ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Conceptual Framework
    The spatiotemporal markers for the sense of agency in the human brain
    ZHAO Ke, GU Jingjin, HUANG Guanhua, ZHENG Shuang, FU Xiaolan
    2021, 29 (11):  1901-1910.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01901
    Abstract ( 1106 )   HTML ( 131 )  
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    Sense of agency (SOA) refers to the feeling of controlling one's own actions and events in the external world through voluntary actions. Over the past two decades, SOA has increasingly attracted attention from researchers, and its cognitive neural mechanism is still a cutting-edge scientific problem in this field. There are two ways to measure SOA: explicit measurement (i.e., the explicit judgements of agency reported by individuals) and implicit measurement (i.e., sensory perception difference). Both the temporal binding effect and the sensory attenuation effect can be used as implicit measures for SOA. Intention of action and sensory feedback are two core components constituting the SOA. Intention of action is a conscious experience of determining or planning to initiate an action. Extinction and termination of intention can prospectively affect SOA. The valence of action outcome, the causal relationship between an action and its outcome, and the characteristics of the outcome may retrospectively affect the sense of agency. According to the Comparator Model, a copy of the action command contained in the subjective intention predicts the outcome before action. When comparing the predicted sensory outcome with the actual feedback of the action, the prediction error is zero, generating SOA. Evidence from cognitive neuroscience suggests that intention may be closely related to the activities in the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor areas, and the action outcome may be related to the activities of the posterior parietal cortex. This project will focus on the neural substrates underlying SOA, and explore the prospective way of intention and the retrospective way of outcome exerting on SOA by manipulating different attributes of two core components (i.e., subjective intention and action outcome). The magnetoencephalography technology, which is of high temporal and spatial resolution, is employed to extract the time-space characteristics of SOA at the fronto-parietal network in both the time windows of action-outcome and after-outcome. Elucidating the neural mechanism of SOA will contribute to our understanding of the generation and aftereffects of human actions, thus providing implications for demarcating behavioral responsibilities in moral and legal settings, and for diagnosing related mental diseases.

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    The relationship between methylation of dopamine-related genes, family environment and creativity
    ZHANG Shun, YANG Xiaolei, Ren Jiawen, ZHANG Jinghuan
    2021, 29 (11):  1911-1919.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01911
    Abstract ( 891 )   HTML ( 74 )  
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    The debate over “nature versus nurture” has been an intense focus of creativity research. Like most other human behaviors and complex psychological traits, the origin of individual differences in creativity could be attributed to the influence of genes and environment. By comparing the phenotypic similarity among monozygotic versus dizygotic twins, early quantitative genetic studies have tried to disentangle the relative influences of genes and environment on creativity. Although it has been shown that there were modest genetic influences and substantial environmental effects on creativity, the specific genes and environmental factors that contribute to individual differences in creativity are still largely unknown. Recently, with the ongoing efforts of psychologists, it is delightful to see that great progresses have been achieved in identifying the specific genes and environmental factors that contribute to individual differences in creativity. To identify the molecular genetic basis of creativity, several candidate gene studies have been conducted to investigate the associations between dopamine-related genes and creativity. Findings from these studies generally support the involvement of dopamine-related genes in creativity, and highlight the critical roles of the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT), the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2), the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) and the dopamine transporter gene (DAT). As for environmental factors, previous studies have found that early family environment (e.g., parenting styles and socioeconomic status) plays an important role in creativity development. Moreover, since creativity is an emergenic trait that determined by the interaction of genes and environment, several studies have found evidence for the interactions of dopamine-related genes with family environment (e.g., parenting styles) on creativity, demonstrating that genes could be either risk or plasticity to modulate the effect of environment on creativity. Obviously, these findings provide important insights concerning how genes and environment may influence creativity; however, there is still a gap in mechanistic understanding of the molecular biological mechanisms by which environment and gene-environment interaction may influence creativity. Recently, with the development of epigenetic studies, identification of the epigenetic basis of complex traits and behaviors has been one of the leading issues in psychological research. Epigenetic studies focus on the non-genotoxic, reversible, heritable mechanisms that influence gene expression without changing the DNA sequence. Epigenetic process, such as DNA methylation, has emerged as a potential mechanism through which the genome can capture the effects of environment and propagate the influence. As a potential mediator between environment and genome, the epigenetic approach provides an opportunity to reveal how the complex interactions of genes, epigenetics and environment give rise to individual differences in creativity. Based on this notion, by investigating the relationship between methylation of dopamine-related genes, family environment and creativity, the present study aims to reveal the epigenetic basis of creativity and the molecular biological mechanisms by which environment and gene-environment interaction may influence creativity. To this purpose, a two-stage design was employed in the present study. Stage 1 is designed to systematically investigate the association between methylation of four dopamine-related genes (COMT, DAT, DRD2 and DRD4) and creativity, and aims to identify the gene whose methylation pattern is associated with creativity. Stage 2 focuses on the identified gene whose methylation pattern is associated with creativity, and is designed to investigate the relationship between family environment, genotypes, methylation and creativity. It is expected that findings of the present study would help to demonstrate the epigenetic basis of creativity and to provide important insight into the mechanisms by which genes and environment interplay with each other to influence creativity.

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    The promotion of customer citizenship behaviors and the deterrence of misbehaviors in sharing economy based on social dilemma theory
    MA Shuang, LING Xiaodie, LI Chunqing
    2021, 29 (11):  1920-1935.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01920
    Abstract ( 898 )   HTML ( 105 )  
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    The promotion of customer citizenship behaviors and the deterrence of misbehaviors can increase the sustainability of the sharing economy (in which services are exchanged between peer providers and peer customers, as on the Xiaozhu platform). A recent line of research has focused on customer citizenship behaviors and misbehaviors in the traditional economy, but this research cannot capture the idiosyncrasies of the sharing economy. Recent media coverage of the sharing economy has been permeated by examples of customer citizenship behaviors and misbehaviors, but academia and practice have been silent on strategies for optimizing these behaviors. We approach this question from the perspective of the social dilemma, which involves a conflict between the maximization of self-interest and collective interests. Social dilemma theory pertains to the regulation of myriad individual behaviors, and we use the theory to investigate the concepts, dimensions, and measures of customer citizenship behaviors and misbehaviors. Then, we test how platforms, peer providers, and the government can use rules and social influence to optimize customer behaviors (i.e., promoting customer citizenship behaviors and preventing misbehaviors). Finally, we illustrate the differential impacts of customer citizenship behaviors and misbehaviors on the actual performance of peer providers, and we identify boundary effects involving the customer’s social orientation and peer provider’s monitoring.
    This study offers three major innovations to the literature. First, this study expands the investigation of the typical characteristics of customer citizenship behaviors and misbehaviors from the offline context to the sharing economy. Most researchers have measured customer citizenship behaviors and misbehaviors from single dimension and have focused on the offline context (typical citizenship behaviors: customer recommendations, information sharing; typical misbehaviors: being rude to service providers, swapping price tags). Without a nuanced understanding of customer citizenship behaviors and misbehaviors in the sharing economy, managers cannot manage customer behaviors effectively. Using social dilemma theory, this research demonstrates customer citizenship behaviors in the sharing economy (e.g., customer recommendations, helping behaviors, information sharing, and toleration behaviors) from the perspectives of peer providers and peer customers. We also discuss customer misbehaviors from the perspectives of property sharing, peer providers, communities, and online feedback.
    Second, this study advances the social dilemma theory literature by systematically examining two types of solutions: motivational (e.g., social influence) and structural (e.g., rule making). Most studies apply social dilemma theory to investigate structural solutions in the traditional offline context, where customer behavior might be governed by firm regulations and constraints. We demonstrate how structural and motivational solutions can be adapted for the online sharing economy; structural solutions include behavioral supervision and rules for rewards and penalties, while motivation solutions include identification and personalization. However, the theory in prior studies can not fully explain customer citizenship behaviors and misbehaviors on sharing platforms. This study investigates how customer behaviors are shaped by social influence as well as by rule-making at three levels: the platform, peer providers, and the government.
    Third, this study adds to the existing sharing economy literature. We investigate the differential influences of dimensions of customer behaviors on the actual performance of peer providers. In addition, this research disentangles the moderation mechanisms by which cross-cultural and peer provider supervision influence customer behaviors. Prior studies in the sharing economy literature have used questionnaires and case studies to analyze the impacts of customer citizenship behaviors and misbehaviors on customer premium payment intentions and peer provider performance. However, these studies offer little insight into the drivers of customer behaviors, their impact on actual peer provider performance, and strategies for influencing customer behaviors to achieve better outcomes. This study addresses all three of these shortcomings: We offer insight into the drivers by illustrating how the influences of customer behaviors vary by country, we examine the influences of customer behaviors on actual performance, and we evaluate strategies for reconciling the impacts of customer behaviors through smart technology adoption and communication.

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    Research Method
    Implicit relational assessment procedure (IRAP): Measuring principle and applications
    WEN Fangfang, KE Wenlin, ZUO Bin, DAI Yuee, NIE Siyuan, YAO Yi, HAN Shi
    2021, 29 (11):  1936-1947.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01936
    Abstract ( 1457 )   HTML ( 62 )  
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    The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) is a new implicit measurement method based on relational frame theory (RFT) and is used to directly measure social cognition, beliefs, or attitudes. The method consists of two basic tasks: congruent and incongruent. The basic hypothesis is that subjects’ prior experience and response bias affect their responses to congruent or incongruent tasks. Specifically, a judgment response that conforms to subjects’ cognitive experience should occur faster than a judgment response that does not conform. As a widely used implicit attitude measurement paradigm, the IRAP demonstrates a certain degree of reliability and validity. However, different response choices (e.g., similar/opposite vs. true/false) and social situational factors (e.g., mixed/single gender, public/private scene, etc.) are all important factors influencing the IRAP’s effects. Simultaneously, the applicability of the IRAP differs somewhat from that of the relationship evaluation procedure (REP), implicit association test (IAT), relationship response task (RRT), and simple implicit procedure (SIP), and it has its own unique applicability. For example, the IRAP can directly measure the characteristics of implicit attitudes, while the implicit attitudes measured by the IAT can only be obtained as relative results. Starting from the structure of human speech relations, the IRAP can be used to explore even more complex and diverse relationships, such as measuring both “I am valuable” and the subjects’ implicit attitude toward “I want to be valuable.” In addition, the IRAP can directly use declarative sentences as stimuli, while non-relativity and flexibility allow the IRAP to explore more complex and diverse relationships. The relational frame theory (RFT), relational elaboration and coherence model (REC), and differential relational responding effects (DAARRE) provide theoretical explanations for the different effects of the IRAP.
    To extend the applicability of the IRAP to a wider range of research fields and make it suitable for different experimental purposes, researchers have improved the original paradigm, and designed different variants such as the natural language IRAP, training IRAP, and change agenda IRAP. The IRAP was originally used in clinical diagnostic research and has gradually been extended to a wide range of applications in the fields of self, social cognition, population, and attitudes. To further verify the reliability and validity of different forms of the IRAP, exploring the psychological mechanism and effects of the IRAP, as well as its applicability in different fields—especially the research fields of implicit social cognition and intergroup interaction—will be important directions for future research. In conclusion, the IRAP provides a new perspective and method for researching implicit social cognition and even psychology as a whole, and lays a foundation for a deeper discussion of psychological scientific issues, thereby creating broad application prospects.

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    Intensive longitudinal data analysis: Models and application
    ZHENG Shufang, ZHANG Lijin, QIAO Xinyu, PAN Junhao
    2021, 29 (11):  1948-1969.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01948
    Abstract ( 968 )   HTML ( 60 )  
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    In the fields of psychology, education, and clinical science, researchers have devoted increasing attention to the intraindividual dynamics of behaviors, minds, and treatment effects over time, making personalized modeling a growing concern. Traditional cross-sectional and longitudinal studies only have a few measurement time points for each individual, which is not suitable for studying intraindividual dynamics. Intensive longitudinal design collects a set of measures from individuals at multiple time points with higher frequency over longer periods. With its strengths in more immediate, accurate, and authentic assessments, this design is more suitable to investigate the dynamics and mechanisms of intraindividual processes. With the development of mobile phones and other mobile devices, researchers can conveniently collect intensive longitudinal data for various aspects of psychology, including individual emotion, personality, cognition, and behavior patterns.
    The intensive longitudinal design has recently become one of the most prominent and promising approaches in psychological research, but most of these studies still relied on traditional analyzing methods. We first reviewed a conventional method of intensive longitudinal data analysis, the multilevel linear model (MLM), and discussed its limitations in analyzing intensive longitudinal data. We then introduced the principles, empirical applications, strengths, and weaknesses of two advanced modeling methods, dynamic structural equation model (DSEM) and group iterative multiple model estimation (GIMME). DSEM is a top-down approach of modeling intensive longitudinal data while GIMME is a bottom-up one, both being implemented in commonly used software. DSEM is one of the most promising methods for intensive longitudinal modeling and can be regarded as a multilevel extension of the dynamic factor model (DFM). It combines the strengths of various modeling approaches, including multilevel modeling, time-series modeling, structural equational model (SEM), and time-varying effects modeling (TVEM). GIMME is a dynamic network method initially proposed for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis and has recently been applied to intensive longitudinal data analysis. It combines individual- and group-level information to estimate network models at both levels, bridging nomothetic (population) and idiographic (individual) approaches to intensive longitudinal data analysis. By introducing these two advanced modeling methods, the current review can help deepen the understanding of the top-down approach and bottom-up approach and clarify their strengths and weaknesses in the intensive longitudinal data analysis.
    To help empirical researchers better understand the modeling of DSEM and GIMME and show the advantages of the two models compared with MLM, we provided a tutorial on how to analyze the intensive longitudinal data with the three models (i.e., MLM, DSEM, and GIMME), respectively. We presented the analyzing processes step by step and explained how to interpret the results of these models accordingly. By comparing the output results of the three models, the current review summarized the characteristics of each model. The corresponding Mplus and R codes were provided in the appendixes.
    Along with the three modeling methods mainly introduced in the current review, we also provided a general introduction of other common modeling methods in the intensive longitudinal data analysis. The current review summarized the popular models in the intensive longitudinal data analysis on their strengths and weaknesses and guided researchers to select suitable modeling methods in different situations. The current review contributes to the development and application of the advanced methods of intensive longitudinal data analysis and helps researchers better understand the dynamic process behind the intensive longitudinal data.

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    Regular Articles
    The embodied cognition effect of the second language: Automatic activation or native language mediation?
    BAI Yating, HE Wenguang
    2021, 29 (11):  1970-1978.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01970
    Abstract ( 654 )   HTML ( 68 )  
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    Embodied language cognition highlights that language processing not only involves internal representation of purely abstract symbols but also body and environment which play an important role. The majority of the evidences are from the field of the first language (L1), and there is still debate on whether this effect exists in the second language (L2) or not. We proposed two hypotheses, “automatic activation” and “native language mediation”, after summarizing the evidence for L2 embodiment effect from behavioral and neurophysiological studies. “Automatic activation” means that embodiment effect occurs synchronously between L1 and L2. However, the “native language mediation” hypothesis expresses that the embodiment effect in the L2 may parasite on the L1, so it will not occur synchronously between L1 and L2. L1 embodiment effect occurs earlier than the L2. Several factors, such as proficiency, age of acquisition (AoA), and acquiring methods of L2, could account for the difference between L1 and L2 in the timing of the embodiment effect. For L2 learners with earlier AoA and high proficiency, automatic activation of the embodied cognition may be more evident, while late acquisition and low proficiency may mean that L2 learners need to rely on L1 mediation. Furthermore, if an L2 is learned in a classroom or a relatively artificial environment, linguistic symbols lack direct perceptual connection with the objects, events, or actions they describe, so learners are more likely to carry out psychological operations inside their brains, preventing them from forming a complete mental representation. In this case, the embodiment effect of L2 is more likely the consequence of conceptual or mental representation simulation based on linguistic symbol description.
    Although some valuable conclusions have been drawn from existing studies, there are still many controversies. Firstly, because there are significant differences between L1 and L2 in the way of learning, learning duration, and proficiency, researchers argued that the L2 was represented less grain-fined than L1 and the processing of L2 is “disembodied”. However, we argue that the embodiment effect is not “all or none”, but a “continuum”. The embodiment effect of L2 may be at the beginning of the “continuum”, and so its intensity and mode of expression are different from that of L1. Secondly, although both hypotheses are plausible, it is not clear which explanation is more universal, though not completely contradictory. With the increase of L2 proficiency, the embodiment effect gradually transforms from “native language mediation” to “automatic activation”.
    Still, there are some unresolved questions. For example, at what proficiency level does L2 achieve the transition from “native language mediation” to “automatic activation”? Is the transition precipitous or gradual? In addition to L2 proficiency, what are the roles do AoA, language similarities, styles of language acquisition, and task types play in the transition between them? Probably, studies on the L2 embodiment effect among bilinguals with different reading and writing habits may help to resolve the above debate. Finally, if “native language mediation” is suitable for L2 learners with low proficiency, is the mediation realized at the lexical level or semantic conceptual level? Although research on the L2 embodiment effect is still controversial, studies on this issue are helpful to enrich the theory of language embodied cognition and further clarify the mechanism of bilingual representation, and effectively improve L2 teaching.

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    Evaluation of external HMI in autonomous vehicles based on pedestrian road crossing decision-making model
    JIANG Qianni, ZHUANG Xiangling, MA Guojie
    2021, 29 (11):  1979-1992.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01979
    Abstract ( 826 )   HTML ( 43 )  
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    For autonomous vehicles driven in road context with pedestrians, it is essential to ensure safe and efficient interaction with pedestrians. Compared with the interaction between traditional vehicles and pedestrians, the interaction between autonomous vehicles and pedestrians brings new risks. On the one hand, the driver’s attention may be distracted from the driving task, which resulted in lower reliability of their non-verbal cues. On the other hand, pedestrians are not familiar with autonomous vehicles, which may lead to false expectations of vehicle behavior that led to a higher risk of conflicts. To solve the problem, autonomous vehicles of high level (e.g. above L3) are usually equipped with an external human-machine interface (eHMIs) to communicate with pedestrians.
    An overview of current studies shows that the current external eHMIs mainly conveyed vehicle status (whether it is in auto mode), intentions, and road-crossing advice to pedestrians in visual modalities such as text, icon, projection, etc. These eHMIs have been evaluated to determine their effect on pedestrian crossing intention, speed, and accuracy in real as well as simulated contexts.
    However, a user-centered design of eHMIs should systematically support pedestrian information processing needs during road crossing decision making. To fill the gap, a conceptual model was proposed to capture pedestrian’s dynamic road crossing decision-making when interacting with autonomous vehicles. The model integrated pedestrian’s road crossing decision-making process and the situation awareness theory.
    Based on the model, eHMIs should promote pedestrians’ perception of the traffic elements related with the vehicle, comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of the vehicle’s future behaviors. Design of eHMIs should support pedestrian information processing needs for each of the three phases.
    The first phase is to perceive the status and dynamics of vehicles in the traffic environment. To support the perception of the displayed information, the recognizability of information is the key to improve the effectiveness of interfaces. Researchers should apply multiple modalities’ interfaces to convey the vehicle’s information, for example, conveying information by the combination of projection, dynamic light, and icon interface can improve the recognizability. And they should reside interfaces in conjunction with the vehicle, street infrastructure, and the pedestrian to cope with the more complex traffic situation.
    The second phase is to comprehend the situation based on information collected in the perception stage. To improve comprehensibility, text interfaces should present concise phrases, and non-text interfaces should be standardized and explained with texts, otherwise, they should be trained to pedestrians to improve comprehensibility. Besides, the perspective of the message also affects the clarity of the displayed information. For red light, it can be interpreted from the perspective of the pedestrian as “Please stop” or from the perspective of the vehicle “I will stop”. An appropriate message perspective can improve pedestrians’ understanding and acceptance of the information so that they can make safe crossing decisions.
    In the projection phase, eHMIs need to help pedestrians predict crossing risks and assist them in making decisions quickly and accurately. Researchers should combine eHMIs with vehicle motion information to convey the vehicle’s future action intentions more intuitively. For example, pedestrians can predict vehicle intention more quickly and accurately by presenting the real-time vehicle speed on eHMIs.
    For future research, we suggest an extension of current findings to more complex contexts beyond the one-vehicle-one-pedestrian scenario and focus on how the design affects pedestrians in multi-pedestrian and multi-vehicle mixed traffic conditions. Efforts are also needed to understand how the communication interface affected the formation and update of pedestrian situation awareness, as well as the role of mental models in human-vehicle interactions. These mechanisms can facilitate the model-based evaluation of future interfaces and inform new theory-based designs in complex scenarios.

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    The teaching and learning brains: Interpersonal neuroscience in educational research
    CHENG Xiaojun, LIU Meihuan, PAN Yafeng, LI Hong
    2021, 29 (11):  1993-2001.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01993
    Abstract ( 884 )   HTML ( 61 )  
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    One significant challenge that currently limits the development of educational neuroscience is the way to neurophysiologically characterize interpersonal interactions and dynamics of pedagogical activities. Addressing this challenge in the literature, we aim to provide a perspective on the research emerging in the nexus between the fields of interpersonal neuroscience (i.e., the measurement of two or more individuals’ brain activity and the analysis of their inter-dependency), teaching and learning. Our review will highlight important recent developments and target outstanding questions that have so far not been addressed, and offer a novel synthesized framework for a better understanding of both the transmission of information between individual brains, and how such interactions shape memories and behavior. The interpersonal neuroscience focuses on the associations among two or more people when they perform the same cognitive activity. There are two different types of scanning in interpersonal neuroscience research: sequential scanning and hyperscanning. In a sequential scanning protocol, a stimulus is first shown to a subject A (e.g., a teacher), whose responses are recorded and later presented to another subject B (e.g., a student). The responses from subject B are also recorded and compared with those of subject A. Research using sequential scanning examines the group's processing mode of information and the transmission of such information between people. The concurrent scanning (also known as “hyperscanning”) captures the brain activity of interacting individuals simultaneously. In hyperscanning studies, a student acquires information by interacting with another individual (another student or a teacher). Related studies focus on the interaction patterns of multiple individuals in naturalistic situations. Compared with sequential scanning, hyperscanning is thought to have higher ecological validity and can be applied in real-time one-to-one and one-to-many teaching scenarios.
    Recent years have witnessed fruitful applications of interpersonal neuroscience in the field of education. It has been demonstrated that teaching activities can induce the synchronization of brain activity (i.e., interpersonal brain synchronization, IBS) between interacting individuals (such as teacher-student dyads and student-student dyads) with different task scenarios and materials. IBS may reflect the quantity and quality of teacher-student/student-student interaction. The characteristics of IBS in the teaching process are closely associated with the dynamic nature of the teaching process and the teacher-student relationship. Also, the inter-student correlation of brain activity can reflect their cognitive states (such as engagement and attention, etc.) during the learning process. Therefore, the interpersonal neuroscience perspective can help researchers better understand the teaching process. Interpersonal neuroscience can provide valuable insights for monitoring the teaching process, predicting the teaching effect, and capturing the factors that may affect the teaching activities.
    The research findings of interpersonal neuroscience in the field of education have important implications for teaching activities and research. The related neural indices can help teachers select teaching materials, establish and maintain a good teacher-student relationship, and attach importance to the role of interaction in teaching activities. According to the current findings of the application of interpersonal neuroscience in education, the correlation or synchronization between brain activity can be used as a predictor of attention engagement and learning outcomes. Future research is needed to improve the quality of online courses by applying the methods of interpersonal neuroscience to monitor the interactive learning characteristics of students with different learning ability levels, improve the quality of teaching activities of skills, track the dynamic changes of students' engagement in online course learning and evaluate the quality of online courses. We believe that our perspective will have a broad impact in fields, such as psychology, pedagogics, and neuroscience, in particular those targeting social behavior and teaching/learning settings. Our perspective will also be of interest to researchers working across species and in the clinic.

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    Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on patients with mild cognitive impairment
    CHEN Juan, HE Hao, YANG Dandan, GUAN Qing
    2021, 29 (11):  2002-2012.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02002
    Abstract ( 836 )   HTML ( 35 )  
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    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate state between normal aging and dementia, which does not affect activities of daily living. Patients with MCI typically show deficits in memory, attention, executive function, language and speech, which are related to the altered connectivity of large-scale brain networks, such as salience network, frontal-parietal network, and default mode network. MCI is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease, but there lacks effective pharmacologic therapy of MCI. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is widely applied to enhance cognitive functions by modulating synaptic plasticity. However, there is a lack of studies examining effects of rTMS on MCI, and no consensus on its effectiveness and mechanisms has been reached. To address this problem, a literature review was conducted by searching literature in databases of Web Of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and by assessing the quality of included studies using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool.
    The results showed that the studies included in this review had a low risk of bias. Performing high-frequency rTMS on inferior frontal cortex (IFG) and superior temporal cortex (STG) improved attention in patients with MCI, by increasing the excitability of the attention network. High-frequency rTMS of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) improved executive function. rTMS-excitation of dlPFC and precuneus enhanced episodic memory in MCI patients, and its underlying mechanism might be that rTMS improved the encoding function of dlPFC and the retrieving function of ventral precuneus. Based on that the increasing activity of right dlPFC is associated with the decreasing activity of hippocampus, the inhibition of dlPFC improved long-term memory in patients with MCI. Conducting high-frequency rTMS on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) could strengthen the connectivity among neuronal subpopulations in mPFC, improving the short-term memory of patients with MCI. Based on the strong functional connectivity between posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and hippocampus, performing high-frequency rTMS on parietal cortex could activate hippocampus by the PPC-hippocampus connection, which improves associative memory of patients with MCI. High-frequency rTMS over prefrontal cortex (PFC) improved associative memory, which was related to the additional activation of right IFG and middle frontal gyrus, reflecting a compensatory mechanism in associative memory.
    rTMS shows effects in improving attention, executive function, episodic memory, long-term and short-term memory, and associative memory in patients with MCI. The improving effects could keep for 30 days, 8 weeks, or 6 months. No significant adverse effects of rTMS were reported in these studies. The major strengths of this review included that the inclusion and the quality assessment of studies followed standard protocol, and that the examinations of the rTMS effects on MCI and its underlying mechanisms were conducted comprehensively in terms of the affected multiple cognitive domains. Future studies should optimize the localization for TMS, extend the evaluation period of intervention effects, and explore how rTMS works in the treatment of MCI combining with neuroimaging technologies.

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    The influence of emotion on eating behavior
    ZHOU Aibao, XIE Pei, TIAN Zhe, PAN Chaochao
    2021, 29 (11):  2013-2023.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02013
    Abstract ( 4105 )   HTML ( 397 )  
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    Eating behavior is not only regulated by the biological needs of people, but is also affected by emotional states, motivations, diseases, and more. There is a complex relationship between emotion and eating behavior. Consuming food can influence people's emotion. On the other hand, food attention, subjective appetite, and food intake can be influenced by emotion. Many studies have focused on emotional eating due to negative emotions. However, fewer studies focus on the effect that positive emotion has on eating behavior. The relationship between positive emotion and eating behavior is still controversial, as the relationship is underrepresented in research. The present study analyzed the eating behavior of clinical and non-clinical individuals who were affected by negative or positive emotions, and further explored the neurophysiology of eating behaviors and the various theories of the effect that emotions have on eating behaviors. The results showed that negative emotion increased attentional bias and intake for food and subjective appetite in the general population. This process was also affected by other factors; for example, modest women may restrict their food intake while experiencing negative emotions, so they may regain a sense of control which would offset the unpleasant feelings they were experiencing. In this study, there were two results regarding the effect that positive emotion has on eating behaviors. One theory was that positive emotions broaden momentary thought-action repertoires of people, which in turn builds their endurance. This leads us to believe that people resist food intake after positive emotion is induced. However, contrarily, positive emotion could increase hedonistic behavior in people, thus increasing food intake to maintain the experience of pleasure. Negative emotion increased both attention bias for food cues and subsequent intake in people with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorders. Negative emotion causes decreased food intake in people suffering from anorexia nervosa. Positive emotion decreased binge eating in people with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorders and relieved restrictive eating behaviors in people with anorexia nervosa. According to the reward theory, negative emotion can enhance reward sensitivity toward food. Following increased food intake, this process may show a synergy effect in the amygdala, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, striatum, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Negative emotion ruins the inhibitory control of individuals, meaning that they may begin to overeat, in association with the activation of the anterior cingulate cortex. According to self-related theory, negative emotion induces negative self-awareness. People can show attention bias due to immediate environmental stimulus, as overeating is meant to help people escape from their own negative self-awareness. Placing their attention on binge eating allows people with bulimia or other binge eating disorders to avoid dealing with information or environmental stimulus that may be hurtful. From the perspective of social culture, most eating behaviors with positive emotion have some special or celebratory meaning which increases the hedonic-oriented eating behavior of the individual. In general, the association between emotion and eating behavior has a certain regularity to follow. In the study, during a negative emotion, an individual’s eating behavior manifested in an extreme, unhealthy pattern, whether that meant an increased or decreased food intake. This study found a direct association between emotion and eating behavior; However, social culture, symbolism and connotation of certain foods, and an individual’s default eating styles (disinhibited and restrained eating) should be considered alongside the influence that emotion has on eating behaviors. In addition, most past studies self-reported food intake and subjective appetite as recorded by the individuals as the measurement. Future studies should adopt neuro-physiological methods to explore the effect of emotion on eating behavior and study a small set of neurons in the hypothalamus which regulates appetite, for example.

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    The cognitive psychological process of brand consumption journey: The perspective of neuromarketing
    XIE Ying, LIU Yutong, CHEN Mingliang, LIANG Andi
    2021, 29 (11):  2024-2042.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02024
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    Brand consumption journey usually refers to the multi-dimensional (including cognition, emotion, feeling, behavior and brand relationship) response to brand consumption service. Revealing the cognitive psychological process of brand consumption journey is the focus and hot spot in the field of marketing. Based on the summary of the domestic and foreign research results involving brand marketing, consumer psychology and decision neuroscience, this paper divides the brand consumption journey into four stages: attention attraction, decision-making, consumption experience and brand loyalty. Meanwhile, this paper reveals the cognitive psychological process of consumers in the journey of brand consumption from two levels (consciousness and subconsciousness): in the stage of attention attraction, consumers process the perceived product information and form target attention through the perceptual pathway of the brain, and the activation degree of nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and anteriorinsula (AIns) can reflect consumers' attention to products, The N1 and P2 components of ERP are closely related to the formation of visual attention. The alpha ERD of ERO represents the formation of attention attraction and the allocation of early attention resources. In the decision-making stage, consumers form an estimate of the expected value of products in the striatum and other brain regions, and make a purchase decision after weighing it with the price. The P3 and SW components of ERP can reflect the confidence of decision-making, and the gamma ERS of ERO can reflect the decision-making process of value integration of product information. In the stage of consumption experience, consumers' emotional pleasure is reflected in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and other brain areas. Emotional changes will lead to changes in P2 and LPP amplitudes of ERP. Emotional experience is related to theta ERS, gamma ERS, delta ERS and alpha ERD of ERO. Finally, in the stage of brand loyalty, consumers conduct consumption learning based on the structure of striatum, caudate nucleus and hippocampus, and the results will lead to consumer loyalty (or disloyalty). The late positive component of 500~800 ms in ERP may be related to brand loyalty, while theta ERS in ERO may be related to consumer memory and product immersion experience, which reflects customer loyalty. Future research can further explore the representational meaning of different neural indicators in specific marketing situations, and analyze the neural coupling between multiple subjects by applying with hyperscanning technology.

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    Less is more: A theoretical interpretation of minimalism in consumption
    CHEN Siyun, WEI Haiying, XIONG Jiwei, RAN Yaxuan
    2021, 29 (11):  2043-2061.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02043
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    Minimalism refers to a lifestyle that seeks satisfaction in a non-material world by reducing consumption. Given the increasing popularity of minimalistic consumption (i.e., voluntary simplicity), it is necessary to understand minimalism more comprehensively. First, we provide a categorization scheme related voluntary simplicity, including its conception, dimensions, and measurements. Characterized by a minimal, simple, and responsible lifestyle, minimalism can be defined as the degree to which consumers select a lifestyle to minimalize their consumption and to take control of their life. The practice of simplified living typically entails minimizing possessions, consuming less, and valuing personal growth.
    Then, factors that influence minimalistic consumption are presented. The reasons for individuals to adopt simplifying behaviors are manifold. That is, motivations for engaging minimalistic consumption are multifaceted and complicated, including both internal (i.e., personal, financial, lifestyle) and external (i.e., economic, social, environmental) motivations. In addition to consumers who curtail their consumption due to financial restraints, there are consumers who consciously consume, although they are financially well off. The rejection of the concept that one’s success is determined by his/her material goods (i.e., materialism) has prompted interest in minimalistic consumption. In addition, some simplifiers (i.e., minimalistic consumers) are driven by motives of environmental sustainability. That is, when consumers give greater consideration to the natural environment and ecological system, they may engage in voluntary simplicity to live both well and sustainably. Furthermore, people can lead an independent and self-determined life through minimalistic consumption; therefore, a desire to achieve an autonomous life is an important antecedent of minimalistic consumption. Moreover, philosophical motivation (i.e., religious belief) is another factor driving minimalism in consumption.
    Moving forward, the potential impacts of minimalistic behavior are shown. Minimalism has a positive influence on individual, societal and environmental wellbeing. Adopting low consumption helps expand mental space, resulting in a feeling of lightness, relaxation, and clarity. A minimalistic lifestyle facilitates individuals’ positive emotions while reducing their negative emotions such as depression. Consumers can also reduce their dependence on the market offerings by curtailing the overall consumption, in search of a simpler but happier life. Additionally, minimalistic practices offer several wellbeing benefits such as meaning and happiness. In addition, a minimalistic lifestyle can improve harmony in communities, as it can help build more connections with others in society. By sharing skills, donating to charities or giving back to the community, simplifiers can experience a sense of community and closeness to others, thus enhancing communal well-being. More importantly, most literature notes that this lifestyle is positively associated with environmental and ecological wellbeing. With a strong ecological awareness, consumers tend to protect the environment through a variety of practices, such as decreasing carbon emissions, avoiding excess packaging, and preserving resources and habitats. Collectively, we categorize antecedents of minimalistic consumption into four types (i.e., demographic, psychological, situational, religious factors). We also summarize the effects of minimalistic consumption in the previous research, such as enhancing happiness and sense of meaning.
    In order to understand voluntary simplicity, four theories (i.e., theory of basic values, self-determination theory; hierarchical theory of needs; self-regulation theory) were introduced. By combining these theories, we shed a novel light on understanding the forming process of minimalistic consumption. Specifically, in self-observation stages, individuals generate self-directed values. Based on these values, consumers make judgments whether their needs are satisfied. Lastly, in the self-reaction phase, consumers adopt the results of these judgments, and they evaluate achieve autonomy, competence and relevance from the self-determination theory. Given the important role of minimalistic consumption in the contemporary marketplace, it is essential for both marketers and scholars to know more details in simplifying practices. Several directions (e.g., developing valid measurements, taking cultural differences into account, identifying boundary conditions) for future research are discussed.

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    The trend effect of probability estimation and its influence on decision-making from the perspective of psychological momentum
    XIONG Guanxing, YE Jinming, SUN Hailong
    2021, 29 (11):  2062-2072.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02062
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    Probability is an important indicator reflecting risk and uncertainty. Existing research focuses on how an individual evaluates the characteristics, antecedents, and underlying mechanisms of static probability. However, in reality, probability estimation is dynamic and therefore has a trend effect, which in turn influences decision-making. This paper describes two manifestations of the trend effect of probability estimation: (1) the tendency of the revised probability estimation—namely, the increased or decreased trend effect of probability estimation changing from one time point to another; and (2) the single-bound probability—namely, the estimated expression being higher or lower than the upper or lower bound of a certain probability interval. In addition, we indicate the trend effect’s impact on an individual’s judgments, decision-making behaviors, and irrational decision deviations. Based on the theoretical perspective of psychological momentum, we propose an integrated model to explore the internal mechanism of probability estimation’s trend effect. The model reveals probability estimation’s trend effect induces psychological momentum through initial triggering of psychological momentum-related stimuli, release of the catalysis via psychological simulating of the future trend, and formation of the psychological momentum perception experience. Also it illustrates the two major components of the perception experience of psychological momentum (perceived quality and perceived velocity). Further, the model includes analyses of the three conditions affecting the generated degree of psychological momentum (strength, frequency, and continuity) and the dynamic between psychological momentum and decision-making behavior. Future research can focus on three areas. (1) Probability estimation’s trend effect when there are multiple information sources. Most existing research emphasizes unilateral information sources when the direction of probability estimation’s trend effect is relatively clear. But there are often multiple sources of information in the real world; for example, if two experts estimate the probability of a future event at the same time, more complicated situations, including the recency effect and framing effect, need further exploration. (2) The interaction between dynamic trend effect and static probability estimation. Static probability research has shown individuals often overestimate the occurrence of low probability events and underestimate the occurrence of medium and high probability events. Thus, are the trend effects of dynamic probability estimation different for the different probability risks? Further, for the interval value of extremely low probability, whether adopting the unilateral probability statement can effectively suppress the deviation of the overestimation of the small probability? (3) The trend effect of revised probability estimation in risk communication. Probability estimation’s trend effect plays an essential role in risk communication. The trend effect produced by the revised probability estimation or unilateral probability expression from the communicating party affects the other party’s understanding and judgment. Compared with those of the narrow interval, what are the characteristics of the wide probability interval communicated? Will the difference between the roles of the two communicating parties affect the probability estimation? All these issues need further exploration.

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    From individual to collective: Collective memory from a psychological perspective
    GE Yaojun, LI Hai
    2021, 29 (11):  2073-2082.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02073
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    The concept of collective memory put forward by Maurice Halbwachs in 1925 changed the then dominant individualistic tradition of memory research, opened up a new way of studying memory from a sociological perspective, and gradually established the sociological tradition of collective memory research. The psychological study of collective memory is incompatible with the sociological study of collective memory because it overemphasizes the individualistic perspective and neglects the social influence of collective memory.
    The turn of collective memory psychology involves not only the definition of collective memory, but also the understanding of collective memory formation, the expansion of theories, and the reselection of research methods. The collective memory psychology originates from the proposal of Extended Mind and its application in psychology. Based on Interaction Theory and embracing the social quality of memory, the collective memory psychology has flourished in the past 30 years. Currently, the core issue of collective memory psychology is adopting the methodology of epidemiology, and comparing the formation and maintenance of memory to the transmission process of diseases. First of all, in formative research, by adopting a “bottom-up” approach, psychologists focus on communication memory. By studying the speaker’s influence on the audience and the speaker him/herself, psychologists conduct a systematic exploration on the mechanisms of social contagion in collective memory formation, retrieval-induced forgetting and shared reality. They analyze the causes and influencing factors of memory network aggregation, unveil the process of transforming from individualistic to collective memory, and discover the formative feature of collective memory. On the other hand, in the aspect of maintenance, psychologists focus on existing memories. They adopt the “top-down” approach to explain the stabalizing mechanism and general psychological principles of collective memory. At the same time, as a common representation of the past, the identity relevance of collective memory has also been verified by psychology. In the future, first of all, the collective memory psychology needs to expand its scope, further the research of cultural memory, clarify the characteristics of different symbolic resources, promote the study on the effectiveness of cultural memory from individual perspective, unveil the general principles of individual psychological acceptance, and explore the identity relevance underlying cultural memory. All this will provide a new perspective for the study of cultural inheritance and protection. It is also necessary to pay close attention to the influence of media technology revolution on social network memory, promote the psychological study of collective memory in the media context, pay close attention to the representation and characteristics of collective memory in the new context, reveal the psychological mechanism of its formation and maintenance, as well as related influencing factors. The study of the breadth and depth of social network memory, the correlation between memory and identity, and the influence of the lasting network information storage on different generations’ memory is to subvert the existing results of psychological study of collective memory, and shed light on both theory and reality. Finally, in terms of the status of collective memory psychology in China, scholars need to study the theories, methods and approaches of collective memory psychology in the West, carry on the localization of western models, promote dialogues between psychology and other disciplines, thus strengthening the theoretical system of collective memory psychology in China.

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    Moral intuition is moral but not objective
    YUAN Xiaojing, LIU Chang
    2021, 29 (11):  2083-2090.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02083
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    Investigating the subjectivity of moral intuition helps guide people to better deal with moral disputes. This article prioritizes a summary of the background for moral dilemmas, based on which the relationship between moral intuition and emotional factors. With an emphasis on its supportive evidence, it further explains the subjectivity of moral intuition with the Modular Myopia Hypothesis.
    One of the research hotspots of contemporary moral psychology is to use “the Trolley problem” thought experiment to explore how people would make moral decisions when facing a dilemma. Brain imaging and neuropathology research evidence show that the emotional response caused by the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and amygdala affect people’s moral judgments. In the moral dilemma, moral intuition leads to deontological judgments, and moral reasoning leads to utilitarian judgments. The research on the Trolley Problem identified that personal force and means/side effects are two important factors affecting people’s intuitive judgment, but only the combination of these two factors would produce a stable impact. With the harm occurs as a mere side effect of personal force, it is relatively morally acceptable. So is when harm is used as a means to achieve a greater good, with no personal force. Nevertheless, harming as a means to achieve a goal with personal force is considered to be less acceptable than the previous ones. These studies show that moral intuition is strongly subjective. In the Trolley Problem, moral intuition is highly vigilant to the use of personal force and intentional harm, but less sensitive to harm caused by personal force or side effects.
    Researcher proposed Modular Myopia Hypothesis under the framework of dual processing theory to explain the impact of personal force, means, and side effects on moral intuition. The hypothesis believes that there is a cognitive subsystem present in the human brain. It is a “module” that monitors our planned behavior and sound an emotional alert when it detects a harmful event in an action plan. However, this action-plan inspector is a relatively simple, “single-channel” system that is not able to keep track of multiple causal chains simultaneously. Therefore, when people intended to harm others to achieve a goal, the harm plan is located on the primary causal chain, the monitoring mechanism in the cognitive subsystem can detect and release an emotional alarm bell, alert to harmful behaviors. By contrast, if the harm is caused as a side effect, the harm is located on the secondary causal chain. Due to the limitation of the cognitive resources of the monitoring and reviewing system, the harmful side effect escapes monitoring, failing to trigger emotional alarms, as the system is “myopic”, unable to recognize the harm caused by side effects. Modular Myopia Hypothesis shows that in similar moral situations, seemingly irrelevant ethical factors may become the key to trigger people’s emotional alarms in the brain, leading to completely different judgments and thus reducing the reliability of moral intuition. Without moral intuition as an objective reminder, one should not just rely on intuition as the sole basis for action in the face of moral disputes in real life.

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