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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 10 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    RESEARCH OF NEURAL MECHANISM ON VISUAL SPATIAL ATTENTION BY EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS
    Gao Wenbin, Luo Yuejia (Institute of Psychology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101)
    . 2002, 10 (04): 361-366.  
    Abstract   PDF (794KB) ( 1408 )
    Visual spatial attention is a very important issue both in psychology and in many other subjects. Event-related potentials (ERPs) is a useful method to study the brain mechanism of spatial attention because of its high temporal resolusion. Moreover, it plays a stronger role in the location of the brain function with development of technique of high-density recording. The application of ERP is more and more widely used. This paper makes a brief report on the methods, results and primary conclusions on the field, and puts forward several perspectives for future study.
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    PHASE SYNCHRONIZATION AND BRAIN INTEGRATION
    Wu Jianhui, Luo Yuejia (Institute of Psychology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    . 2002, 10 (04): 367-374.  
    Abstract   PDF (959KB) ( 1800 )
    The review focuses on the mechanisms for neural integration underlying psychological processing in the brain. The emergence of neural assembles, in which neurons are transiently linked by reciprocal dynamic connections, is thought to underlie the operation of each cognitive action. But the specific nature of such reciprocity, that is, the mechanisms for neural integration, remains a debate. We favor phase synchronization among the participating neurons, which is certainly the most studied mechanism. Some experimental evidences supporting such proposition are described here.
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    A REVIEW ON INHIBITION MECHANISM IN LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION
    Zhou Zhijin (Huazhong University of Sciences and Technology, Wuhan 430074) Chen Yongming, Yang Lixia (Institute of Psychology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    . 2002, 10 (04): 375-381.  
    Abstract   PDF (796KB) ( 1059 )
    Inhibition plays an important role in language comprehension. In this article, first, the concept and the categories of inhibition were briefly introduced. And then three theories of inhibition were described: the Construction-Integration Model, the Structure Framework Building, and the Inhibition and Contents of Working Memory. Finally, three kinds of studies on inhibition were introduced. They are the inhibition for unrelated or inappropriate information from the interior of language, the inhibition for unrelated information from the exterior of language, and the inhibition on the procedure of cross-model language comprehension.
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    A REVIEW ON THE RESEARCH ON HINDSIGHT BIAS
    Du Jianzheng (Education Science College, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050091)
    . 2002, 10 (04): 382-387.  
    Abstract   PDF (793KB) ( 853 )
    The hindsight bias is operationally defined as the systematical difference between hindsight judgments, that is, judgments made with benefit of feedback about the outcome of an event, and foresight judgments, that is, judgments made without knowledge of the outcome. Hindsight distortion is a pervasive bias that has occurred in a variety of political, managerial, legal, sports, and health care settings. Hindsight bias is investigated by two kinds of designs, that is, hypothetical design and memory design. Research on hindsight bias has many theoretical and practical implications. This present paper reviews research on hindsight bias.
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    REVIEW ON BAYESIAN REASONING RESEARCH
    Zhang Xiangyang, Liu Ming (College of Educational Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631)
    . 2002, 10 (04): 388-394.  
    Abstract   PDF (799KB) ( 2141 )
    In the early days of the 1970s, Kahneman and Tversky discovered that people do not follow the Bayes theorem and inflate conditional probability judgements of rare events because of neglecting the base rate in the problem. After that, a lot of studies of this issue have been performed using textual paradigm and experiential paradigm and many theories were developed, mainly including heuristics(representativeness and availability), natural sampling space hypotheses, frequency effect, and sampling approach theory.
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    NEGATIVE BIASES IN CONDITIONAL REASONING
    Liu Zhiya, Zhao Dongmei, Zheng Xue (Department of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631)
    . 2002, 10 (04): 395-402.  
    Abstract   PDF (823KB) ( 1065 )
    The article introduced 4 effects of negative biases in conditional reasoning including difficulty in research on MP and MT, Wason抯 selection task, affirmative bias and negative bias. Lots of researches on human reasoning have contributed to one or more of this area, including rule base , mental model, probability base theory etc. Their related tests and theories in this problem are discussed.
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    RECENT DEVELOPMENT OF RESEARCH ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
    Gong Shaoying1 Fang Fuxi1 Chen Zhongyong2 (1Institute of Psychology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101) (2Inner Mongolian Normal University Huhehaote, 010022)
    . 2002, 10 (04): 403-410.  
    Abstract   PDF (804KB) ( 2012 )
    The relationship between bilingualism and cognitive development is an important problem in which psychologists are concerned. The review begins with the concept of bilingualism and introduces several classifications of bilingualism. Then the paper reviews researches on the relationship between bilingualism and cognitive development and the relation between bilingualism and metalinguistic awareness, evaluates the relevant interpretation theory and the inner mechanism of bilingualism advantage. Finally, the review evaluates previous research and raised some questions which need to be resolved in the future.
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    THEORETICAL ADVANCE ON THE RELATIONS BETWEEN MARITAL CONFLICT AND PROBLEM BEHAVIORS IN CHILDREN
    Chi Liping, Wang Yun (Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University,,Beijing 100875)
    . 2002, 10 (04): 411-417.  
    Abstract   PDF (797KB) ( 1440 )
    A number of studies suggest that there is close relationship between marital conflict and problem behaviors in children. There have been various ideas proposed about the pathways linking marital conflict to problem behaviors in children. Four main theoretical frameworks, including theory of social learning, ideas of conflict in family system disruption, the cognitivecontextual framework and the emotional security hypothesis which have emerged in this field were introduced. The shortcomings and advantages of the frameworks were analyzed, and then some conclusions about the relationship between marital conflict and problem behaviors in children were drawn, such as the ideas of system and ecology, objective-subjective interaction, emphasis on both cognition and emotion.
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    A REVIEW OF RESEARCHES ON SELF-CONFIDENCE IN THE WEST
    Che Liping (Department of Psychology, Southwest China Normal University, Chongqing 400715)
    . 2002, 10 (04): 418-424.  
    Abstract   PDF (801KB) ( 3209 )
    This study reviews theoretical and experimental researches on self-confidence in about more than 30 years. The thesis makes a systematic exposition on the history and present situation of self-confidence studies in the west conceptually and structurally. And it summarizes the latest practical researches of self-confidence from 3 aspects: 1) difference researches on self-confidence. It includes sex differences, cultural differences and age differences in self-confidence; 2) Both ends and negative side researches of self-confidence. Three aspects are reviewed: overconfidence, under-confidence and self-doubt. 3) Researches on influencing factors of self-confidence. On this basis, it raises some questions in self-confidence researches and points out the future direction.
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    A SURVEY ON THE THEORY OF SELF-PRESENTATION
    Shi Qingmin, Zhao Hai (Department of Psychology,Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875)
    . 2002, 10 (04): 425-432.  
    Abstract   PDF (802KB) ( 2182 )
    Self-presentation is the process in which people control their images to other people and it is the main fact of interacting. In 1959, Eving Goffman, a famous sociologist, developed the conception of self-presentation. Many researchers were interested in this field. Most social interactions can be analyzed in terms of self-presentation, because only a few behavioral acts can be considered as not having any self-presentational intentions. These researches are dominant by self-presentational styles and classifications, determinant of self-presentation and self -presentational strategies and so on. Researches on self-presentation will have considerable significance for enriching the theories of social psychology and propelling relative researches.
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    THEORIES OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AND THEIR IMPORTANCE IN RESEARCH
    Shi Lin (College of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875)
    . 2002, 10 (04): 433-438.  
    Abstract   PDF (796KB) ( 3724 )
    In Western psychology and business administration, occupational stress is a fast growing research area. However, this area lacks generalized theories that can help guide research. This paper introduced four most influencing theories. Lazarus?transactional theory is given most detailed description. The paper analyzed the limitations of these theories and discussed the importance of theory in research.
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    ESTIMATION OF PREMORBID INTELLIGENCE: VALIDITY AND LIMITATION
    Tang Xirong, Yao Shuqiao (Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410001)
    . 2002, 10 (04): 439-446.  
    Abstract   PDF (806KB) ( 1105 )
    Estimation of premorbid intelligence is imperative to detect general cognitive decline and therefore it is important to both research and clinical work. Several estimating approaches were introduced. Qualitative estimation based on intelligence-related background such as educational records and occupational achievements can assess premorbid intelligence comprehensively, however, its objectivity is suspected. On the other hand, objective and quantitative estimation based on regression equation of demographic variables inevitably overestimates or underestimates extreme IQs. Approaches depended on 慼old?test or best performance are more individual-specific while their premise is questioned. Combining different approaches can improve predictive validity.
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    ATTENTION TO THE MISUSE OF STATISTICS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH Bian
    Yufang (Department of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028)
    . 2002, 10 (04): 447-452.  
    Abstract   PDF (792KB) ( 1439 )
    It is of vital importance to use statistical method appropriately for psychological research, however, some misuse of statistics in psychological research exists. The paper emphasizes on the misusing phenomina frequently appearing in psychological research: the use of small or deviated samples, declination of the understanding of probability, problems of significance test, exaggerating of statistical diagrams,misusing related cofficients, and so on. Based on the above analysis, the author puts forward strategies on promoting statistical qualities of researchers, emphasizing on the importance of theory in psychological research, using varieties of researching methodology.
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    THE DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIOR-BASED PERFORMANCE APPAISAL APPROACH
    Ma Chenggong, Wang Erping (Institute of Psychology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101) Lin Ping (Department of Humanity and Social Sciences, Beijing College of Mechanical Industries, Beijing 100012)
    . 2002, 10 (04): 453-459.  
    Abstract   PDF (805KB) ( 1367 )
    Behavior-based performance appraisal has focused in the research on performance appraisal since the 1960抯. There are some invincible limitations in nonjudgmental measures based on job outcome, so different kinds of behavior-based judgment measures have been successively developed. Selection of behavior items has become the central issue of the approach. Studies such as organizational citizenship behavior, differentiation of task performance and contextual performance has put forward new issues to behavior-based performance appraisal.
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    INTRODUCTION TO GAP MODEL OF SERVICE QUALITY AND ITS APPLICATION
    Ding Xiaqi1 Xu Jincan2 Ma Mouchao1 (1Institute of Psychology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101) (2Peking University, Beijing 100871)
    . 2002, 10 (04): 460-465.  
    Abstract   PDF (808KB) ( 2054 )
    Service is a key factor in marketing. In the gap model of service quality, there are gaps among the service quality that companies provide, the quality that consumers perceive and the quality that consumers expect. There are also two standards when consumers evaluate the service quality. One is 揳nticipant quality and the other is the lowest acceptable quality. The difference between these two standards is zone of tolerance? A questionnaire called Servqual which is based on the model is widely applied.
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    NEW DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY ABROAD
    Wu Lin, Guo Jinshan (Department of Social Psychology, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 )
    . 2002, 10 (04): 466-471.  
    Abstract   PDF (786KB) ( 3079 )
    Overpopulation and overconsumption lead to the crisis of environment which threaten the sustainable development of humankind. Environmental psychology is a new discipline which has developed in the West since about 1970. Now environmental psychologist should keep in close contact with policy-maker and officer in order to help form effective environmental policy. At the same time, environmental psychologists should cooperate in these directions: human environmental perceptions, stress and life quality, sustainable development, life mode and organizational culture.
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    DEVELOPMENTAL PATH OF EXTERNAL INDIGENOUS SYCHOLOGIES: THE CAUSES OF BIRTH OF INDIGENOUS PSYCHOLOGIES, THE MEANING OF THE CONCEPTS, MODELS AND SOME REVIEWS
    Zheng Rongshuang (The Academy of philosophy and society,JiLin University, Chang Chun 130012)
    . 2002, 10 (04): 472-478.  
    Abstract   PDF (802KB) ( 1052 )
    This article outlines indigenous psychology approach abroad. First, it points out that the ideological foundations of indigenous psychology are postmodernism philosophy and the thought of multiculture, and the direct motivations underlying the indigenisation movement are the criticism of the limitations of traditional mainstream psychology, the advocation of culture- appropriate psychology; Second, this article introduces the differences between 搃ndigenous psychology?and 搃ndigenisation of psychology?and the four research models of indigenous psychology. Third, it spells out that the methodology and the method of indigenous psychology are phenomenology and qualitative research. Lastly, the advantages and limitations of indigenous psychology are addressed.
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