ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Tri-Reference Point Theory of Decision Making: From Principles to Applications
    X. T. WANG;WANG Peng
    2013, 21 (8):  1331-1346.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01331
    Abstract ( 2074 )   PDF (360KB) ( 2933 )  
    Tri-reference point (TRP) theory (Wang, 2008a; Wang & Johnson, 2012) makes use of three reference points, minimum requirement (MR), status quo (SQ), and goal (G) to demarcate choice outcome space into four functional regions: failure, loss, gain, and success. Based on the priority order of the reference points: MR > G > SQ, the model derives from the four regions a double S-shaped value function, connected at the point of SQ. Risk preferences switched between risk-seeking and risk-aversion when the distribution of a gamble straddles a different reference point and resulted in gain-loss and success-failure asymmetries. In sum, the basic task in making risky choices is to maximize the likelihood of reaching a goal and minimize the likelihood of falling below the MR at the same time. The TRP theory synthetically combines the powerful concept of mean-variance used in statistics and finance with the concept of reference points in the behavioral decision making literature takes into consideration the mean-variance distribution of a choice option and its relationship with the three reference points in order to reach adaptive decisions. In this paper, we introduce the basic assumptions, operational principles, experimental tests of the TRP theory, and compare the TRP theory against expected utility theory, and prospect theory. We also discuss practical guidance and implications of the TRP theory for managerial decision making.
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    Conceptual Framework
    The Formation Mechanism of Eudaimonic Happiness during Customer Participation in Web 2.0 Environment
    YAO Tang;ZHENG Qiuying;LI Huifan;QIU Qi;CAO Huarui;WU Ruilin
    2013, 21 (8):  1347-1356.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01347
    Abstract ( 793 )   PDF (275KB) ( 1394 )  
    With the in-depth development of user interaction concept of Web 2.0, customers hope to participate in the value production and creation process with the aid of Internet, so that they can achieve eudainomic happiness, rather than hedonic happiness, through self-actualization and self-expression. Most of previous studies focus on economic benefits brought by customer participation, while few ones pay attention to the psychology mechanism and psychological benefits during customer participation process. Our project taking Internet as the background, starting from customer perspective, using multi-methods such as experiment and survey, and applying physical instruments (such as EEG, fMRI) to collect objective data of customer behavior and physiology, systematically explores customer psychological reaction and psychological benefits and constructs a dynamic psychology model of customer participation based on self-determination theory. Meanwhile, culture factors, site factors and individual factors are taken into accounts as moderators to the model. Research results are expected to help online companies get a deep understanding of the psychology mechanism of customer participation during value cocreation process with the aid of Internet, so that they can achieve core competitiveness through perfect cooperation with customers.
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    A Meta-analysis of the Relationship between Social Support and Subjective Well-being
    SONG Jiameng;FAN Huiyong
    2013, 21 (8):  1357-1370.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01357
    Abstract ( 3055 )   PDF (334KB) ( 8344 )  
    This meta-analysis was designed to explore the relationship between social support and subjective well-being, and moderating effects of primary study characteristics on their associations. 86 primary studies were identified with a total sample size of 32948 participants. Results of the meta-analysis showed that the social support rating scale (SSRS), including its three dimensions, correlated significantly with subjective well-being, satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect, with rs ranging from -0.23 to 0.36. These correlations were moderated by type of participants. Among deaf/dumb students and middle school students correlations were highest while associations were lowest in older samples. Other study characteristics including type of publication, year of publication, and well-being scales employed did not have significant moderating effects on the relationship between SSRS and subjective well-being. Several unresolved issues and future research directions are also discussed.
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    Regular Articles
    The Role of Noun Animacy in Language Processing
    JIA Guangzhen;LIU Youyi;SHU Hua;Fang Xiaoping
    2013, 21 (8):  1371-1381.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01371
    Abstract ( 723 )   PDF (196KB) ( 1030 )  
    Animacy of nouns has been found significantly impacting the organization and processing of language in many ways. In particular, it imposes restrictions on the syntactic morphology and syntactic position, and the assignment of the thematic roles heavily relies on animacy. By recording reaction times and eye tracking, previous studies revealed that animacy of nouns facilitated comprehension of ambiguous sentences and complex sentences. With the development of cognitive neuroscience techniques, the neural mechanism of how animacy influences the assignment of thematic roles has been further explored during recent years. Some new theoretical models have been proposed to explain the relationship of syntax and semantics during sentence processing in a more comprehensive way. Based on existing studies and theories, we propose that future research should particularly focus on the immediate impact of animacy during online language processing, the interaction of animacy and syntactic information during the assignment of thematic roles, and the cross-language difference of these effects.
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    On the Time Axis of Morpho-semantic Activation: Form-then-meaning or Form-with-meaning?
    ZHANG Lingyan;JIN Tan;TIAN Zhaoxia
    2013, 21 (8):  1382-1389.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01382
    Abstract ( 729 )   PDF (268KB) ( 1345 )  
    Previous studies of morphological processing have given rise to two opposing views. On one hand, the form-then-meaning account contends that during morphological processing, morpho-orthographic information is firstly decomposed, followed by morpho-semantic activation. On the other hand, the form-with-meaning account argues that morpho-orthographic decomposition and morpho-semantic activation occur simultaneously. The focus of debate is thus on the locus of morpho-semantic activation. The form-then-meaning activation allows two possibilities: (1) that both morpho-orthographic decomposition and morpho-semantic activation occur prelexically, but with the former occurring much earlier; or (2) morpho-orthographic decomposition is prelexical and morpho-semantic activation is supralexical. In contrast, the form-with-meaning activation only allows the co-occurrence of morpho-orthographic decomposition and morpho-semantic activation at a prelexical level. Both sides, evidenced by congregating data from empirical and theoretical (prelexical/supralexical models) studies, are examined here. It is suggested that future studies are expected to address issues from the perspective of research paradigms and theoretical development.
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    Mental Workload Assessment: From the Perspective of Neuroergonomics
    JIA Huibin;ZHAO Qingbai;ZHOU Zhijin
    2013, 21 (8):  1390-1399.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01390
    Abstract ( 953 )   PDF (247KB) ( 1951 )  
    The assessment of mental workload is undergoing transition from traditional ergonomics to neuroergonomics. The neuroimaging techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG), event-related potentials (ERPs), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), functional Near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and transcranial doppler (TCD) provide the strong supports for this revolution. It is found that under single-task condition, with the increase of mental workload level, alpha-band power decreases, theta-band power increases. In addition, the cerebral blood flow in the regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the average oxygenation changes in the regions of left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and the cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) also increase. Under dual-task condition, with the increase of mental workload level, the amplitudes of several ERPs components elicited by the secondary task stimuli (e.g., N1, Novelty P3, P3b, etc) decrease. Based on these findings, researchers have achieved the real-time online evaluation of mental workload by pattern classification algorithms (e.g.,artificial neural network, support vector machine). But all of these techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages on several aspects (i.e., sensitivity, diagnosticity, primary task intrusion, implementation requirements, acceptability and reliability). In the future, researchers should promote the combination of these neuroimaging technologies, improve their acceptability and enhance their sensitivity and diagnosticity via pattern recognition algorithms.
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    The Neural Mechanism of Values: Another Perspective
    LI Lin;HUANG Xiting
    2013, 21 (8):  1400-1407.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01400
    Abstract ( 918 )   PDF (213KB) ( 18455 )  
    The analysis of neural mechanism provides a novel perspective for researches on values. The machinery of homeostasis and natural modes of biological response including emotions already embody human values. Social cognitive neuroscience tries to find neural and physical evidences for the values, which did some researches about specific values, value orientation and the construction of values, and analyzed the neural activities during valuation and value–based decisions. It found tentatively that the personal values is related to the mode of neural activities, involving numerous brain structures in frontal, parietal and temporal cortex. The future study can focus on the static structure and dynamic process of values, integrate and improve the existing separate neural evidences, to understand the values systematically.
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    Theory of Mind Development in Infants: Performances and Mechanisms
    PI Zhongling;MO Shuliang
    2013, 21 (8):  1408-1421.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01408
    Abstract ( 1259 )   PDF (264KB) ( 5551 )  
    It is very important to explore the origin and development of theory of mind in infants. Relative literature was reviewed to investigate the occurrence and development of theory of mind under the age of 3 years, which was from perspectives of joint attention, emotion understanding, intention understanding, desire understanding and false belief understanding. To examine the theory of mind ability in infants, researchers developed some new paradigms (e.g., nonverbal spontaneous-response tasks, verbal spontaneous-response tasks), which were adapted to infants' behavioral and cognitive ability. In addition, some studies employed the eye movement and event-related potential techniques to see infants' ability to recognize others' mental states. The findings were related to different tasks used in studies and participants' characteristics of age. We discussed some critical factors (e.g., cognitive functions, environmental factors, neural and genetic mechanisms) which may be responsible for the development of theory of mind. Finally, some important issues to be further explored in future research were proposed.
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    Junior-High School Students’ Homework Effort and Its Influencing Factors
    LIU Ying;GONG Shaoying;CHAI Xiaoyun
    2013, 21 (8):  1422-1429.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01422
    Abstract ( 1182 )   PDF (144KB) ( 2141 )  
    Homework effort, including students' compliance, investment, concentration and number of tasks completed or percentage attempted, is one of the important indicators of evaluating students' behavior in homework. Its antecedents mainly include individual factors such as gender, conscientiousness, homework motivation, homework emotion, as well as environmental factors such as teachers’ feedback and support, homework quality and parental involvement, etc. The study in the future is mainly focused on the mechanism of interactions between influential factors and the intervention of effects. At the same time, it is necessary to pay more attention to the homework effort of special students and the influential factors of homework effort in computer-based homework.
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    Attention Guidance in Multimedia Learning: The Role of Cueing
    WANG Fuxing;DUAN Zhaohui;ZHOU Zongkui
    2013, 21 (8):  1430-1440.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01430
    Abstract ( 1035 )   PDF (244KB) ( 1766 )  
    As an important form of instructional design, cueing can guide learner’s attention, organize and integrate information in multimedia learning. In this article, we reviewed researches about the cueing effect in multimedia learning environment. It was found that cueing do play an important role in attention guiding. It can direct learners to focus on specific information and ignore the irrelevant interference of information. Thus, cueing can help the learners to integrate the figure-text information and improve the learning performance. But, the current studies on cue’s function lack convincing evidence. As for the impact on learning effect, although most of the results of empirical studies are positive, the diversity and the complexity of the learning material make the conclusion still inconsistent. At present, we explained the cueing effect from two theoretical perspectives: cognitive load theory and perceptual theory. It has found that adding cues did not significantly reduce the learners’ perceived subjective cognitive load. And from the perceptual processing perspective, cueing could attract the learner’s attention and make the visual searching more easily. Future studies still need to focus on the following issues: (a) do learners perceive the cues as relevant for learning? (b) we need to pay more attention to the diversity of learning materials and the differences between different types of cues, (c) the impact of learners’ experiences, (d) how to keep the validity of cueing in the instructional design.
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    The Accuracy of Personality Judgment: The Effects of Trait Properties
    CHEN Shaohua;WU Hao;LAI Tinghong
    2013, 21 (8):  1441-1449.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01441
    Abstract ( 923 )   PDF (255KB) ( 2402 )  
    The properties of traits are important moderator variables which influence the accuracy of personality judgment. The previous researches have showed that the higher observability the traits are, the easier be judged, and the higher accuracy and agreement they have. The evaluativeness of traits interfere the accuracy of self-perception. Comparing with the neutral traits, the self-other agreement of evaluativeness traits is lower; Comparing with unambiguous traits, the self-peer inter-judgment agreement is lower in ambiguous traits, and this is reducing with the increasing of traits ambiguous gradually. Furthermore, the properties of traits often interact on the accuracy of personality judgment with other factors, such as acquaintanceship. When examining the effects of traits properties on the personality judgment accuracy, we must take the ecological validity of experimental research into account, as well as integrate it with the matching of trait properties, types and contents of traits, the individual differences, and the cultural differences and so on.
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    Shame Research: Concept, Structure and Assessment
    GAO Xuede
    2013, 21 (8):  1450-1456.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01450
    Abstract ( 1065 )   PDF (207KB) ( 2827 )  
    Recent years has seen much progress in empirical studies of shame in the circle of psychology both at home and abroad, mostly due to thorough understanding of its concept and the development of its assessment. Unfortunately, there are few systematic summaries for existing research studies in this area so far. This paper makes a review of the conceptual structure and measurement of shame, summarizes the theoretical bias, research orientation and assessment paradigm of the psychological society in these three areas, points out the controversies in the existing researches. The paper finally argues that future researches would undergo two changes: from structure and type to relation and situation in research perspective, and from western empirical tradition to domestic one in research paradigm.
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    Savant Skills in Autism
    CAO Shuqin
    2013, 21 (8):  1457-1465.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01457
    Abstract ( 1577 )   PDF (185KB) ( 3088 )  
    Savant skills are characterized by outstanding mental capability despite of coexisting severe mental disabilities. It is surprising that approximately 50 percent of individuals with savant skills described in literatures appeared to meet the criteria for autism/ASD. In this systematic review, we summarize the characteristics of savant skills in autism and the traditional explanation of them in the area of cognitive psychology. Then we introduce the recent results in neurocognitive researches, which especially emphasize the potential application of the Pathological “cerebral dominance” model and the Autistic model. According to these results, we conclude that savant skills in autism was mainly related to pathological “cerebral dominance” and abnormity on the brain connectivity. In addition, the heredity and the repeated training also play an important role.
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    The Application of Loving-kindness Meditation from Psychological Perspective
    ZENG Xianglong;LIU Shuangyang;LIU Xiangping
    2013, 21 (8):  1466-1472.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01466
    Abstract ( 1787 )   PDF (267KB) ( 4162 )  
    With the popularity of mindfulness in western psychology, loving-kindness meditation (LKM), as another traditional Buddhist meditation, is receiving increasing attention among psychologists. Systematic practice of LKM can foster positive emotions and discharge negative emotional reactions, while constant practice of LKM can be utilized as a strategy of emotional regulation. LKM can enhance levels of self-compassion and also cultivate empathy and positive interpersonal relationships. It can also assist in the treatments of some diseases as well. In addition to deepening the existing research directions, future research can propose new directions from the perspective of Buddhism such as effective measurement of loving kindness, exploration of the peculiar qualities of emotions evoked by LKM, intervention of negative emotions like anger and jealousy, the approaches and conditions of the application of LKM.
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    Outcome Bias in Decision Evaluation
    XIANG Peng;XU Fuming;GUO Yongyu;LI Haijun;KONG Shixiao;MENG Zhenzhen
    2013, 21 (8):  1473-1481.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01473
    Abstract ( 1208 )   PDF (230KB) ( 1975 )  
    Outcome bias occurs when an evaluator base his evaluation for decision quality on the outcome of decision rather than on the appropriateness of decision. That is, when an outcome is good (bad), evaluator tends to evaluate the decision positively (negatively) regardless of the actual appropriateness of the decision resulting in that outcome. As for now, researchers have provided two main underlying causes for outcome bias, cognitive explanations and justification model. Evidences show outcome bias could be influenced by some factors, such as motive, context information, and evaluation measure. Instead of laboratory experiments, further researches are expected to be operated in real settings. In addition, further researches should explore how to effectively mitigate outcome bias and make a distinction with other biases in behavioral decision making.
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    Focusing Illusion in Affective Forecasting
    LUO Hanbing;XU Fuming;GUO Yongyu;ZHENG Qiuqiang;LI Bin;ZHANG Hui
    2013, 21 (8):  1482-1492.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01482
    Abstract ( 1189 )   PDF (157KB) ( 2001 )  
    Focusing illusion refers to a tendency that individuals fail to estimate how focal event would affect their emotion when they are making an affective forecasting. Focusing illusion is a major explanation for affective forecasting bias. There are two psychological mechanisms of focusing illusion: intuitive prediction and accessibility model. The factors to influence focusing illusion are: valence and feature of the predicted event, context, habit and cultural difference and so on. The strategies to deal with the focusing illusion are: defocusing and affective averaging. Future research shall clarify the relationship between focusing illusion and fail to considerate emotional adaptation, to deepen our understanding of its original roots and to clarify the relationship between focusing illusion and other focusing effects.
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    Interpersonal Trust in Online Communication
    ZHAO Jing;SUN Xiaojun;ZHOU Zongkui;WEI Hua;NIU Gengfeng
    2013, 21 (8):  1493-1501.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01493
    Abstract ( 2440 )   PDF (185KB) ( 3688 )  
    Online interpersonal trust is the extension of interpersonal trust in the cyber world. The characteristics of online interpersonal trust are fragile and cognitive. The producing and maintaining of the trust is a dynamic and continued process. Online interpersonal trust is influenced by Internet environment, Internet usage behavior, individual factors and culture; whereas it affects online behaviors, such as online self-disclosure, knowledge sharing, behavior decision and team cooperation. On this base, the paper points out the shortages of current studies, and puts forwards suggestions that deep-going researches which are based on the characteristics of online interpersonal trust should be carried out, and the future study should clarify the influencing factors and related mechanisms.
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    Good People Do Bad Things: Unethical Behavior from the Perspective of Bounded Ethicality
    WANG Peng;WANG Zhongjun;LI Songkai
    2013, 21 (8):  1502-1511.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01502
    Abstract ( 1995 )   PDF (172KB) ( 3669 )  
    Bounded ethicality refers to a kind of inherent limitation when individuals make ethical decision. It manifests the departure between the external behavior and internal moral value, and leads to unconscious moral bias. Combined with rational ethicality model, bounded ethicality is an alternative explanation of unethical behavior. From the perspective of bounded ethicality, unethical behavior includes implicit bias, in-group favoritism, over-claiming credit, conflicts of interest and discounting the future. And the theoretical explanation arises from self-service motive, two-selves, ethical fading and frame effect. Studies about ethical decision making and unethical behavior in the future need to be extended to bounded rationality.
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    Transactive Memory System Theory in Virtual Teams: Status and Future
    WANG Lingjian;LIAO Shumei;CHEN Minhua;YANG Danzhou;DAI Gengxin
    2013, 21 (8):  1512-1520.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01512
    Abstract ( 849 )   PDF (246KB) ( 1444 )  
    Transactive memory system (TMS), a cooperative labor division developed in communication processes among team members, can be simply defined as a shared cognition about "who knows what". A TMS coordinates knowledge and expertise among team members, consequently enhances knowledge integration and sharing. Firstly, this paper reviews the definitions about TMS and virtual teams. Secondly, TMS formation and effectiveness, and the relation with team virtuality are highlighted. Lastly, it is suggested that more future work should be put on team inputs, team outcomes and moderators of team performance, by taking IT adaptation, research methods and context into consideration.
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