ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    The impact of materialism on green consumption: Promotion or inhibition?
    LI Jing, WU Xuyao, YUE Lei, ZENG Xiangli, FANG Qingyuan
    2022, 30 (6):  1191-1204.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01191
    Abstract ( 2328 )   HTML ( 282 )  
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    In order to build a beautiful China, the Chinese government has put forward many policies to promote the construction of ecological civilization, among which the 14th Five-Year Plan clearly points out “promoting the development of green, healthy and safe consumption.” It is apparent that green consumption is a vital measure for solving environmental problems, however, in today's Chinese society, materialistic values are prevalent. In this context, the promotion of green consumption is an issue worthy of consideration. Previous studies have explored the relationship between materialism and green consumption. Some scholars have found a negative correlation between the two, while others have found a positive correlation. On account of these contradictory results, the current research puts forward an innovative perspective and for the first time takes both conspicuous and inconspicuous characteristics of green products themselves as the breakthrough point. In other words, green consumption is divided into conspicuous and inconspicuous green consumption according to the showable nature of green products and whether they are printed with environmental protection signs. Based on this, this research intends to comprehensively use questionnaire survey, behavioral experiment, eye movement experiment, field experiment, and educational intervention to conduct a series of four studies. First, it investigates the boundary conditions of materialism affecting green consumption, that is, the moderating effect of the conspicuous characteristics of green products. It further explores the different psychological mechanisms of materialism affecting conspicuous green consumption and inconspicuous green consumption. We believe that when green products have conspicuous characteristics, they can help materialists build and maintain their own identity and show their unique identity and status, thus promoting them to show conspicuous green consumption behavior, that is, “materialism → status motivation → conspicuous green consumption”. However, when green products do not have the characteristics of showing off, they cannot meet the materialists' pursuit of identity and status. At this time, the essence of their indifference to the environment is revealed, and they may show a negative pro-environment attitude, which inhibits the inconspicuous green consumption behavior, that is, “materialism → pro-environment attitude → inconspicuous green consumption”. Finally, aiming at the negative impact of materialism on inconspicuous green consumption, this research will conduct further intervention studies to investigate the moderating role of nature contact in the impact of materialism on pro-environmental attitudes and inconspicuous green consumption. The above studies not only theoretically integrate the contradictory results of existing research and provide a new idea for solving the existing research differences, but also have important management implications for effectively encouraging people to participate in green consumption behavior under the social background of the prevalence of materialistic values. Therefore, we can use the identity construction or status motivation of materialists, such as adding environmental protection labels to green products to increase the flaunting of products in promoting their conspicuous green consumption; alternatively, we can change the materialists’ negative pro-environmental attitudes and promote their participation in inconspicuous green consumption by improving their degree of nature contact.

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    The formation and development of entrepreneurial opportunities in the digital ecosystem: A social capital-based inquiry
    DU Jing-jing, WANG Tao, HAO Xi-ling, FENG Ting-ting
    2022, 30 (6):  1205-1215.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01205
    Abstract ( 663 )   HTML ( 47 )  
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    In the era of the digital economy, new organizational forms such as bilateral and multilateral platforms, online communities, and ecosystems have emerged and upended mainstream theories of innovation management by calling into question fundamental assumptions and arguments. The new context also challenges the paradigm of “the individual-opportunity nexus” in entrepreneurial research. While existing research from the ecosystem perspective usually focuses on clusters at the macro-level or the meso-level, it tends to overlook micro-level actors, or small and medium-sized enterprises and their entrepreneurial activities as complementors on platforms. Meanwhile, the distribution, as well as the exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities, have also changed due to the affordance of digital technology, leaving a gap in our knowledge on the mechanisms of opportunity creation and exploitation by new ventures that tap into resources available in the ecosystem.
    This study, therefore, develops the theoretical framework of “digital ecosystem characteristics-social capital-entrepreneurship opportunities” based on social capital theory as well as the affordance theory. Curious to understand how enterprises in a digital ecosystem can use ecosystem resources to accumulate social capital, this study measures the new characteristics of network behavior and relationship behavior of startups in a digital ecosystem with the three constructs of social capital, i.e., structural capital, relational capital and cognitive capital. This paper also explores the effects of social capital on the formation of opportunity beliefs of entrepreneurs under the desirability dimension of opportunities, which illustrates the startup process of how entrepreneurs transform “idea” into “action”. In addition, borrowing from the constructs of opportunity sets and opportunity portfolios from entrepreneurial research, the effects of social capital on the development of opportunity sets are also tested in the scale-up process. Finally, the moderating effects of the above paths are investigated from the cognitive monitoring of entrepreneurs and the digitization degree of new ventures.
    The theoretical contributions of this paper are as follows: First, this paper extends the application of social capital theory in the context of digital entrepreneurship, adding to our knowledge on entrepreneurial opportunities. Second, new characteristics of entrepreneurial opportunities in the context of digital entrepreneurship are revealed through the measurement of “opportunity belief” and “opportunity set” in the digital ecosystem. Third, the boundary conditions of“the individual-opportunity nexus” are further clarified by the matching of entrepreneurs and opportunities in the digital ecosystem.

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    The mechanism and influences of multilingual packaging strategy for tourism product: From the perspective of selective accessibility model
    LI Xi, LI Tongmao, HU Jihao
    2022, 30 (6):  1216-1229.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01216
    Abstract ( 826 )   HTML ( 59 )  
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    As a key marketing tool, product packaging language can convey information to consumers, and it is even essential for multinational corporations to establish and promote the brand image of their products overseas. Based on selective accessibility model, this study aims to identify the effects of corporate multilingual packaging strategies towards tourism merchandise. To be specific, it explores how consumers utilize multilingual packaging to determine whether tourism products specific to a country or a culture (contrast effect), or a broader international market (assimilation effect). It also examines the underlying mechanism and influencing factors of multilingual packaging strategies on consumers’ purchasing decision towards tourism merchandise.
    First, this study aims to explore the formation mechanism of assimilation/contrast effects of multilingual packaging strategy. Under the context of international tourism marketing, the packaging languages of tourism merchandise are segmented into host country language, major market language, international language, and specific context language. Based on the core principle of selective accessibility model, this study proposes that consumers make judgments of multilingual similarity based on host country language, experience similarity test or dissimilarity test, and induce assimilation effect or contrast effect. The above process is moderated by the consumers' objective knowledge structure (language familiarity, brand familiarity) and subjective thinking structure (motivation type, thinking styles). when the language familiarity is low, the consumers will have a higher tendency to rely on the overall similarity judgment to flow into the psychological testing process and then strengthen the possibility of assimilation effect and weaken the possibility of contrast effect. If the brand familiarity is higher, it is easier for consumers to extract the brand association information in memory and avoid the acquisition of linguistic cues, and thus weaken the assimilation/contrast effect. Accurate motivation drives consumers into similarity test while defensive motivation encourages them to initiate the dissimilarity test. Compared with holistically-minded consumers, analytical consumers tend to detect the language differences and intrigue the mental processes of the dissimilarity test.
    Second, this study explores the influences of the assimilation/contrast effect on consumers’ purchase responses. Considering that the consumers make purchase decision of the tourism merchandise based on the judgment of attribute preference, this study divides multilingual packaging strategy into comparison strategy (host country strategy, large-market strategy) and assimilation strategy and identifies the influences of multilingual packaging strategy on competence perception (authenticity, foreignness) and warmth perception (affinity, connection) of tourism merchandise. It proposes that the stronger the cognitive legitimacy of the language strategy that can reflect the relationship between tourism merchandise and tourism destinations, the better it can improve the authenticity and foreign perception of tourism merchandise. And the comparison strategy that highlights the target market can induce higher attachment towards tourism merchandise. In addition, it also discusses the moderating role of language identity, and proposes that the higher the degree of the language identity of consumers, the higher the degree of emotional attachment as well as the higher the affinity and connection is. It is proposed that when consumers purchase tourism merchandise for their symbolic value, they have a higher tendency for the attributes of authenticity and foreignness, while when they buy the merchandise for their utilitarian value, they have a higher tendency for the attributes of affinity and connection.

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    Nudging effect of default options: A meta-analysis
    ZHAO Ning, LIU Xin, LI Shu, ZHENG Rui
    2022, 30 (6):  1230-1241.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01230
    Abstract ( 1313 )   HTML ( 144 )  
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    In recent years, the nudging method of default options has been increasingly used to improve public behavior and increase the public approval of social policies. Default option setting is a tool of choice architecture. It involves setting a pre-selected option that takes advantage of people’s inertia, subtly increasing the likelihood that decision-makers choose this default option. Defaults are commonly framed in the opt-in system (without any default) and opt-out system (target option as a default). The frequencies at which the target option is of the target option is chosen are considerably higher in the latter, which is known as the default effect. Although a great number of studies have shown the default effect in various scenarios, the effectiveness of default nudge has been questioned by scholars and the public nowadays. For example, there are a series of studies that show that default option settings are ineffective or even counterproductive in promoting public behavior.
    Given the dispute on the effectiveness of the default nudge method, the current study aims to systematically examine how effective defaults are and whether their effectiveness varies across culture (Eastern culture vs. Western culture), domains (money-related domain, health-related domain, and environment-related domain), behavioral motives (benefits self vs. benefits others; whether there is real financial consequence of choice), and experiment characteristics (type of dependent variables, time of publication, sample size, and type of experiment). We conducted a literature search and meta-analysis of 56 articles, covering 92 default studies (pooled n = 112, 212, range = 16 ~ 19992) that fitted our inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis revealed that opt-out defaults lead to more pre-selected decisions than opt-in defaults do (d = 0.59, t = 10.12, 95% CI = [0.47, 0.71], p < 0.001), indicating that default nudging has a considerable effect. Further analysis showed two factors that could partially explain when the defaults’ effectiveness varies. First, moderating analysis showed that cultural background moderated the effect of default nudging: the effect of opt-out system under Western culture performed better than that under Eastern culture (b = 0.44, 95% CI = [0.05, 0.84], p = 0.027). Second, the moderating analysis also revealed the moderating effect of consumer choice and health choice. The nudging effectiveness of the default option settings was relatively better in the field of consumer choice (b = 0.43, 95% CI = [0.15, 0.70], p = 0.002), also somewhat effective in the field of pro-environmental choice (b = -0.32, 95% CI = [-0.66, 0.02], p = 0.067), and weakest in the field of health domain (b = -0.32, 95% CI = [-0.42, 0.10], p = 0.233). Lately, the default effect was not influenced by motivational factors or experiment characteristics.
    In conclusion, the current work-integrated findings in previous default-related studies and answered the questions regarding how effective the defaults are and when their effectiveness varies. The present meta-analysis covered 21 more studies than previous analyses and 5 more studies based on the Asian samples. In the 92 studies included in this meta-analysis, most showed a positive effect of default nudge on people’s behavioral change, and only a few studies found no significant or negative effects. The total default effect in our analysis was slightly lower than the results reported by Jachimowicz et al. (2018), but it still showed a medium-sized effect, indicating that the default nudge is indeed effective in promoting behavioral changes. Our finding provides a new conclusion for the studies of the effectiveness of the default effect, and reveals the moderating effect of cultural background for the first time, which may help us to better understand whether the defaults are effective and when to use the defaults.

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    Regular Articles
    Role of visual form perception in the relationship between approximate number system and arithmetical fluency
    ZHANG Yiyun, MA Yuanyuan, ZHAO Jin, ZHOU Xinlin, SHAO Yuanying
    2022, 30 (6):  1242-1252.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01242
    Abstract ( 595 )   HTML ( 45 )  
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    Numerous studies have explored the role of the approximate number system in mathematical ability and found that it is associated with arithmetical fluency. However, there is a lack of systematic testing and argumentation about the reasons for the correlation, that is, why the approximate number system plays a role in arithmetic. This is essentially a question about the cognitive mechanisms of arithmetical processing. Addressing this issue will help us understand the role of the approximate number system in arithmetical processing and also provide a theoretical basis for promoting children’s arithmetical fluency development through training in the approximate number system. Studies have been conducted to theorize the reasons for the relationship between the two from a mediating perspective, suggesting that number processing is a common processing mechanism for both the approximate number system and arithmetical fluency. The hypothesis of visual form perception differs from that of traditional number domain specificity by suggesting that the approximate number system may act on arithmetical processing at the perceptual level rather than domain-specific number processing. That is, the rapid perception of shapes is a common cognitive mechanism between the approximate number system and arithmetical fluency, and the ability to perceive visual forms rapidly could explain the correlation between the two. The approximate number system and arithmetical fluency rely on the rapid perception of forms during processing, and both involve rapid processing of complex visual stimuli during processing. Cognitive-behavioral measures and intervention training studies with children, adults, and special populations (e.g., individuals with dyscalculia and visual form perception disorders) have been conducted to support the visual form perception hypothesis. These studies found a correlation between visual form perception and arithmetical fluency, such that the approximate number system relies on visual perceptual information during processing and that rapid visual perceptual processing can explain the correlation between the acuity of the approximate number system and arithmetical fluency. However, the current research on the hypothesis of visual form perception is still somewhat limited, mainly because these studies focus solely on the relationship between visual form perception and the approximate number system and arithmetical fluency. However, it is still unclear why visual form perception plays a role in the relationship between the two (i.e., the processing mechanism of the role of visual form perception in the relationship between the two), and there is a lack of theoretical support and direct testing of experimental data. Therefore, future research needs to combine multiple research methods and techniques to explore the role of form-based fast perceptual abilities in different mathematical processing methods from multiple perspectives. At the same time, the influence of other general cognitive factors, such as inhibitory control and visual attention, on the relationship between the two should also be considered to explore in depth which cognitive components actually play a role in the relationship between the approximate number system and arithmetical fluency. In addition, the visual form perception hypothesis needs to be tested in practical applications to provide a theoretical basis for effective interventions for computational difficulties and the effective teaching of mathematics.

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    The role of inhibition function in pain
    LIU Bo, CHENG Xiangjuan, YUE Heng, BAO Hugejiletu
    2022, 30 (6):  1253-1261.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01253
    Abstract ( 2225 )   HTML ( 90 )  
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    Increasing evidence shows that pain interacts with inhibition function, and this relationship may be an important reason for the development of chronic pain. However, the cognitive mechanism of the interaction between pain and inhibition function remains unclear. This study attempts to clarify how pain affects inhibition function and how inhibition function regulates pain. Pain significantly activates the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The structure and function of the DLPFC change with the development and healing of pain, and the DLPFC plays an important role in the pain farther down the inhibition system. At the same time, the DLPFC is also a key brain area that reflects inhibition function. The overlap of pain and inhibition function in the DLPFC provides physiological evidence for the interaction between pain and inhibition function. Both laboratory pain and chronic pain damages the inhibition function. As a prominent sensory stimulus threatening human survival, pain will automatically induce the individual's self-defence mechanism to control pain from top to bottom. Inhibition is also a top-down control of conflicting information and superior response. According to the theory of cognitive resources, the control of pain will occupy the cognitive resources of the inhibition function and impair the inhibition function. However, the pain-influencing inhibition function is not unidirectional. In turn, inhibition function can predict the incidence of chronic pain and regulate the pain experience. Although the relationship between inhibition function and pain sensitivity is controversial, in the study of distracted analgesia, inhibition function was significantly positively correlated with the performance of distracted tasks, showing consistency across studies. The performance profile of distracted tasks reflects the degree of pain interference by individuals, and individuals with high inhibition function are less affected by pain than individuals with low inhibition function. For individuals with low inhibition function, pain brings more interference and increases the individual’s pain fear and pain catastrophe. This process updates the psychological meaning of pain to the individual and further increases the individual’s negative expectations for the next occurrence of pain. Conversely, individuals with high inhibition function reduce their negative expectations for the next occurrence of pain. The daily activities of patients with chronic pain are interrupted long-term by pain, and the patients' stronger inhibition function helps to reduce pain interference and negative expectations of pain. When patients have more positive expectations than negative expectations for pain relief, the effect of pain treatment is significantly increased. Unfortunately, research on the effect of inhibition function on pain is mainly based on a relevant design, because inhibition function as a personal characteristic is difficult to control in the laboratory. Future research should use more longitudinal designs and methods to control inhibition function (short-term cognitive training) to further clarify the causal relationship between inhibition function and the pain experience. Pain can impair inhibition function, and poor inhibition function is not conducive to pain relief. The interaction between pain and inhibition function highlights the importance and urgency of inhibition function in the treatment of pain by psychological factors. Especially for elderly individuals with poor inhibition function and patients with mild chronic pain, early inhibition function intervention can help reverse the development of chronic pain. According to the existing research results, in-depth exploration of the cognitive mechanism of the interaction between pain and inhibition function is conducive to perfecting the related theories of pain psychobehavioural therapy and further guiding the inhibition function to target pain.

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    Functional brain networks underlying rumination
    LIN Wenyi, HE Hao, GUAN Qing
    2022, 30 (6):  1262-1269.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01262
    Abstract ( 1621 )   HTML ( 118 )  
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    Rumination refers to the involuntary reflection of the cause, course and consequence of a negative event that an individual suffered. It is characterized by negative self-referential processing, negative emotion, and persistence. In recent years, a growing body of studies, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, have demonstrated the three characteristics of the large-scale brain networks underlying rumination.
    First, the negative self-referential processing involved in rumination is associated with alterations in the default mode network. Recent evidence indicates that during rumination, the three subsystems of the default network (i.e., the core subsystem, the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex subsystem, and the medial temporal lobe subsystem) show different levels of activity, and the functional connectivity between the three subsystems also changes. Specifically, the connection between the core subsystem responsible for self-referential processing and the dorsal medial prefrontal subsystem that is involved in the theory of mind and metacognition is weakened, while the connectivity between the core subsystem and the medial temporal subsystem that is involved in expectations regarding one’s self in the future is strengthened. In addition, previous studies using the graph theory analysis have demonstrated that the increase in the level of rumination is related to enhancing internal entropy (reflecting the chaos of a system) of the default mode network.
    Second, rumination involves negative emotions. After negative events, negative self-referential processing will make individuals focus on negative information, which would induce negative emotions. Changes in the salience network that monitors external stimuli and recruit relevant functional networks may underlie the occurrence of negative emotions during rumination. In the state of rumination, functional connectivity between amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is reduced, which suggests the deficit in emotional regulation. In contrast, the fronto-insular cortex is overactive, reflecting the conflict between individuals’ expectation and real situations, which may lead to stronger negative emotional experience compared to control conditions.
    Finally, rumination is characterized by individuals' repetitive and persistent thinking about negative events, which is associated with the abnormal interactions between attention-related networks. These networks, in particular, include the frontoparietal network that is involved in attentional control, response selection, and response inhibition, and the dorsal attentional network which is engaged in attending external information. Compared to healthy controls, individuals who are experiencing depression and with high levels of rumination show weakened functional connectivity between the frontoparietal network and the dorsal attentional network. In comparison, the functional connectivity between the frontoparietal network and the default mode network would be increased. In addition, previous studies using dynamic network analysis have demonstrated that the increased stability of functional connectivity in the frontoparietal network (reflecting the decline of individual cognitive flexibility) and the decreased stability in the default mode network would be observed during the state of rumination (reflecting excessive self-referential processing). In short, the self-referential processing involved in rumination is associated with alterations in the default mode network, while negative emotion produced by rumination is related to changes in the salience network. The “persistence” property of rumination is associated with altered connections between attention-related networks.
    Four questions need to be addressed in the future. First, current evidence on the correlation between rumination and its related brain networks is not enough to clarify the causal relationship between the two. In this regard, future studies should apply neuromodulation technologies to further examine the causal relationship between rumination and its related brain networks.
    Second, although previous studies have demonstrated the association between rumination and alterations in brain functional networks, its structural basis remains elusive, as few studies have explored the relationship between brain function and structural network of ruminant thinking. Future studies need to examine whether there is a structural basis of a change in brain functional networks underlying rumination.
    Third, characteristics of aging effects on rumination should be profiled. It is not appropriate to simply extend results from the young and middle-aged populations to the elderly. Considering that lines of evidence showing that there is a positive effect in the elderly population (i.e., older adults pay more attention to positive stimuli than negative stimuli compared to young adults), it is plausible to investigate whether the positive emotional effect would compensate for the alterations in functional connectivity under rumination in the future.
    Finally, future studies should peruse the clinical value of large-scale brain network basis of rumination. Little is known about the applications of the existing brain network mechanism to clinical intervention and treatment of rumination. Future research should focus on developing neural regulation technology based on brain network to effectively treat rumination.

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    Preschool children’s sleep problem and language disorder
    KANG Dan, LI Jiajia, CAI Shu
    2022, 30 (6):  1270-1281.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01270
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    Sleep problems have a significant impact on the development of preschool children's behavior, cognition, language and health, with language development being of particular concern The current paper is intended to sort out the relationship between preschool children’s sleep problems and language impairment from four perspectives: whether there is a close relationship between sleep problems and language impairment, how sleep problems affect language development, what factors influence the relationship between sleep problems and language impairment, and whether the intervention of sleep problems is effective in improving the language ability of preschool children.
    First, is there a close relationship between sleep problems and language impairment in preschool children? By reviewing the existing literature both at home and abroad, it is found that sleep problem is a potential factor affecting language impairment in preschool children. On the one hand, the incidence of sleep problems such as difficulty in falling asleep, lack of sleep and sleep disordered breathing in preschool children with language impairment is higher than that in normal children. On the other hand, longer sleep latency, shorter nighttime sleep and the lower sleep efficiency are closely related to more serious communication impairment, less receptive vocabulary and poorer oral expression ability of preschool children with language impairment.
    Secondly, how do sleep problems affect the language development of preschool children? Drawing upon the existing literature, the paper sorted out three hypotheses on the internal mechanism of sleep problems affecting language development: the sleep dependent memory consolidation hypothesis, the alertness hypothesis and the synaptic homeostasis hypothesis. These three hypotheses demonstrate how sleep problems affect language development from the perspectives of cognitive, physiological and neural mechanisms. Although self-justifying rationale is found in each hypothesis, their explanatory power and scope of application are to some extent challenged in practice.
    Thirdly, what factors affect the relationship between sleep problems and language disorders in preschool children? Based on the literature review, the paper finds that the relationship between sleep problems and language impairment in preschool children is affected by the severity of sleep problems, family factors, sociocultural factors, and age factors in particular. Finally, is sleep problem intervention effective in improving language impairment in preschool children? Previous studies have shown that behavioral intervention, drug treatment, surgical treatment and play-based intervention help improve the language ability of preschool children. However, it has not been testified why these sleep problem interventions are effective in promoting children's language development.
    Therefore, previous intervention studies only serve to explain the close correlation between preschool children's sleep problems and language impairment from another perspective, but fail to determine the causal relationship between them. In short, the previous studies both at home and abroad have explored the relationship between sleep problems and language impairment in preschool children. However, the relationship between preschool children's sleep problems and language impairment has not been determined. Many unsolved problems need to be further explored.
    Future research is expected to provide further insight into the internal mechanism underlying the correlation between sleep problems and language impairment, to facilitate the understanding of the relationship between sleep problems and language ability of children of different ages, and to explore effective game intervention methods in the context of inclusive education.

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    Video chat and child development
    CAO Xinyun, TONG Yu, WANG Fuxing, LI Hui
    2022, 30 (6):  1282-1293.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01282
    Abstract ( 1490 )   HTML ( 69 )  
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    In recent years, with the growing popularity of internet-based devices, children are increasing exposed to various applications, especially video chat. Researchers begin to explore the potential influence of video chat on children's development. It was found that compared with traditional communication technology, video chat had the feature of audio-visual combination and real-time interaction. However, video chat still maintains the two-dimensional feature as traditional screen media. By summarizing current research focused on video chat and children's learning, it is found that compared with yoked video learning, video chat had a positive effect on children's vocabulary learning (d = 0.33) and movement learning (d = 0.90). Moreover, video chat helped children to maintain a high level of attention in the learning process (d = 0.90). Compared with traditional video learning, the advantage of video chat learning lies in that it can provide children with two different kinds of social cues: the relevance feedback provided by on-screen teachers and other social cues provided by the co-viewer in the scene, which can effectively improve the occurrence of video deficit to a certain extent and help children transfer the knowledge learned on the screen to the real world. At present, researches on video chat and children’s social development mainly focuses on the long-distance parent-child relationship and peer relationship. It is found that video chat has the potential to maintain or form secure attachment for children who are experiencing parent-child separation, and can promote the long-distance parent-child relationship to some extent. Meanwhile, studies found children can successfully carry out a series of free games with a long-distance partner through video chat. The remote interactive environment of mutual gaze created by video chat can also improve the sense of presence and mutual understanding between children and their partners in remote games. In addition to helping normal children with learning and social development, video chat can be used as an adjunctive therapy for intervention of children with disorders (e.g., ASD, Obesity), to help them improve their health and social skills. Future research might focus on expanding the age range of children in video chat learning, the influence of children’s previous experience with media and the different supportive behaviors of co-viewers on children’s video chat learning. Future research should also further explore the impact of video chat on children’s social development under the condition of long-term separation. And whether children’s video chats with other family members can help strengthen family bonds and encourage distant family members to become more involved in each other's lives, thus promoting children’s development.

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    The role of mindfulness in alleviating ostracism
    CHEN Jing, WANG Yuzheng, WANG Jinyan, LUO Fei
    2022, 30 (6):  1294-1302.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01294
    Abstract ( 1635 )   HTML ( 148 )  
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    Ostracism (i.e., the phenomenon of being rejected or neglected by an individual or a group) brings suffering to individuals. Mindfulness is conducive to emotional regulation and coping with stress, which may play a beneficial role in alleviating ostracism. From three perspectives (target, source, and observer) and three time points (before, during, and after the occurrence of ostracism), a series of questions about whether, when, and how mindfulness can play a role in ostracism were analyzed in detail and summarized as a model relating mindfulness and ostracism. This model demonstrates that before ostracism occurs, from the perspective of the source, awareness of the present may help to reduce the ostracism caused by the neglect of an individual. Some ostracism is aimed to express aggression towards the relationship. The effective emotional management and good communication brought about by mindfulness may help to deal with interpersonal relationships in a less exclusive way. From the perspective of the target, mindfulness may alleviate anxiety and overreaction to potential rejection. After ostracism occurs, mindfulness may not only reduce the rumination of ostracism but also may promote positive reappraisal, which help to alleviate the pain due to being ostracized. From the perspective of the observer, paying attention to the present may help the individual to identify the occurrence of ostracism and to provide helpful behaviors. Increasing the level of empathy and positive emotions may also be the mechanism by which mindfulness promotes prosocial behaviors. During the occurrence of ostracism, mindful targets are more likely to have high-quality communication with the source, which may reduce the possibility of exacerbation.
    Although the current research was rich in content, there were still some limitations. First of all, relatively few studies from the perspective of the target were identified. Future research needs to consider creating new paradigms or measurement methods to record ostracism behaviors objectively and to examine whether trait mindfulness and mindfulness intervention can reduce ostracism behaviors, which will reduce the negative impact of ostracism from the root cause. In addition, relevant research on the dynamic interactions between the target and the source during ostracism is scarce. Second, from the perspective of research quality, the current research methods mainly involve cross-sectional questionnaires, which lack objectivity and can only make relevant inferences. At the same time, there are relatively few randomized controlled intervention studies, and it is difficult to clarify the magnitude of the benefits of mindfulness on ostracism. Third, the boundary conditions for the benefits of mindfulness on ostracism need to be further clarified. Research on individual differences and negative outcome categories is an entry point for future studies related to mindfulness and ostracism.
    In summary, many studies have explored the role of mindfulness in stressful situations, but its role in ostracism has only just begun to be investigated. More research in the future is needed to help understand the relationship between mindfulness and ostracism more comprehensively.

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    How does stress affect individual risk seeking?
    ZHONG Yue, CHE Jingshang, LIU Nan, AN Xinru, LI Aimei, ZHOU Guolin
    2022, 30 (6):  1303-1316.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01303
    Abstract ( 1118 )   HTML ( 99 )  
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    Research in the fields of financial investing, health, and organizational work has revealed that individuals are more likely to take risks when faced with stress. Prior studies have explained the underlying processes between stress and risk-taking from the perspectives of value appraisal, risk perception, and decision strategy. However, these studies were more akin to explore how people react more than why people react in risk-seeking ways under stress. Therefore, in order to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the association between stress and risk-seeking, this study aimed to reveal the direct and root reasons that explain an individual’s risk-taking behavior under stress and to clarify the internal mechanisms of this association.
    Several theories have suggested the reasons by which stress affects risk-seeking. For example, expected utility theory proposes that individuals tend to attach greater subjective value to the risk options in stressful situations. Prospect theory further suggests that stress affects both of the subjective value and subjective probability of risk options. These two theories consider cognitive changes as the possible reason that explains the “stress-risk-seeking” association. The dual-process theory further proposes that the said changes in the cognitive process are due to the depletion of cognitive resources under stress. Therefore, individuals tend to prefer labor-saving heuristic processing to adapt to the environment. The sensitive theory provides an explanation of the cognitive changes from an evolutionary perspective, suggesting that stress can unbalance individuals' psychological needs, crave higher rewards, and therefore, show more risk-seeking behaviors.
    The current study proposes that stress affects individuals’ value appraisal, risk perception and decision strategy through changes in cognitive resources and psychological needs. Specifically, on the one hand, stress occupies cognitive resources and weakens executive function, which is manifested in difficulties in suppressing dominant responses, slower task switching speed, and impaired working memory. On the other hand, stress unbalances individuals’ psychological needs and increases chances of reward-seeking, which is manifested in being more sensitive to high-reward options and positive reinforcement. Then, changes in executive function and psychological needs cause individuals to overestimate the positive outcomes of risky options and to reduce the perceived probability of negative outcomes and therefore, adopt heuristic strategies that consume less cognitive resources. Then, the heuristic strategies affect individuals’ risky behaviors through distorting their evaluations of risks, such as neglecting the possibility of negative outcomes and merely pursuing high-return options. In addition, our model accounts for boundary conditions in which the effects of stress on reward-seeking may differ by gender, materialism, and levels of stress coping; and the effects of stress on executive control may be moderated by factors such as age, stressors, social support, and domain specificity.
    Finally, we encourage future research to explore the association between stress and risk-seeking from three aspects. First, how would the dynamic changes of executive function under stress affect risk-seeking; Second, how does the interaction between cognition and emotion under stress affect risk-seeking; and Third, carry out intervention to regulate stress and reduce risk-taking behaviors.

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    Mechanisms and models of interpersonal synchrony in promoting cooperation
    MA Xinyue, CUI Liying
    2022, 30 (6):  1317-1326.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01317
    Abstract ( 1238 )   HTML ( 126 )  
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    Synchrony, a core element of collective rituals, is of great significance to the survival and development of groups. Interpersonal synchrony is a type of coordination behaviour that refers to the temporal overlap of the movements of two or more people, emphasising the coordinated consistency of movements among group members with the time- and phase-locked characteristics. Recent studies have found that synchrony can promote prosocial behaviours such as cooperation, and this promoting effect has been verified in two-person synchrony, three-person synchrony, and even group synchrony. Moreover, both cooperative behaviour in classical experimental paradigms of cooperation (e.g. prisoner’s dilemma and public goods game) and real-life cooperative activities (e.g. task cooperation) can be positively influenced by interpersonal synchrony. A review of previous studies suggests that the potential process mechanisms underlying this promoting effect involve the activation of neurophysiological systems, an enhanced sense of social connectedness, increased cognitive sensitivity, and evocation of positive emotions. These mechanisms may play different roles in the effect of interpersonal synchrony on cooperation, including providing a physiological and psychological bases as well as facilitating positive interpersonal interactions. Previous researches have also proposed three different models of this positive effect from different perspectives: (1) the self-other representational overlap model, which suggests that individuals promote cooperative behaviour by generating a sense of connectedness through perceived similarity between self and other representations and behaviours; (2) the reinforcement of cooperation model, which suggests that emphasising shared intentionality and increasing joint attention will enhance individuals’ expectations of partners’ cooperation and thus promote cooperative behaviour; and (3) the collective effervescence model, which suggests that synchrony with others creates a positive emotional climate in which individuals generate positive emotions and group-identity, thus enhancing cooperative behaviour. These three models have their own focuses in explaining the role of interpersonal synchrony in promoting cooperation, but they still have shortcomings and cannot fully explain how interpersonal synchrony affects cooperation. Therefore, this paper integrates previous researches and constructs a new psychological process model of synchrony for cooperation. This model provides a more comprehensive and clearer structure of the direct and indirect paths through which synchrony affects cooperation and identifies two important moderators (group size and identity/cultural background). According to this model, synchrony can directly generate cooperative motivation (concern for others’ well-being, liking, trust, and a sense of commitment to performing an action) and then promote cooperative behaviour. Moreover, the shared behaviours, shared intentionality, joint attention as well as positive emotion induced by interpersonal synchrony can promote group identification and, at the same time, synchrony conveys important cues representing the level of competence and the willingness to change for others of partners—namely individual idiosyncratic characteristics. This means that cooperation can also be enhanced by clarifying who is cooperating, thus enhancing the motivation to cooperate. This paper summarises the shortcomings of the existing researches and provides suggestions for future research. The small number and inconsistency of studies on interpersonal synchrony and cooperative behaviour suggest that the facilitative effect of synchrony on cooperative behaviour is susceptible to interference by other factors, and future research needs to further explore the moderating mechanisms of the synchrony effect and reveal the effects of various factors such as social identity, group size, type of cooperative behaviour, and cultural background. In addition, the temporality, specificity, and generalisability of this positive effect need further validation in order to effectively increase the prosocial function of synchrony and reduce its antisocial risk.

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    Psychological needs of responsibility attribution and response strategies in public emergencies
    XIE Xiaona, ZHANG Yue, GUO Yongyu
    2022, 30 (6):  1327-1335.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01327
    Abstract ( 1277 )   HTML ( 80 )  
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    After an emergency occurs, inferring the cause of the incident and attributing responsibility is an essential characteristic of people’s psychological activities. Attribution of responsibility in emergencies refers to the public's cognitive tendency and attitude toward the inference of the cause of the incident. Further, it includes the assessment of the responsibility of the subject involved in the process of occurrence and handling. In adverse events, people have stronger motivations for attributing responsibility. It is a protection mechanism for individuals to find fault or accord blame for unfortunate events. This leads us to believe that disasters can be avoided if individuals or groups can determine the relationship between events and control the situation. Therefore, individuals need responsibility attribution after emergencies. The purpose and psychological significance of responsibility attribution are to meet the need to alleviate the sense of uncertainty and maintain a sense of control.
    The sense of uncertainty due to emergencies results in a need to explain exigencies in achieving cognitive closure. Through attribution of responsibility, people can obtain explanations regarding emergencies that occur, making such situations predictable. Conversely, the pursuit of certainty may lead to the public believing in conspiracy theories of adverse events. Responsibility attribution can also be used as a way to meet the needs of the people's order to compensate for the lack of sense of control. Simultaneously, the accountability or punishment of the offending party can make people feel controllable.
    Meeting people’s psychological needs depends on the strategies adopted by the responsible subject in dealing with the attribution of people’s responsibilities. These strategies can be divided into negative coping strategies that violate psychological needs and positive coping strategies that meet people’s psychological needs. For example, organizations to which fault is attributable may adopt negative, responsibility-avoidance behaviors to maintain a positive image and project moral values, which makes it more difficult for the public to get a clear picture of the incident. This further aggravates the public’s sense of uncertainty, and causes other negative effects. The situational crisis communication theory proposed by Coombs considers various crises. It provides targeted suggestions for coping strategies, but the approach pays less attention to the psychological needs of the public in the attribution of responsibility. Starting from the people’s psychological needs, we have proposed two principles for coping with responsibility attribution: 1) ensuring complete transparency of information to alleviate people’s sense of uncertainty, and 2) ensuring reasonable and orderly actions to increase people’s sense of control. Finally, we further provided suggestions for response strategies at different stages of the incident. In the initial stage, it is necessary to provide timely guidance information to establish security. In the mid-term, a reasonable explanation of the causality of the event should be provided to alleviate the sense of uncertainty. Further, the structure and order of various measures should be ensured to compensate for the sense of control. Later, detailed information needs to be released, including instructions and suggestions for future preventive measures, to achieve cognitive closure.
    We also discuss future research in this area. First, we can supplement the integrated empirical evidence on the relationship between psychological needs and accountability in emergencies. Second, we distinguish the characteristics of the public’s responsibility attribution and active response strategies in different types of emergencies. Third, we focus on the connection between responsibility attribution and other social-psychological variables. Finally, we explore practical strategies for the government in responding to the attribution of public responsibility based on Chinese society.

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    Are richer people less supportive of redistribution? The relationship between social class and redistribution preference and its psychological mechanism
    ZENG Zhaoxie, BAI Jie, GUO Yongyu, ZHANG Yue, GU Yuting
    2022, 30 (6):  1336-1349.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01336
    Abstract ( 1480 )   HTML ( 123 )  
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    Severe economic inequality can damage individuals' physical and mental health at the micro level; at the macro level, it hinders social mobility and threatens social equity and stability. At the current high level of economic inequality, income redistribution policy is an important means of narrowing the gap between the rich and the poor and promoting common prosperity. The formulation and effective implementation of redistribution policies cannot be separated from the support of all social strata, but research evidence from different disciplines shows that the upper class tends to be less supportive of redistribution than the lower class. Based on previous studies, this review proposes a mechanism and intervention model of low redistribution preference among higher social classes. According to the model, economic self-interest and system-justifying beliefs in motivation; the perception of economic inequality; the attribution of the wealth gap; and stereotypes in cognition, compassion, and status anxiety in emotion are the mediating factors that affect the redistribution preference of the upper class. To improve the dilemma of redistribution, three levels must be targeted: at the individual level, humility and compassion should be promoted; at the intergroup level, the focus should be on changing negative stereotypes of disadvantaged groups and the perspective of economic inequality; and at the social level, the focus should be on changing the cultural values of classes. More specifically, (1) improving humility can strengthen the egalitarian tendency of the upper class and weaken support for economic inequality, while reducing the endogenous attribution tendency of the wealth gap. Therefore, improving the humility of the upper class can help improve support for redistribution; (2) counter stereotype intervention can help the higher classes relate to the disadvantaged situation of the lower classes, which, in turn, affects their redistribution bias; (3) the inequality framing effect can, on the one hand, reduce the endogenous attribution tendency of the inequality gap among the upper class, and, on the other hand, increase the support of the upper class for redistribution policy due to the negative influence of inequality framing on the self-esteem of the group; (4) compassion training based on meditation, thinking, and behavioral training can improve redistribution preference by activating the medial orbitofrontal cortex and inferior parietal cortex; and (5) advocating for an equal and just social culture in society as a whole and changing the arrogance that can be found in the cultural value orientation of the higher classes will help to promote their redistribution preference. Several problems in the relationship between class and redistribution bias deserve further discussion. First, the upper classes also exhibit pro-redistribution behavior. Risk aversion, inequality aversion, and altruism may influence this phenomenon. The lower classes may also not support redistribution policies, which may be influenced by subjective identity biases, social mobility expectations, system justification, and welfare stigma. Second, the interaction between motivation, cognition, and emotion must be clarified and investigated. These factors do not always work in isolation but work together through mutual reinforcement and influence. As far as the perception of economic inequality among cognitive factors is concerned, its effects may be influenced by motivational factors. In addition, at the individual and social levels, other factors also deserve attention, such as the sense of psychological entitlement and cultural differences that exist at the social level. Third, the effectiveness of existing intervention strategies should be more comprehensively and rigorously investigated and verified by combining laboratory and field experiments, and horizontal and longitudinal studies. In addition, the differences between different social strata on the principles of fairness preference, the principle of fairness on redistribution towards the applicability problem situation, how to promote an understanding of the negative social consequences of economic inequality to society as a whole, how to change economic inequality as a personal problem, and individualistic discourse problems deserve attention in the future.

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    The characteristics of consumers’ new product adoption
    ZENG Fue, CHEN Wenbin, HE Qiong
    2022, 30 (6):  1350-1366.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01350
    Abstract ( 1126 )   HTML ( 104 )  
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    Successful new product development is an important factor for enterprise to gain competitive advantages, but the diffusion of most new products often ends in failure because the innovative products are not always accepted by the market. Therefore, the industry and academia have conducted a lot of explorations on the issue of new product adoption. New product adoption refers to the process of innovative products from being designed and manufactured to being recognized and adopted by consumers or potential consumers. This paper explores the essential causes of consumers’ new products adoption and the influencing factors of these causes from the perspective of consumers. Through literature review, we find that although many influencing factors such as consumer characteristics and product characteristics have been discussed in the past research on consumers’ adoption of new products, the root reasons have not been discovered. There is also a lack of an overall review of research on consumers’ new product adoption from the perspective of consumers. Therefore, this paper uses the Rogers’ innovation diffusion model as the theoretical basis and extracts the three fundamental reasons for consumers’ new product adoption: innovativeness, product understanding, and susceptibility according to the differences in adoption time and characteristics of adopters. We use this as an analysis framework to further explore the key factors affecting these three fundamental reasons.
    The innovations of this paper are as follows:
    Previous research mainly analyzed consumers' new product adoption behavior from different aspects such as consumer characteristics, product characteristics, or social influence. Although the research was comprehensive, it failed to explore the fundamental reasons for consumers’ adoption of new products. Our research proposes to systematically explore the root causes of new product adoption from the consumer’s perspective. We extract three essential reasons namely innovativeness, product understanding, and susceptibility for the first time, and construct the research framework based on this.
    Previous literature mainly divided consumers into early adopters and late adopters based on the adoption time of new products and the characteristics of adopters without analyzing the mechanism. Our research uses the Roger’s innovation diffusion model as the theoretical basis to make a preliminary distinction between adopters. We expound the essential reasons why consumers become early adopters and late adopters of new products from three aspects: innovativeness, product understanding, and susceptibility.
    We also sort out and summarize the influencing factors of consumers’ new products adoption in detail under the framework based on the three aspects of consumer innovativeness, product understanding, and susceptibility. Previous studies rarely considered these three essential reasons, but mainly discussed in isolation from the aspects of consumer characteristics and product characteristics.
    Through analysis, it is concluded that early adopters have high innovativeness, high product understanding, and low susceptibility; while late adopters have low innovativeness, low product understanding, and high susceptibility. We also further explore the specific factors influencing consumers’ new products adoption in various dimensions. Future research can be expanded from these three dimensions, combining the deficiencies of existing research, the current environment, and consumption characteristics.

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    Research Method
    Manipulation checks in the managerial psychology experiment in China: Current status, problems, and suggestions
    WEI Xuhua, WANG Guangwei, CHEN Yi
    2022, 30 (6):  1367-1376.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01367
    Abstract ( 1767 )   HTML ( 63 )  
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    Manipulation checks are important method to ensure the construct validity of managerial psychology experiment, which are also regarded as the basic technology of modern psychology experiments. Although manipulation checks have many advantages and have received widespread attention, current experimental method in managerial psychology literatures mainly focus on the overall experiment design and the strategy of data analysis, rarely investigating the details of manipulation checks design. Although some psychological research published in top international journals has discussed the problem of construct validity and the statistical analysis of manipulation checks, these limited studies have not carried out an integrated review from the key design process of manipulation checks and provided targeted coping strategies. This may lead researchers to undertake manipulation checks designs without solid theoretical support, and even conduct subjective design based on incomplete understanding and draw biased experimental conclusions.
    In order to effectively improve the normativity of manipulation checks in the managerial psychology field in China, this study summarized the functions of direct manipulation checks, discriminant manipulation checks and instructional manipulation checks, and then coded 144 experiments drawn from 49 studies in the field of managerial psychology which were published in 4 top-tier journals in 2020 (i.e., Acta Psychologica Sinica, Journal of Psychological Science, Management World, and Nankai Business Review). The present study analyzed the current status, problems and coping strategies of manipulation checks in the managerial psychology field in China from the perspective of the implementation form, the error control, the location choice, the implementation timing and the analytic strategy.
    Results showed that the application of manipulation checks in the managerial psychology field were not normative enough in China. Specifically, the way to implement manipulation checks appeared monistic with self-report dominating among these experiments. In terms of error control, many studies did not use maturity measurement scale, and seldomly employed new manipulation checks strategies (e.g., discriminant manipulation checks and instructional manipulation checks) to exclude competitive explanations and invalid experimental samples. For the choice of location, only a few managerial psychology studies paid attention to the influence of manipulation checks location on experiments, and most managerial psychology experiments placed manipulation checks in front of dependent variable. Furthermore, in the aspect of the implementation timing, most managerial psychology experiments completed manipulation checks during the experiment process, and manipulation checks were less implemented in the form of pre manipulation checks (e.g., pilot experiment) and post manipulation checks (e.g., qualitative coding). Finally, as for the strategy of experimental data analysis, the utilization rate of manipulation checks data was low. For example, most managerial psychology studies only focused on analysis of variance of the independent variable between groups and ignored the strength and mediation analysis strategy of the experimental manipulation.
    Manipulation checks without enough normativity cannot strongly guarantee the construct validity of experiment and may even interference the experimental process and get incorrect conclusions. To avoid it, future managerial psychology research should pay attention to the application of non-interventional forms to reduce the interference of manipulation checks on the experimental process. Besides, implementing error control strategies should be advocated to eliminate invalid data and competitive explanations. At the same time, the present study suggest that researchers should consider the characteristics of manipulation checks when they decide the appropriate position of manipulation checks included in the experiment material. Researchers are also encouraged to use pre and post manipulation checks to ensure flexibility. In the data analysis phase, we recommend researchers use manipulation strength and mediation analysis to guarantee the internal and external validity of the managerial psychology experiment. By doing so, this study expects the normativity of manipulation checks will be improved to a great extent.

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    Risk-taking research based on the Balloon Analog Risk Task
    DENG Yao, WANG Mengmeng, RAO Hengyi
    2022, 30 (6):  1377-1392.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01377
    Abstract ( 2664 )   HTML ( 204 )  
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    In daily life and work, people inevitably need to make choices and decisions under risky situations. The existence of risks may bring some negative consequences to the decision-makers or maybe the beginning of new opportunities. Therefore, how people make effective decisions in different risky situations and the cognitive neural mechanism behind it has been a research hotspot in many disciplines. For many years, a variety of measurements have been used to explore an individual’s risk-taking behaviors. Many studies leverage self-reported instruments to investigate risk (e.g., Sensation-Seeking Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), while others measure risk-taking using some paradigms. The Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART) is extensively accepted and applied by many researchers due to its well simulation of real-life risk-taking situations in a laboratory environment. The current study synthesizes the BART’s reliability and validity compared to other paradigms and further probes the advantages of using the BART as the measuring instrument of risk-taking behaviors. Moreover, the present study also discusses the evolution of the paradigm and summarizes the research progress of BART based on the existing behavioral and neural studies. Finally, some deficiencies of BART and the prospects for its development are put forward in conclusion.
    Compared with other risk-taking paradigms, the BART has been proved to be of high ecology, stability, and reliability under different risk circumstances. It has become one of the most widely used paradigms for risky decision-making research. It also has unique advantages in the prediction of some risks, such as smoking, drinking and substance use. As the pioneering behavioral paradigm that was exploited to measure adolescent risk-taking behaviors, the BART contributes a lot to exploring youths' addiction and substance use. Recently, researchers have developed a series of variants of the BART paradigm to adapt to the needs of different research situations. Many studies have leveraged the BART to extensively explore neural correlates of risk-taking behaviors in developmental, healthy, pathological, and addiction research. Overall, BART can not only meet the needs of behavioral measurement in different risk scenarios; but also be well combined with a series of neural measurement techniques. Neuroimaging studies have confirmed that risk-taking in the BART is associated with activations in multiple brain regions, including the ventral striatum, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, midbrain, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that the risk-taking behaviors measured by the BART involve rewards, emotions, learning, and evaluation. BART is also regarded as a classical paradigm for sequential risk decision-making. Similar findings are mentioned in the computational modeling of the BART data in sequential risk-taking consequences, emphasizing the critical role of learning and evaluation processes in the task.
    Although the BART has been widely used in risk-taking research, future studies are still needed to further improve the reliability and stability of the BART for cognitive neuroscience research and expand its application scope. Currently, the BART research at the neural level still lacks large sample data, which may lead to incorrect research results like underestimating the possibility of an individual’s risk-taking in real life. It is necessary to further expand the sample size, build a database based on the BART behavior and neuroimaging experiments, and share data and research results in different fields and levels to enhance our understanding of risky decision-making.

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    Feature extraction and ability estimation of process data in the problem-solving test
    HAN Yuting, XIAO Yue, LIU Hongyun
    2022, 30 (6):  1393-1409.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01393
    Abstract ( 650 )   HTML ( 36 )  
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    Computer-based problem-solving tests can record respondents’ response processes when they explore tasks and solve problems as process data, which is richer in information than traditional outcome data and can be used to estimate latent abilities more accurately. The analysis of process data in problem solving tests consists of two main steps: feature extraction and process information modeling.
    There are two main approaches to extracting information from process data: top-down and bottom-up method. The top-down method refers to developing rubrics by experts to extract meaningful behavioral indicators from process data. This approach extracts behavioral indicators that are closely related to the conceptual framework, have interpretable and clear scores, and can be analyzed directly using psychometric models, as is the case with items in traditional tests. However, such indicator construction methods are laborious and may miss unknown and previously unnoticed student thought processes, resulting in a loss of information. In contrast, the bottom-up method refers to the use of data-driven approaches to extract information directly from response sequences, which can be divided into the following three categories according to their processing ideas: (1) methods that analogize response sequences to character strings and construct indicators by natural language processing techniques; (2) methods that use dimensionality reduction algorithms to construct low-dimensional numerical feature vectors of response sequences; and (3) methods that use directed graphs to characterize response sequences and use network indicators to describe response features. Such methods partially address the task specificity in establishing scoring rules by experts, and the extracted features can be used to explore the behavioral patterns characteristic of different groups, as well as to predict respondents’ future performance. However, such methods may also lose information, and the relationship between the obtained features and the measured psychological traits is unclear.
    After behavioral indicators have been extracted from process data, probabilistic models that model the relationship between the indicators and the latent abilities can be constructed to enable the estimation of abilities. Depending on whether the model makes use of sequential relationships between indicators and whether continuously interpretable estimates of latent abilities can be obtained, current modeling methods can be divided into the following three categories: traditional psychometric models and their extensions, stochastic process models, and measurement models that incorporate the idea of stochastic processes. Psychometric models focus on estimates of latent abilities but are limited by their assumption of local independence and cannot include sequential information between indicators in the analysis. The stochastic process model focuses on modeling the response process, retaining information about response paths, but with weaker assumptions between indicators and underlying structure, and is unable to obtain continuous and stable estimates of ability. Finally, psychometric models that incorporate the idea of stochastic processes combine the advantages of both taking the sequence of actions as the object of analysis and having experts specify indicator coefficients or scoring methods that are consistent with the direction of abilities, thus allowing continuous interpretable estimates of abilities to be obtained while using more complete process information. However, such modeling methods are mostly suitable for simple tasks with a limited set of actions thus far.
    There are several aspects where research on feature extraction and capability evaluation modeling of process data could be improved: (1) improving the interpretability of analysis results; (2) incorporating more information in feature extraction; (3) enabling capability evaluation modeling in more complex problem scenarios; (4) focusing on the practicality of the methods; and (5) integrating and drawing on analytical methods from different fields.

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    IRT-based scoring methods for multidimensional forced choice tests
    LIU Juan, ZHENG Chanjin, LI Yunchuan, LIAN Xu
    2022, 30 (6):  1410-1428.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01410
    Abstract ( 936 )   HTML ( 32 )  
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    Forced-choice (FC) test is widely used in non-cognitive testing because of its effectiveness in resisting faking and the response bias caused by traditional Likert method. The traditional scoring of forced-choice test produces ipsative data, which has been criticized for being unsuitable for inter-individual comparisons. In recent years, the development of multiple forced-choice IRT models that allow researchers to obtain normative information from forced-choice test has re-ignited the interest of researchers and practitioners in forced-choice IRT models. The six prevailing forced-choice IRT models in existing studies can be classified according to the adopted decision model and item response model. The TIRT model, the RIM model and the BRB-IRT model for which the decision model is Thurstone’s Law of Comparative Judgment, and the MUPP framework and its derivatives for which the Luce Choice Axiom is adopted. In terms of item response mode, both the MUPP-GGUM and GGUM-RANK models are applicable to items with unfolding response mode, while the other forced-choice models are applicable to items with dominant response mode. In the parameter estimation method, it can also be distinguished according to the estimation algorithm and the estimation process. MUPP-GGUM uses a two-step strategy for parameter estimation, and it uses Likert scale to calibrate item parameters in advance, so that it can facilitate subsequent item bank management, while the others use joint estimation methods. For joint estimation, TIRT uses the traditional estimation algorithms: weighted least squares (WLS)/diagonally weighted least squares (DWLS), both of which are conveniently used in Mplus and take relatively little time, but at the same time they suffer from poor convergence and high computer memory usage in high-dimensional situations. The other model uses the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm, which effectively solves the convergence and insufficient memory in traditional algorithms, but the estimation time is longer and much slower than the traditional algorithms.
    The research on the application of the forced-choice IRT model is summarized in three areas: parameter invariance testing, computerized adaptive testing (CAT) and validity study. Parameter invariance testing can be divided into cross-block consistency and cross-population consistency (also known as DIF), with more research currently focusing on the latter, for example, there are already DIF testing methods for TIRT and RIM. While enriching or upgrading existing DIF testing methods is needed in future research in addition to develop other forced-choice model DIF testing methods so as to be more sensitive to DIF from multiple sources. Non-cognitive tests are usually high-dimensional, and the tests length problems caused by high dimensionality can be naturally addressed by CAT. There are studies that have already explored appropriate item selection strategies for the MUPP-GGUM, GGUM-RANK and RIM models. Future research can continue to explore item selection strategies for different forced-choice IRT models to ensure that the forced-choice CAT test can achieve a balance between measurement precision and test length in high-dimensional context. Validity studies focus on whether the scores obtained from the forced selection IRT model reflect the true characteristics of individuals, as tests that are not validated have huge pitfalls in the interpretation of the results. Some studies have compared IRT scores, traditional scores, and Likert-type scores to see whether IRT scores can yield similar results to Likert scores, whether they perform better than traditional scores in terms of recovery of latent traits. However, the use of Likert scale scores as criterion may introduces response bias as a source of error, and future research can focus on obtaining purer, more convincing criterion.

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