ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (7): 1163-1178.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01163

• 元分析 • 上一篇    下一篇

EMMN受偏差-标准刺激对类型和情绪类型影响: 来自元分析的证据

曾宪卿, 许冰, 孙博, 叶健彤, 傅世敏()   

  1. 广州大学教育学院心理系/脑与认知科学中心, 广州 510006
  • 收稿日期:2020-09-29 出版日期:2021-07-15 发布日期:2021-05-24
  • 通讯作者: 傅世敏
  • 基金资助:

EMMN varies with deviant-standard stimulus pair type and emotion type: Evidence from a meta-analysis study

ZENG Xianqing, XU Bing, SUN Bo, YE Jiantong, FU Shimin()   

  1. Department of Psychology and Center for Brain and Cognitive Sciences, School of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
  • Received:2020-09-29 Online:2021-07-15 Published:2021-05-24
  • Contact: FU Shimin


自动探测面孔情绪的变化对个体生存是十分重要的。许多采用事件相关电位(ERP)技术的研究表明情绪失匹配负波(EMMN)可以作为检测面孔情绪自动加工的指标。前人的研究表明偏差-标准刺激对(不同/相同)和情绪类型(消极/积极)影响了EMMN效应, 但是结论存在争议。本研究对35项以EMMN为指标的研究(共721名被试)进行元分析, 结果表明: (1)在早期(0~200 ms)和晚期(200~400 ms)都发现了显著的EMMN效应, 偶然呈现的情绪性面孔在两个时间窗内诱发更负的ERP, 表明EMMN反映了面孔情绪相关的早期和晚期ERP成分的概率效应; (2)偏差-标准刺激对类型影响了早期而不是晚期EMMN效应: 在早期区间内, 不同的偏差-标准刺激对诱发了更大的EMMN; (3)在相同偏差-标准刺激对的研究中, 等概率和非等概率的EMMN效应在两个时间窗内都没有显著差异; (4)早期和晚期EMMN都具有消极偏向, 即, 消极情绪诱发的EMMN显著大于积极情绪诱发的EMMN。这些结果表明, EMMN效应受到偏差-标准刺激对和情绪类型等实验变量的影响。

关键词: 情绪失匹配负波, 元分析, 消极偏向, 偏差-标准刺激对


The automatic detection of facial emotion changes is crucial for survival. Numerous studies using the event-related potential (ERP) technique have found that the amplitude of emotion-related visual mismatch negativity (EMMN) could be used to test the automatic processing of facial emotion. Previous studies suggested that deviant - standard stimulus (D-S) pair (different/same) and emotion type (negative/non- negative) might modulate the EMMN effect, however, the evidence so far was mixed. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to analyze the findings of 35 studies (involving 721 healthy participants) on EMMN, among them, 26 (K = 43), 30 (K = 50), 22 (K = 24), and 24 (K = 26) studies (Kis the number of effect sizes) were used to analyze early EMMN effect, late EMMN effect, the negative bias of early EMMN effect and EMMN effect.

Results showed that: (1) EMMN effects emerged at both the early- (0~200 ms) and late- (200~400 ms) stages, demonstrating that infrequently presented deviant stimulus elicited more negative ERPs at both the early- and late-stages(early: g = -0.66, 95% CI: [-0.77 -0.56]; late:g= -0.61, 95% CI: [-0.76 -0.47]). This suggests that EMMN reflects the probability effect of early- and late- stages emotion-related ERP components; (2) the type of D-S pair moderated the EMMN effect at the early-(Q(1) = 8.58, p < 0.01) but not the late-stages( Q(1) = 2.92, p = 0.09). Specifically, the EMMN effect of different D-S pairs(g = -0.83, 95% CI: [-0.98 -0.68]) was significantly larger than that of the same D-S pairs(g = -0.52, 95% CI: [-0.66 -0.37]) at the early-stage; (3) in the studies of same D-S pairs, the evidence between equiprobable and non-equiprobable paradigm showed no significant differences in EMMN at both stages(early:Q(1) = 1.29, p = 0.26; late: Q(1) = 0.79, p = 0.38); (4) a negative bias was found in both early(g = -0.28, 95% CI: [-0.48 -0.09]) and late EMMN(g = -0.32, 95% CI: [-0.54 -0.10]), i.e., the EMMN elicited by the angry, fearful, angry faces was significantly larger than that of happy faces.

These results indicate that the EMMN effect is affected by experimental manipulations such as D-S pair type and emotion type. The influence of D-S pair type on the EMMN effect indicated that a low level of physical information would affect the early EMMN effect, which suggested that we should avoid using the traditional oddball paradigm to study the EMMN effect; In the study of the same D-S pair, the probability difference of D-S pair did not affect the EMMN effect, which indicated that visual refractoriness did not affect the EMMN effect. This suggests that it is feasible to study the EMMN effect by using the reverse oddball paradigm and the equiprobable paradigm. However, more evidence is needed for this conclusion, as the number of studies with the equiprobable(2) is far less than that of non-equiprobable(11). In addition, the EMMN effect is sensitive to emotion type, which negative emotion induces a greater EMMN effect. These results indicate that the EMMN is a crucial electrophysiological index for automatic facial emotion processing.

Key words: emotion-related visual mismatch negativity (EMMN), meta-analysis, negative bias, deviant- standard stimulus pair