a series of stressors related to abusive supervision, such as difficult goals and role overload. Research based on the theory of social learning, however, contends that abusive supervision is imitated and learned from abusive role models, such as managers or colleagues or even family members. Lastly, research based on victim precipitation theory suggests that there are certain actions or traits of subordinates that may precipitate abusive supervision; this line of research primarily focuses on the subordinate-specific variables that may make certain subordinates more likely to become targets of supervisor abuse. In this vein, studies have examined provocative and submissive subordinate behaviors and characteristics. We systematically review the relevant research findings.

    Although the aforementioned studies have achieved fruitful results, evidence explaining situation-triggered abusive supervision is still insufficient. Drawing on affective events theory, we posit a theoretical framework that explains how affective events give rise to supervisors’ negative emotions, which, in turn, incite abusive supervision. The framework also takes into account the potential moderating roles of self-control motivation and self-control resources in the relationship between negative emotions and abusive supervision. Drawing on the theory of planned behavior, we analyze supervisors’ self-control motivation (which prevents abusive behavior) in three aspects: attitudes toward abusive supervision, subjective norms toward aggression, and perceived behavioral control. Self-control resources are investigated from the perspectives of resource endowment, resource consumption, and resource recovery.

    Our work based on the above framework has several limitations, and future studies will be necessary to extend this line of research. First, future research should examine supervisor attitudes toward abusive supervision. Abusive supervision is undoubtedly unethical. It largely remains unknown that how abusive supervisors justify their attitude to such unethical behaviors. A large body of work in unethical behavior literature seeks to explain similar phenomenon. Using this literature to examine the emergence of abusive supervision will provide a more comprehensive explanation for this phenomenon. In addition, some managers still hold the view that subordinate abuse, despite its many documented dysfunctional effects, has a functional place within organizations; exploring such attitudes in more depth will help prevent supervisors from abusing subordinates. Second, future studies should explore the mechanism through which the norms governing organizational abusive supervision form. Norm focus theory suggests that norms have a substantial impact on human actions. However, little attention has been paid to the formation and effects of organizational norms on abusive supervision. Lastly, given the importance of self-control resources in preventing abusive behavior, it will be helpful to examine the means by which supervisors restore depleted self-control resources. The literature contains some pioneering findings in this area, and future research should examine whether such resource restoration strategies can be applied in the workplace to reduce abusive supervision.

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    The negative effects of servant leadership and its buffer mechanism
    LING Qian, ZHANG Zhengjie, QIU Xiaoyan
    2022, 30 (4):  922-940.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00922
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    This paper focuses on the detrimental effects of servant leadership on leaders themselves and their subordinates. The paper conducts a literature review on the concept and achievements of servant leadership. This paper explores the detrimental effects of servant leadership on leaders themselves and the mitigating mechanisms using role stress, resource allocation of self-control, and conservation of resources as theoretical bases. We also explore the detrimental effects of servant leadership on subordinates and the mitigating mechanisms based on implicit followership, leader-member exchange, and leadership prototypes theories. Moreover, future research directions regarding research levels, methods, perspectives and contents are discussed. It is our hope that this paper will encourage both researchers and practitioners to understand how and when the detrimental effects of servant leadership on leaders themselves and subordinates occur, and provide theoretical guidance for future empirical research on the detrimental effects of servant leadership.

    The main contributions of this paper include:

    First, compared with a primary focus on the value of servant leadership on employees, teams or organizations, this paper focuses on the detrimental effects of servant leadership on leaders themselves (e.g., leaders’ role stress, ego depletion, job burnout, and negative leadership behavior).

    Second, based on conservation of resources theory, this paper comprehensively discusses the mitigating mechanisms on the negative effects of servant leadership on leaders themselves from both organizational and individual levels. This paper first proposes that servant organizational culture may mitigate the negative effects of servant leadership on leaders themselves, that is, when organizational culture embraces servant, servant leaders are more likely to obtain organizational support to help more and broader service objects, and thus are more likely to offset the resource loss resulted from serving others. Therefore, servant organizational culture can alleviate the negative effects of servant leadership on leaders themselves, such as role stress, ego depletion. In addition, this paper firstly proposes the moderation of leaders’ positive psychological capital on the negative effects of servant leadership, that is, leaders’ positive psychological capital helps leaders maintain more positive emotions, recover resilience faster when facing of difficulties, and deal with job stress more effectively. Thus, it can alleviate the effects of servant leadership on leaders’ negative outcomes.

    Third, this paper discusses the influence of servant leadership on subordinates’ citizenship pressure based on implicit followership theory and leader-member exchange theory, and proposes the moderation of subordinates’ leadership preference on the relationship between servant leadership and subordinates’ citizenship pressure according to leadership prototypes theory, differing from the extant literature’s restricted focus on the positive effect of servant leadership on subordinates. That is, subordinates’ recognition of servant Leadership may alleviate the negative impact of servant leadership on subordinates’ citizenship pressure.

    Fourth, we propose the future research directions from the perspective of dynamism, that is using research methods of dynamic leadership behavior (e.g., trend and variability) to explore the short- and long-term negative effects of servant leadership on subordinates, teams, organizations, and other stakeholders.

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    The performance and psychological mechanism of contamination effect in consumer behavior
    MENG Lu, XIE Yufeng, LI Tongmao, DUAN Shen, ZHANG Liangbo
    2022, 30 (4):  941-952.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00941
    Abstract ( 1539 )   HTML ( 78 )  
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    The pneumonia outbreak caused by the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) has been defined as a public health emergency by the World Public Health Organization and poses a serious threat to economic development worldwide. Since that COVID-19 is highly contagious, and the number of infected people and is unprecedented, many governments have taken strong measures to control the spread of COVID-19. In the face of sudden major disasters, people are prone to panic. As a result, individuals pay more attention to personal protection-related issues, and the consumption of protective and health products increases significantly (Yang et al., 2020). Because COVID-19 is spread mainly by droplets and contact, consumers are avoiding products that others may have touched or used for fear of catching the virus. Data from iiMedia Research also showed that the number of users of shared charging banks in China maintained rapid growth to 307 million in 2019. However, due to COVID-19, the number of users dropped to 229 million in 2020. It can be seen that consumers are increasingly concerned about health-related issues, thus amplifying the potential contamination effect on consumer behaviors.

    It has been more than 20 years since contamination effect was first introduced into psychology. Up to now, contamination effect has been widely adopted to explain behaviors in many fields, including product evaluation, celebrity effect, organ transplantation, preference for shrine, valuation of original artwork, cross-cultural differences in collecting behavior, gambling decisions, individual abilities and performance, and even romantic relationships. Although consumers are often faced with a variety of content cues to induce their perception of contamination in daily consumption, there is little known about what consumer behaviors will occur under the influence of contamination effect and what the underlying mechanisms and boundary conditions are for these behaviors. There is still no an integrated research framework that can generalize and explain the application of contamination effects to consumer behavior to answer these questions. More importantly, the continuous updating of emerging research backgrounds such as Internet +, new retail and big data provide new insights for the study of contamination effects, however, there is little systematic review of these effects and paradigms.

    In this study, we mainly review the definition and characteristics of contamination effect in the studies of consumer behavior, and then explore the antecedents of contamination effect from the aspects of exposure factors, location factors, product factors and social factors, and further summarize its negative and positive effects on consumer behavior. Finally, the theoretical basis and boundary conditions of contamination effect are well discussed. Based on these discussions, the future research direction of contamination effect in the field of consumer behavior is prospected.

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