ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Cognitive Psychological Process and Model of Pedestrian’s Road Crossing Behavior
    WU Changxu;MA Shu;ZHUANG Xiangling
    2013, 21 (7):  1141-1149.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01141
    Abstract ( 1472 )   PDF (296KB) ( 3012 )  
    Pedestrian safety has been a worldwide safety problem, especially in developing countries like China. This paper reviewed the cognitive process of pedestrians’ road crossing behaviors: the cognitive input process of observation and perception; and the judgment and decision making processes. The former is about the content of observation, the strategies utilized, and also the situations when people get wrong perception due to deficiency in attention resources. The latter process was related to theories about the underlying mental mechanism of decision making: the Utility based theory, and the Theory of Planned Behavior. Gap Acceptance Theory was also introduced to account for pedestrian behaviors that were not controlled by signal lights, with red light running as a typical behavior that was influenced by both personal and contextual factors. Based on these findings from literature, a conceptual cognitive model for pedestrian road crossing behavior was proposed. It is expected that the model can facilitate future pedestrian crossing behavior research and improve pedestrian safety.
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    Conceptual Framework
    The Mechanism of New Generation Employees’ Suicide Ideation
    LIU Yuxin;ZHANG Jianwei;ZHANG Xichao;WANG Chengquan;ZHANG Jie
    2013, 21 (7):  1150-1161.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01150
    Abstract ( 1017 )   PDF (331KB) ( 2541 )  
    New generation mployees’ suicide ideation is arousing the attention of researchers.From the perspectives of Organizational Health Psychology and positive psychology,based on the ideas of Self-determination theory and life-meaning theory, the proposal developed the “Motivation- Meaning of life ” model to explain the comprehensive influences of both social-organizational factors (social exclusion, organizational climate, work stressors and job characteristics, etc) and individual variables on suicide ideation, which will be helpful to disclose the psychological generating mechanisms of suicide ideation of New Generation employees who do not have any mental diseases, and to promote the research paradigms’ changing from pathological approaches to positive approaches, which therefore will be of important theoretical values. Follow the line of “social-organizational environment→ motivation→life Meaning”, an intervention program can be developed to guide both the enterprises and govement to reflect upon their manament philosophies and behaviors, to build the first-level suicide preventing system and psychological assistance mechanism focusing on the employees who do not have any suicide ideation and whose suicide ideation is still at the very early stage, to promote empolyees to develop hormoniously with both the enterprises and the society as a whole.
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    Regular Articles
    N170 Component in Words Processing:The Development and Its Mechanisms
    CAO Xiaohua;LI Chao;ZHANG Huanting;JIANG Bei
    2013, 21 (7):  1162-1172.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01162
    Abstract ( 968 )   PDF (173KB) ( 1621 )  
    The N170 component is the first specific component in words processing. Recently, many studies focused on the sensitivity and lateralization of N170 component in visual words processing. This relatively specialized ERP component was believed to be associated with orthographic processing in many studies, while quite a few of studies reported that the N170 component was influenced by semantic and phonological processing. Moreover, the strong left-lateralized N170 response to visual words has been well demonstrated in ERP studies of the skilled alphabetic readers. Interestingly, many development studies of the N170 elicited by the alphabetic scripts were investigated the specialization of this component, and the studies of N170 component in different scripts were also important to understand the nature of words processing. Based on the review of the studies on N170 component, the researches may be addressed the diversified functions of it in future.
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    Spatial Contextual Cueing Effect and Its Mechanisms
    ZHAO Feifei;REN Yanju
    2013, 21 (7):  1173-1185.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01173
    Abstract ( 862 )   PDF (276KB) ( 1196 )  
    Invariant spatial configuration of the visual environment can guide observer's attention to specific location and facilitates recognition of the target in it, which is called spatial contextual cueing effect. Based on the systematic review on the previous studies, the present article introduced the classical studies and experimental paradigms of spatial contextual cueing effect, characteristics, content and process of spatial contextual learning, analyzed the mechanisms and neural bases of this effect. Finally, the article carried on the summary of five controversial issues in the previous studies and pointed out that future research could manipulate some key variables, such as materials and task difficulties, to solve these problems.
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    The Effects of Emotional States on Executive Functioning
    ZHOU Ya
    2013, 21 (7):  1186-1199.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01186
    Abstract ( 1711 )   PDF (268KB) ( 3625 )  
    The number of studies that concerned with the effect of emotional states on executive functioning has been constantly growing for the last decade. While negative emotions (particularly anxious and depressive state) have been demonstrated to impair the efficiency of executive functioning, the mechanisms by which positive emotions influence executive functioning remains unclear. The backward status of research into the effects of positive emotions may largely have its roots on the weakness of related theoretical assumptions. In view of this, two newly emerging theories on positive emotions were introduced, The Broaden and Build Theory of Positive Emotions and The Motivational Dimensional Model of Affect. They both brought forward some theoretical perspectives which may help us understand the possible effect of positive emotions on executive functioning.
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    Mechanisms of Corpus Collosum’s Regulation on Interhemispheric Interactions
    GAO Fei;CAI Houde
    2013, 21 (7):  1200-1212.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01200
    Abstract ( 1363 )   PDF (361KB) ( 1983 )  
    The corpus callosum is the largest neural pathway connecting the two cerebral hemispheres in mammals. Not only does it transmit information between the hemispheres, but also regulates interhemispheric information processing. “Inhibitory model” and “excitatory model” are the primary models proposed to explain the regulation mechanisms. The former hypothesized that the corpus callosum could inhibit the transfer of information between the hemispheres, so that the function of the dominant hemisphere was enhanced and the activity of non-dominant hemisphere was suppressed. As a result, the independence of the processing information in each hemisphere and the degree of the cerebral functional lateralization could be increased. In contrast, the latter assumed that the corpus callosum might play an excitatory role in interhemispheric transfer of information. According to the excitatory model, both hemispheres would be activated simultaneously and the interhemispheric connectivity would be strengthened. This mechanism might reduce the cerebral functional asymmetry and facilitate the share and the integration of interhemispheric information. However, some new evidence showed that the corpus callosum is not a single structural and functional body, but consists of multiple information processing channels separating or interacting spatially and temporally. Inhibitory and excitatory information could be transmitted separately between cerebral hemispheres through these different spatial channels at different speeds. Meanwhile, this information transfer might be regulated by task-computing types and task complexity. Therefore, the coordination of inhibition and excitation of the corpus callosum could regulate the dynamic interactions between the two cerebral hemispheres.
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    Habenula: New Approach to Study and Treatment of Depression
    TANG Mingming;LIN Wenjuan
    2013, 21 (7):  1213-1219.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01213
    Abstract ( 1894 )   PDF (207KB) ( 1533 )  
    The habenula is an important connecting node between forebrain and midbrain in mammals. This evolutionarily old brain structure is getting increased attention for its role in depression. This review describes the neuroanatomy of the habenular complex, and discusses its involvement in stress induced behavioral responses. A growing body of animal and clinical researche has focused on the influence of habenula on the monoamine systems. Recent discoveries indicate that habenula activation plays a prominent role in inhibiting serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons, which possibly leads to the depressive-like behaviors in animals under stress. They provide new insights into the study and treatment of depression. The interactions between habenular dysfunction and the HPA axis as well as the neuroimmune system in general worths further investigations in the future.
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    Shyness: A Review of Evidence from Behavioural Genetics
    CHEN Yingmin;GAO Fengqiang;HAN Lei
    2013, 21 (7):  1220-1228.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01220
    Abstract ( 1265 )   PDF (196KB) ( 2358 )  
    Shyness refers to, discomfort and/or inhibition in social situations that interferes one's pursuing for interpersonal or professional goals. It often manifests as excessive self-focus, preoccupation with one's thoughts, and a variety of emotional and physiological responses. Recent years have witnessed the upsurge of behavioural genetic approach in the study of the causes of shyness. Findings from both twins studies and molecular genetics studies have demonstrated that shyness has important genetic underpinnings, with particularly strong associations with the short gene 5-HTTLPR. Shyness is the consequence of the complex interactions between genes and also between genes and environment.
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    Animal and Human Altruistic Nature: The Evolution of Empathy
    PAN Yangu;LIU Yanling;RAN Guangming;LEI Hao;MA Jianling;TENG Zhaojun
    2013, 21 (7):  1229-1238.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01229
    Abstract ( 2317 )   PDF (147KB) ( 2723 )  
    Empathy occurs when an observer perceives or imagines someone else’s affect and this triggers a response such that the observer partially feels what the target is feeling. Altruism refers to the motivation of which ultimate goal is to increase other individuals’ welfare. Empathy originates from animals’ parental rearing behavior and its neural basis is derived from old emotional system. Empathy has evolved from animals’ simple emotional contagion to sympathetic concern and empathic perspective-taking. In addition, empathy has a good adaptability to the environment. Future research can focus on the similarity and difference between human beings’ and animals’ empathy and altruistic behaviors, animals’ advanced empathy ability and altruistic behaviors, and the regulation mechanism of social factors on empathy.
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    Coping of the Chinese People: From Emic and Etic Perspectives
    WANG Xinjian;SHI Mengwei
    2013, 21 (7):  1239-1247.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01239
    Abstract ( 1652 )   PDF (184KB) ( 2644 )  
    Coping of the Chinese people has so far been studied from two perspectives: the etic perspective and the emic perspective. The etic perspective is concerned with the influence of Chinese culture on the cultural environment of coping, traits of the self, sources of stress, patterns of coping and results of coping. It has gained some objective knowledge on coping, and has revealed the praxis of coping of the Chinese people. Since, however, the etic perspective emphasizes the universality of its theory, it is not quite specific to the actual condition in China. The emic perspective, on the contrary, draws the ideas of coping, which in nature are the guides to and the improvement of the psychic life, from the traditional Chinese culture, i.e. Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. It is more intimate to the Chinese people and deep to the essence of their coping, but the ambiguity, subjectivity of its theory, as well as the tendency of diversification of the psyche and behaviour of modern Chinese people, will inevitably lead to some deficiencies in its theory. Both perspectives have their own advantage and disadvantage. They are complementary to each other, and are to be combined together in future studies.
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    Review on the Studies of the Dark Triad
    QIN Feng;XU Fang
    2013, 21 (7):  1248-1261.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01248
    Abstract ( 3005 )   PDF (278KB) ( 7376 )  
    The studies on the Big Five represent the exploration into non-clinical personalities, whereas the studies on the Dark Triad represent the exploration into the shadow of the subclinical personalities. The Dark Triad is composed of three personality traits: Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy, which are usually defined as antisocial personalities in the western culture. Results of recent studies on the Dark Triad indicate: (1) Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy are independent yet intertwining personality traits; (2) valid tools have been developed to measure these personality traits; (3) the Dark Triad traits exhibit both antisociality and prosociality; (4) the Dark Triad may reflect a fast life strategy; (5) genetic and environmental factors play different roles in the development of the Dark Triad; (6) the Dark Triad is definitely a different personality trait cluster in contrast to the Big Five.
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    Savoring: Enjoying Positive Experience with Concentrated Attention
    GUO Dingrong;REN Jun;ZHANG Zhenxin;Fred B. BRYANT
    2013, 21 (7):  1262-1271.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01262
    Abstract ( 1957 )   PDF (201KB) ( 4577 )  
    Savoring is an important concept in positive psychology that refers to the processes that individuals use to enhance and prolong positive experience. In this paper, we review Bryant and Veroff's theory as well as recent studies of savoring, and discusses conceptual issues concerning the meaning, structure, process, and measurement of savoring. We also review research on how savoring influences happiness and on how to promote savoring ability. We highlight important areas for further study, including neurophysiological mechanisms, life-span developmental research, and cross-cultural similarities and differences. We recommend that future researchers pay particular attention to the measurement and application of savoring.
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    The Strength Model of Self-Control
    YU Bin;YUE Guoan;LIU Huijun
    2013, 21 (7):  1272-1282.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01272
    Abstract ( 2842 )   PDF (197KB) ( 5687 )  
    Self-control is defined as the capacity to override natural and automatic tendencies; and to conscious control one’s behavior. The strength model of self-control suggests that the exertion of self-control depends on a limited resource. Research has supported the strength model in the domains of impulsive behaviors, interpersonal processes, decision making and judgments. Factors that appear to have impact on the self control strength include personality, emotion, motivation and self-control programs. It is necessary to identify the difference between fatigue and ego depletion and to access the contributions of motivation and beliefs in self control in the future research. Finding a reliable way to improve self-control in real world settings would be another helpful direction for further work.
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    Thriving at Work: Focus on Employee’s Health and Growth
    ZHENG Xiaoming;LU Shuye
    2013, 21 (7):  1283-1293.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01283
    Abstract ( 1506 )   PDF (262KB) ( 2631 )  
    Thriving at work is a psychological state in which individuals experience both a sense of vitality and a sense of learning at work. Thriving is also a gauge of individual growth and forward progress. The social embedded model of thriving and the integrative model of human growth provide theoretical frameworks, embody the mechanisms of self-determination and self-adaptation, and unveil the important antecedents and outcomes of thriving. The antecedents include the contextual features and work resources, and the outcomes include employee’s performance, satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, health, innovation, and adaptive behaviors. Research on thriving at work can contribute to organizational and human sustainability, but this field is quite new and needs enriching and refining both theoretically and empirically.
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    Disintegration and Integration: The Research Trend of Paternalistic Leadership
    LI Yan;SUN Jianmin;JIAO Haitao
    2013, 21 (7):  1294-1306.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01294
    Abstract ( 868 )   PDF (391KB) ( 3419 )  
    As the model of indigenous leadership research, the theory of paternalistic leadership proposed by Cheng has made a great contribution to indigenous theoretical construct and emic approach. However, because the relationship between the construct and its three dimensions is unclear, the theory is confronted with dilemma and challenge, such as monodimension vs multidimension, indigenous theory vs exotic theory. This paper firstly overviews the concept and measurement of indigenous paternalistic leadership, and then makes a survey of some relevant empirical studies and discusses the dilemma and challenges. Finally, several suggestions in terms of resolving the paradox of the construct, extending investigation levels, the comparison of different constructs) for resolving the dilemma, are given.
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    A Review of Benevolent Leadership
    ZHANG Ruiping;YANG Shuai;LI Tsingan
    2013, 21 (7):  1307-1316.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01307
    Abstract ( 1273 )   PDF (263KB) ( 2352 )  
    Benevolent leadership means that the leader’s behavior demonstrates individualized, holistic and long-tem concern for subordinates. It is a constructive and most welcome leadership behavior by followers. At present, most of the researches focus on the relationships between benevolent leadership and other leadership styles and the influence on subordinates. Empirical studies show that benevolent leadership significantly affects work outcomes such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job performance. Future research should focus on two facets: Firstly, explore the mechanisms underlying the effect of benevolent leadership on leadership effectiveness and investigate the mediating and moderating variables. Secondly, consider longitudinal and multi-level research designs.
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    A Review of Applicant Reactions in Personnel Selection
    BIAN Ran;LIN Peijian;CHE Hongsheng
    2013, 21 (7):  1317-1330.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01317
    Abstract ( 743 )   PDF (408KB) ( 1773 )  
    Applicant reactions are the attitudinal or behavioral outcomes resulting from justice perceptions under the selection context. The first recognized theoretical model of applicant reactions comes up with Gilliland’s organizational justice model. After that, heuristic model, updated model and trust model are proposed, leading to a rapid growth in the theory. The measurement of applicant reactions, however, has not been well developed. The major shortfalls include the inconsistency of the measures, the chaos of the measuring structure, and the paucity of reliability and validity research. A few possible directions for future study are propounded in the end of the paper, which are (1) to focus more on the less examined but influential factors in the models, (2) to enrich the cross-cultural research, (3) to shift from the general contexts to the specific ones, and (4) to broaden the research vision by combining the neighboring domains of study.
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