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ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    Conceptual Framework
    Psychological development mechanism of in-group favoritism during fairness norm enforcement
    ZHANG Zhen, LI Haiwen, XIONG Jianping, ZHAO Hui, LIU Ruixue, QI Chunhui
    2021, 29 (12):  2091-2104.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02091
    Abstract ( 1467 )   HTML ( 201 )  
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    To improve the fairness perception and norm enforcement of children and adolescents in inter-group interactions, it is an essential issue in the field of educational psychology about how to reveal the interactive mechanism of group norms and fairness values during individuals' psychological development. Although in-group favoritism during fairness norm enforcement is an important topic in psychology, three main limitations need to be addressed. First, most studies use questionnaires, which are easily affected by social participation. Second, most of the research uses scenario experiments with an emphasis on the final behavioral output of social interaction while failing to effectively grasp the dynamic process of social decision-making. Finally, electroencephalogram (EEG) studies with the high temporal resolution are still lacking to reveal the dynamic process of the brain. This project aims to clarify these issues by employing a cognitive neuroscience method. Specifically, multilevel techniques, including self-reported, cognitive-behavioral, eye-tracking, and electrophysiological techniques, were used to examine the mechanism behind in-group favoritism of fairness norm enforcement from childhood to adolescence. We intend to explore the developmental process, reveal the key role of cognitive control, mentalizing, and describe their psychological development trajectory. Findings will support moral education in primary and secondary schools, and cultivate students' sense of justice and behavior.

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    Exploring the trajectories of organizational citizenship behavior and its mechanism from the organizational socialization perspective
    ZHANG Liangting, WANG Bin, FU Jingtao
    2021, 29 (12):  2105-2118.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02105
    Abstract ( 630 )   HTML ( 75 )  
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    The highly competitive and uncertain external environment requires higher levels of organizational flexibility and adaptability. Therefore, organizations and scholars have paid more attention than ever to employee's organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), as it can improve viability, competitiveness, and performance of the organization. Although scholars have exerted considerable efforts to investigate OCB, the dominant approach in the existing literature frames OCB as a relatively stable variable, omitting a dynamic understanding of OCB in the workplace. From the organizational socialization perspective, the current study particularly focuses on how OCB changes over time in newcomers' or job changers' organizational socialization processes as well as its associated mechanism and boundary conditions. This study contributes to a comprehensive theoretical framework of how to motivate employees to continuously show higher levels of OCB.

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    Customer response to pro-customer deviance behavior: A theoretical model based on moral emotion
    HU Jiajing, ZHANG Meng, MA Xiuli, LIU Yan
    2021, 29 (12):  2119-2130.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02119
    Abstract ( 735 )   HTML ( 95 )  
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    The acts of pro-customer deviance (PCD), which occurs in the service encounters where employees consciously deviate from the formal regulations of enterprises to help customers or safeguard the interests of customers have been widely observed. However, barely no divergent results were found on the impact of PCD on the customer's response. Therefore, utilizing the Stimulus-Organism-Response paradigm and taking dual moral attributes of PCD (e.g., altruistic motivation, deviation from the norms of organization) as the logical origin, this study develops a model examining the relationship among PCD, customer moral emotions and re-patronage intention. Specifically, according to the Cognitive Appraisal Theory, this study explores customers' moral cognitive evaluation of PCD as well as their complex moral emotional response to PCD. Moreover, based on the Differential Emotions Theory, this study examines the interaction effect among different types of moral emotions, the mediating effect of moral emotions on the relationship between PCD and re-patronage intention, and the moderating effect of customer's attribution of responsibility and service context on the PCD-moral emotions-re-patronage intention linkage. The present study not only provides new theoretical insights into PCD and moral emotions, but also offers valuable practical implications for service enterprises to take advantage of the positive effect of PCD.

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    Regular Articles
    The influence of blindness on auditory vocabulary recognition
    FENG Jie, XU Juan, WU Xinchun
    2021, 29 (12):  2131-2146.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02131
    Abstract ( 540 )   HTML ( 48 )  
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    Auditory vocabulary recognition involves complex cognitive processing. Blind people have been reported to exhibit specific advantages in auditory vocabulary processing. However, because of the lack of visual experience, blind people exhibit weaker semantic processing and understanding of some vision-related words (such as color words) compared with individuals with normal vision. Future research should focus on the following issues: examining the visual relevance of vocabulary recognition; carrying out in-depth explorations of cognitive and neurophysiological processing mechanisms at different levels, including phonology, orthography, and semantics; developing auditory vocabulary processing models that reflect the characteristics of blind people's perception; and expanding developmental studies with people of different ages. Taken together, this research may be useful for revealing the mechanisms underlying the influence of blindness on auditory vocabulary recognition among blind people.

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    The neural mechanisms for human voice processing: Neural evidence from sighted and blind subjects
    MING Lili, HU Xueping
    2021, 29 (12):  2147-2160.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02147
    Abstract ( 499 )   HTML ( 26 )  
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    The human voice, as an important part of one's auditory environment, contains a large amount of paralinguistic information to help identify individuals. Especially for blind individuals, the lack of visual face experience makes voice information the main source of perceiving another person's individual characteristics. By combining the research on voice-selective and voice-identity processing among both sighted and blind individuals, the present study attempts to reveal the general human voice processing mode and specific voice processing mechanism among blind persons. It also shows that the fusiform gyrus related to visual face processing are involved in voice tasks in both groups. The auditory-visual integration model and cross-modal reorganization hypothesis based on the “unmasking effect”, provide respective explanation mechanisms for the different neural bases of voice processing between the two subjects. Future, researchers should further investigate the voice processing strategies of blind individuals and the role of the left superior temporal sulcus/gyrus in voice processing.

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    The relation between non-symbolic magnitude representation and symbolic fraction representation
    MAO Huomin, LIU Qin, LÜ Jianxiang, MOU Yi
    2021, 29 (12):  2161-2171.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02161
    Abstract ( 332 )   HTML ( 27 )  
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    Representing the numerical value of symbolic fraction is central to the conceptual learning of symbolic fraction. The representation of symbolic fraction has been hypothesized to be built on non- symbolic magnitude representation (e.g., representing the magnitude of a set, or the proportion between two magnitudes) that exists since human early infancy. The supportive evidence includes that non-symbolic magnitude representation, especially the non-symbolic representation for the proportion between quantities, is correlated with the representation for symbolic fraction in behavioral and brain neural responses. However, further research is needed to determine the unique and causal relation between non-symbolic magnitude representation and symbolic fraction representation, and to clarify the specific cognitive mechanism underlying symbolic fraction representation.

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    Trust in automated vehicles
    GAO Zaifeng, LI Wenmin, LIANG Jiawen, PAN Hanxi, XU Wei, SHEN Mowei
    2021, 29 (12):  2172-2183.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02172
    Abstract ( 984 )   HTML ( 75 )  
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    Automated driving (AD) is one of the key directions in the intelligent vehicles field. Before full automated driving, we are at the stage of human-machine cooperative driving: Drivers share the driving control with the automated vehicles. Trust in automated vehicles plays a pivotal role in traffic safety and the efficiency of human-machine collaboration. It is vital for drivers to keep an appropriate trust level to avoid accidents. We proposed a dynamic trust framework to elaborate the development of trust and the underlying factors affecting trust. The dynamic trust framework divides the development of trust into four stages: dispositional, initial, ongoing, and post-task trust. Based on the operator characteristics (human), system characteristics (automated driving system), and situation characteristics (environment), the framework identifies potential key factors at each stage and the relation between them. According to the framework, trust calibration can be improved from three approaches: trust monitoring, driver training, and optimizing HMI design. Future research should pay attention to the following four perspectives: the influence of driver and HMI characteristics on trust, the real-time measurement and functional specificity of trust, the mutual trust mechanism between drivers and AD systems, and ways in improving the external validity of trust studies.

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    Can the presence of human teacher promote video learning?
    KUANG Ziyi, ZHANG Yang, WANG Fuxing, YANG Xiaomeng, HU Xiangen
    2021, 29 (12):  2184-2194.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02184
    Abstract ( 1544 )   HTML ( 167 )  
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    In video-based learning environments, the roles of real human teachers are important. There are different theoretical explanations for their roles, such as parasocial theory, social presence theory and social agent theory. These theories suggest that real human teachers in video-based learning environments promote learning; Other theories such as cognitive theory of multimedia learning and cognitive load theory believe that real human teachers may hinder learning. By examining past research, we found that teachers have a weak effect on the promotion of video-based learning, specifically the week effect are on knowledge retention (d = 0.23) and knowledge transfer (d = 0.1); We also found that, teachers have moderate and large influence on subjective experience of video learning, especially on perceived learning (d = 0.49), learning interest (d = 0.5), and learning satisfaction (d = 2.21); Another finding from the literature review is that with the presence of teachers in video-based learning, learners may decrease their attentions to learning material (d = -2.02). Our review of the literature suggests that future research still needs to pay close attention to the presentation of human teachers as a function of learner characteristics, learning material characteristics, and measurement methods in video learning.

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    The modulatory effects of oxytocin on learning and memory: Evidence from animal and human studies
    ZHOU Menghan, ZHANG Yuan, GAO Shan, Keith M. Kendrick, YAO Shuxia
    2021, 29 (12):  2195-2208.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02195
    Abstract ( 676 )   HTML ( 33 )  
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    The neuropeptide, oxytocin (OT) has been established to play an important role in modulating social behavior and emotional processing which are of fundamental importance in our everyday life. Animal and human studies using multi-modal approaches have provided converging evidence for an important modulatory effect of exogenously administered OT on learning and memory. This effect of exogenous OT may be mediated via its receptors which are extensively distributed in key learning and memory brain networks, notably the dopamine reward pathway and limbic system. Whether OT has a facilitatory or inhibitory modulatory effect on learning and memory can be influenced by experimental paradigms and stimulus materials as well as where and when it is administered and at what dose. Future studies need to combine the respective advantages of animal models and human research and to employ standardized experimental protocols and treatment procedures to overcome current limitations in this field. Further research is also required to explore the therapeutic potential of OT for learning and memory dysfunction in psychiatric disorders.

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    Social deficits in autism spectrum disorder: A perspective from the social motivation theory
    WANG Lei, HE Huizhong, BI Xiaobin, ZHOU Li, FAN Xiaozhuang
    2021, 29 (12):  2209-2223.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02209
    Abstract ( 702 )   HTML ( 62 )  
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    Social deficits are core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies, from a social cognition perspective, proposed that a deficit in theory of mind is the cause of social impairment. However, individuals with ASD already exhibited social motivation deficit traits prior to acquiring theory of mind. Furthermore, some individuals who were able to pass theory-of-mind tests continued to show decreased motivation when engaging in social interactions. Social motivation theory suggests that social motivation is an important internal force promoting human evolution and motivating and sustaining an individual's social activities. This theory also highlights that social impairments in ASD may be etiologically related to deficits in neural mechanisms of social motivation and provides a new interpretation of social deficits in terms of behavioral performance, neuroscience, and biology. It is important to further refine research on the neural mechanisms of social motivation, to clarify the scope of application of social motivation theory in individuals with ASD, and to investigate the value of social motivation theory in assessment diagnosis and clinical rehabilitation.

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    Decision effect in multiple dated intertemporal choice and its psychological mechanisms
    SUN Hai-Long, AN Xin-Ru, XIONG Guan-Xing
    2021, 29 (12):  2224-2235.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02224
    Abstract ( 484 )   HTML ( 25 )  
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    Multiple dated outcomes in intertemporal choice involves the tradeoff of two or more outcomes at multiple time points, which has become the focus of research on intertemporal choice. According to the characteristics of the multiple dated intertemporal choice, this paper reviews the decision effects of multi-dated outcome on intertemporal choice, including: hidden zero effect, symbolic effect, extra dated money effect, front-end amount effect and sequence effect from the two-outcome and the sequence outcomes. In addition, the theoretical models such as the sequence model and the trade-off model to explain the above decision effects are explained. Finally, the paper points out the future research direction: the follow-up research should strengthen the discussion on the field of mixed gain-loss intertemporal choice, and further explore the mechanism of multiple dated intertemporal choice process by using the decision-making process tracking technology.

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    Are there sex differences in trust levels?
    QU Jiachen, GONG Zhe
    2021, 29 (12):  2236-2245.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02236
    Abstract ( 2245 )   HTML ( 182 )  
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    Academics have different opinions regarding the sex difference in trust level. One group of researchers holds the view of sex differences in trust levels, where risk preference theory supports the view that men have a higher level of trust, and the advantages over the women in the prosocial field provide support for women to have a higher level of trust. However, another group of scholars believe that there is no sex difference in trust level, which is based on the gender similarities hypothesis. Although the views of the two groups and their theoretical foundations have been supported to a certain extent; however, they need to be comprehensively analyzed and clarified about their rationality from the perspectives of research paradigms and cultural differences between the East and the West. Future research use trust measurement methods need to be more rationally, then clarify the sex characteristics of trust in the dynamic process of change, and deepen the research on the neurophysiological mechanism of the trust difference between the sexes, thus fundamentally better reveal the issue of sex differences in trust levels.

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    Cultural and psychological changes during the social transformation in China: Sociological research and its enlightenments to psychologists
    HUANG Zi-Hang, WANG Jun-Xiu, SU Zhan, JING Yi-Ming, CAI Hua-Jian
    2021, 29 (12):  2246-2259.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02246
    Abstract ( 899 )   HTML ( 65 )  
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    Scholars have approached social psychology from two perspectives: a sociological one and a psychological one. Although two perspectives have mostly developed in a parallel way, both has paid much attention into a common area: societal changes and their psychological impacts. Past sociological research on Chinese societal changes has focused on two aspects: changes in society or social structure, and changes in people. The former mainly involves urbanization, social class, social mobility, and family structure; the latter mainly involves Chinese experience, social mentality, group psychology, and organizational psychology. Research suggests that while modern individualism has been on the rise, traditional collectivism has been declining. Compared with psychological approach, sociological approach tends to adopt more emic concepts and qualitative analyses, pays more attention to group psychology as well as the influences of politics and policy, and employs more macro-historical perspective. In future research, Chinese social psychologists from the two perspectives need to learn from and collaborate with each other, ultimately achieving a better understanding of the change of Chinese people and Chinese society.

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    The effect of organizational (in)justice on organizational retaliation behavior and the underlying mechanisms
    LIU Depeng, GAO Xiangyu
    2021, 29 (12):  2260-2271.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02260
    Abstract ( 500 )   HTML ( 60 )  
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    Organizational retaliation behaviors, defined as employees' retaliatory behaviors towards the organization and its agents due to unjust treatment of employees, are prevalent in workplaces. A systematic review of the literature identifies several prominent research gaps, such as a lack of integrated framework and ignorance of theoretical mechanisms. This study proposes new underlying mechanisms and enriches the related literature by focusing on the dimensions of perceived justice complexity and perceived justice subject. Future research can further explore other possible mechanisms by integrating self-control, emotions, and resources theoretical perspectives from the angle of observers.

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    Research Method
    Q-matrix estimation (validation) methods for cognitive diagnosis
    LI Jia, MAO Xiuzhen, ZHANG Xueqin
    2021, 29 (12):  2272-2280.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02272
    Abstract ( 376 )   HTML ( 22 )  
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    The Q-matrix, which represents important item characteristics by mapping attributes to items has been proved to be the core factor affecting the accuracy of cognitive diagnostic classification. It is of great value to study the methods of Q-matrix estimation (validation). First, the existing methods of Q-matrix estimation and validation are classified into 1) parameterized methods in the CDM perspective, including item differentiation, model-data fit index and parameter estimation; and 2) non-parametric methods in the statistical perspective, including the distance between observed and expected response vector, abnormal responses index and factor analysis. Then, these methods are introduced in terms of differences and relations, characteristics and performance. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are commented. At last, several future research directions are proposed. It is necessary to compare the Q-matrix estimation (validation) methods systematically under complex test conditions. It is also of vital importance to propose Q-matrix estimation (validation) methods by combining multiple thoughts and ways based on the calibration of knowledge state and parameter estimation error. It is meaningful to further study the Q-matrix estimation (validation) methods for polytomous scoring items, mixed test models, polytomous scoring attributes, unknown number of attributes and even continuous Q-matrix.

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