ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


    For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
    Person-oriented Theory and Methods in Developmental Research
    JI Lin-Qin;ZHANG Wen-Xin
    2011, 19 (11):  1563-1571. 
    Abstract ( 825 )   PDF (229KB) ( 1835 )  
    Variable-oriented approach has been dominating in developmental research. However, over the past two decades, with the theoretical perspectives portraying development as a holistic, highly interactional, and individualized process, and the empirical research indicating there were individual differences in development, the person-oriented approach emerged and gained popularity in developmental research. The focus in on individuals in a person-oriented approach and the goal is to group homogenous individuals into the theoretically or practically meaningful categories or subgroups. The basic tenets of person-oriented approach are presented, and the data analyzing methods including the traditional clustering, model-based clustering, and configural frequency analysis are reviewed. Important issues in conducting a person-oriented research including the validity of categories or subgroups obtained and the match between the theoretical tenets and the concrete methods are discussed, and the researchers are suggested to integrate the person-oriented and variable-oriented approaches in developmental research.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    How to Arouse and Relief Vital Loss Emotions: Behavioral and Brain-Imaging Evidence
    LI Qi;LUO Jing
    2011, 19 (11):  1572-1582. 
    Abstract ( 897 )   PDF (395KB) ( 1232 )  
    This study gradually worked out a new paradigm to arouse vital loss emotions and its neural mechanisms in laboratory settings without substantial damage and found both the contrast effects of importance of alternatives and a huge compensation payment can relieve the vital-related loss emotions by a series of behavior and imaging experiments. The results showed that the defense mechanism not only did prevent individuals from thoroughly imagining and experiencing the given loss situation to arouse emotions, but induced emotions comprehensively and automatically under vital loss decisions. Furthermore, our results revealed that a huge compensation payment or contrast effects can relieve vital loss emotions. The findings from this research will not only promote the understanding of the brain mechanisms of vital loss emotions in information processing, and the behavior and imaging evidences from emotional regulations will also advance the development of psychological consultation and insurance compensation system.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The Sequential Model of Future-oriented Coping and Its Time Perspective Mechanism
    Gan Yi-Qun
    2011, 19 (11):  1583-1587. 
    Abstract ( 800 )   PDF (261KB) ( 1188 )  
    Recent research indicated the important role of future-oriented coping in the area of stress management. However, the relationship between proactive coping and preventive coping, and their function mechanisms remain unclear. The present project is the first attempt to investigate the theoretical models of future-oriented coping from the pointcuts of time perspective and implicit cognition. This project consists of four parts: (1) Development of the sequential model of future-oriented coping in the context of job-hunting among university seniors; (2) Verification and generalization of the aforementioned model using implicit cognition in the context of university adjustment; (3) Examination the time discounting mechanisms in different stages of future-oriented coping using the Experimental Discounting Task; (4) Exploration of time discounting mechanisms of future-oriented coping using threatening and neutral faces as subliminal priming. The project provides evidences for the theoretical development of proactive coping and preventive coping and promotes their application in the field of mental health and education.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Researches and Theories on Face Inversion Effect
    WANG Hai-Ling;FU Shi-Min
    2011, 19 (11):  1588-1594. 
    Abstract ( 1004 )   PDF (178KB) ( 2111 )  
    Face inversion effect refers to the fact that the recognition is severely impaired for inverted relative to upright faces. The inversion effect is larger for faces relative to other objects, such as house. Several theoretical frameworks have been proposed to account for this face inversion effect, but the present review focused on two popular views, namely the configural processing hypothesis and the eye specificity hypothesis. The configural processing hypothesis posits that inverted faces impair the structural feature of faces and thus influence holistic processing. According to the eye specificity hypothesis, eyes play an important role in face processing, especially when faces are inverted. Evidences from ERP and fMRI studies are discussed. The importance of eyes and attention should be addressed in future studies.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The Processing Mechanism of Lag-1 Sparing in Attentional Blink
    WU Xia;ZHANG Ming
    2011, 19 (11):  1595-1604. 
    Abstract ( 732 )   PDF (138KB) ( 991 )  
    Lag-1 sparing phenomenon reflects fundamental mechanism of continuous processes in temporary attention. Four critical accounts, including the sluggish-gate idea, two-stage competition model, temporary loss of control theory as well as boost and bounce theory are discussed with series of empirical research, compared with each other intensively and then appraised. The sluggish-gate idea emphasis on time factor while temporary loss of control theory lay upon lag factor on the production mechanism of Lag-1 sparing. The sluggish-gate idea and two-stage competition model are attributed to limited-capacity attention resource hypothesis, and the other two are tend to agree attention control accounts. These accounts, which based on fundamental temporal attention mechanisms, focus on the role of attention resource or attention control on the selective process of targets. Future research should focus on the combination with attention switch.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Mechanism of Visual Working Memory Consolidation: Vulcanization or Recession?
    SUN Hui-Ming;FU Xiao-Lan
    2011, 19 (11):  1605-1614. 
    Abstract ( 835 )   PDF (255KB) ( 1097 )  
    Vogel et al., (2006) used masked change detection paradigm to investigate the time course of VWM consolidation. They spoke of consolidation as a process to transform a transient perceptual representation into durable representation in VWM that survived interference by new sensory input. Based on the review studies of consolidation, we assumed that consolidation was not an additional process that added a new quality to the to-be-memory items presentation in VWM but it was the recession of mask interference if the time was long enough to build up inhibition.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The Influence of Language on Cognition: Based on the Analysis of Bilingual Cognition Advantage
    HE Wen-Guang;CHEN Bao-Guo
    2011, 19 (11):  1615-1624. 
    Abstract ( 1119 )   PDF (139KB) ( 3117 )  
    Bilingual cognition advantage effect is not only found in the studies of language domain, but also in non-language domains which mainly based on cognition control, attention selection and inhibition. The age of acquisition of second language and bilingual proficiency were the two most important factors to influence this effect among various factors in many ways. Research shows that the language mechanism of bilingual cognition advantage is bilingual representation and production mechanism, and its neural basis is the frontal cortex of which the Broca as the core region. Further study will deeply focus on the inner language mechanism and neural physiological basis of bilingual cognition advantage, in addition to that, the relationship between bilingual cognition and the development of individual emotion and personality should be more concerned.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Sex Differences in Language Processing and Its Neural Mechanisms
    LI Ying;YANG Dong;ZHANG Qing-Lin
    2011, 19 (11):  1625-1634. 
    Abstract ( 607 )   PDF (169KB) ( 1353 )  
    Sex differences in language processing are always the hot topic of linguistic and psychological research. The advent of neuroimaging techniques (including ERPs and fMRI) provided new techniques and produced new evidence in this area. A large number of studies have been devoted to functional differences across sexes in the phonological, orthographic and semantic processing at lexical level, sentence processing, passage processing and verbal learning and memory and so on. Moreover, Researchers also shed light on the influence of differences in grey matter distribution, the different size of corpus callosum and hormonal level variations on language processing between males and females. However, those studies reached different and even conflicting conclusions. The discrepancies in the literature have been explained by time demand of different tasks, female advantage on the declarative memory and different methodological consideration and so on. Although there have been considerable studies on sex differences in language processing, the topic still needs further exploration and explanation in the future.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Psychological and Neural Mechanisms of Mindfulness
    WANG Fen;HUANG Yu-Xia
    2011, 19 (11):  1635-1644. 
    Abstract ( 1828 )   PDF (235KB) ( 4486 )  
    Mindfulness is a set of practice derived from the eastern Buddhism meditation which emphasizes the intentional, non-judgmental and moment-to-moment attention to the present. It is also regarded as a state of consciousness or a series of psychological processes. Early studies usually focused on clinical efficacies of mindfulness. Recently, more attention has being paid to psychological and neural mechanisms of it. According to the recent findings, mindfulness is associated with the change of sensation and perception, and the improvement of attention, memory and emotion. The clinical effects of mindfulness are also underlied by a series of neural mechanisms. The more experienced the participant is, the stronger frontal θ and occipital γ change will be. MRI studies suggest that mindfulness will lead to brain activity change and brain structure alteration. To reveal the mechanisms of mindfulness further, more work still need to be done in the future, with the resolvement of methodological problems.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Effects of Alcohol on Pre-attentive Processing: Evidence from Mismatch Negativity
    HE Jin-Bo;LI Bing-Bing;ZHOU Zong-Kui
    2011, 19 (11):  1645-1650. 
    Abstract ( 701 )   PDF (160KB) ( 984 )  
    Pre-attention is the mental process of determining whether or not to attend a stimulus before focusing on it. It is very important for human being to adapt to the environment full of changes. Recently, researchers have examined the effect of alcohol on pre-attention through MMN studies. These results show that: a. The amplitude of MMN decreases significantly and its peak latency delays significantly after drinking a dose more than 0.3g/kg alcohol; b. As to the condition of chronic drinking (eg. chronic alcoholism), the amplitude of MMN decreases and its peak latency delays. However, MMN recovers gradually after absent from alcohol; c. MMN of children from alcoholism families shows no difference from children from normal families. These results indicate that acute and chronic alcohol drinking impair pre-attentive processing. However, there is hardly any evidence showing that it will impair pre-attentive processing of the next generation.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The Neural Mechanism Underlying Hyperarousal and Its Role in the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    WANG Hui-Ying;DONG Xin-Wen;LI Xiu-Li;LI Yong-Hui
    2011, 19 (11):  1651-1657. 
    Abstract ( 724 )   PDF (174KB) ( 1612 )  
    Hyperarousal represents the core symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and plays a significant role in the development of PTSD. Peri-traumatic hyperarousal response predicts the occurrence of the PTSD symptoms like re-experience, avoidance and numbing, and attenuating the magnitude of the arousal response during peri-traumatic period can reduce the risk to develop PTSD symptom. Dysfunction of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis characterized with over-release of norepinephrine (NE) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), but lack of cortisol or corticosterone is one of the most important neural mechanisms which cause and maintain the long-term hyperarousal state. Over-activation of serotonin (5-HT) system is also related to the hyperarousal situation after the traumatic experience. Recently, the role of orexin system in hypothalamus in hyperaroual or stress has attracted a lot of attention, because the orexin system is closely connected with NE, CRF and 5-HT system and it is vital in sleep and arousal transition.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Everyday Cognition of the Elderly
    LI Xu;CHEN Tian-Yong
    2011, 19 (11):  1658-1666. 
    Abstract ( 753 )   PDF (216KB) ( 1301 )  
    Everyday cognition is a hot research area which both clinical psychologists and gerontologists are interested in. The major research topics in this area include its definitions and measurement, its relationship with basic cognitive abilities and related training programs. Many new researches emerged with the further clarification of its concept and the development of new testing tools. On one hand, researchers have made attempt to identify the relationship between everyday cognition and cognition (e.g., intelligence, executive function); on the other hand, various training programs have been carried out to improve the elderly’ s everyday problem solving ability. The present literature review introduced the latest research development in these areas and suggested that everyday cognition is very important to maintain the elderly’s physical and mental health with a higher life quality.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Admiration: A Positive Emotion of Witnessing Excellence and Emulating
    CHEN Shi-Min;WU Bao-Pei;FANG Jie;SUN Pei-Zhen;GAO Liang;XIONG Hong-Xing;ZHENG Xue
    2011, 19 (11):  1667-1674. 
    Abstract ( 843 )   PDF (161KB) ( 1591 )  
    Admiration is a feeling of great liking and respect for an excellent person or an emotional response to witness excellent deeds or character, whose prototypical components are appreciation and inspiration. This emotion is evoked by many factors including extraordinary skill, virtue, positive attitude, self-improvement motive, and similar values and so on. Secretion of oxytocin can be facilitated by admiration for virtue. Admiration for skill and virtue activate separate but also overlapping brain area. Admiration can function to inspire oneself, increase self-efficacy and outcome expectation, influence vocational intention, and motivate prosocial and affiliative behavior. Future research should broaden the concept and component of admiration, distinguish between admiration and worship, conduct the study of application and cross-cultural or localized research.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Default Effect in Behavioral Decision Making
    HUANG Bao-Zhen;XU Fu-Ming;WANG-Lan;MA Xiang-Yang;WU Xiu-Liang
    2011, 19 (11):  1675-1683. 
    Abstract ( 1942 )   PDF (158KB) ( 2371 )  
    Default effect refers to a phenomenon that people tend to maintain the default and do not change the choice in decision making. Default effect widely exists in organ donations, retirement savings plans, consumer decision and other decision-making fields and has great application values in these fields. Currently, there are four ways for researchers to illustrate the formation mechanism of default effect: loss aversion, query theory, implicit recommendations and neural psychological mechanism. The factors to influence default effect include such as follows: effort, the framing of default and personal experience. Further research on default effect needs to deeply investigate our understanding of its causes, to strengthen cross-cultural research and to expand its application values.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Calling and Its Related Research
    ZHAO Xiao-Yun;GUO Cheng
    2011, 19 (11):  1684-1691. 
    Abstract ( 762 )   PDF (181KB) ( 1184 )  
    In recent years, the concept of calling that usually be described as the work role with a sense of purpose and meaning and often with some reference to God, passion, or giftedness as a motivating source under the religious perspective, has been appeared frequently in the western psychology literature and aroused the attention from some subdisciplines of psychological realm. It has been regarded as an important source of one’s faith in the meaning and purpose of his or her work, and also as the foundation of one’s career success, what’s more, an important promoter of career metacompetencies, such as identity and adaptability. Based on combing the theoretical and empirical study literature of related calling systematically, the paper summarized and analyzed the research status of the calling. And it was found some questions should be further discussed and confirmed, such as the definition of calling concept, its evaluation and measure, the cultural compatibility as well as its relations with the life satisfaction, the organization/ career development and so on.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    A Review of the Development of Generational Work Value
    CHEN Jian;LIAN Rong
    2011, 19 (11):  1692-1701. 
    Abstract ( 797 )   PDF (201KB) ( 1646 )  
    The development of generational work value is attributed to the change of the society and culture. Researches in this domain are compatible with the trend of researches on the generational differences and conflicts in working context, while are helpful for people to understand and grasp the social and cultural development of certain countries. Those researches delineate “generations” by significant historical events and focus on exploring the social and cultural characters of them. Currently, most western researches have shown that there are different developmental rules in certain aspects of generational work values, such as: the main emphasis of the work, altruism, internal and external values. However, developmental trend of work value in our country has demonstrated different rules, which results from specific social history and culture. Therefore, the further research should focus on developmental rules of “generation unit” of work value on the basis of strict distinguishing of unique characteristics of social culture with adopting appropriate research methods and delineation standards of “generation”, besides extending the depth of research contents and especially strengthen localization of researches in China, which is of significant reference value to management of Chinese organizations.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Dilemma of Moral Dilemmas: The Conflict between Emotion and Reasoning in Moral Judgments
    YU Feng;PENG Kai-Ping;HAN Ting-Ting;CHAI Fang-Yuan;BAI Yang
    2011, 19 (11):  1702-1712. 
    Abstract ( 1380 )   PDF (302KB) ( 2757 )  
    Though moral judgment ranks among one of the most essential human activities, arguments about the roles of emotion and reasoning play in moral judgment never cease. From the philosophical controversy between Hume and Kant to the debates among developmental psychologists; from social psychology arguments about the power of the situations to neuroscience insights about the brain constraints to human morality, modern psychology has witnessed the paradigm shifts from time to time concerning the importance of emotion and reasoning in moral judgments. We reviewed several competing theories on moral judgment and gave a synthetic view of the roles emotion and reasoning play in moral judgment. We suggest that the psychological contributions in understanding human morality would come from the systematical analysis of moral judgments in real life situations involving real individuals with real implications. Methodologically, multi-level and multi-method analysis is much needed. By studying the effects of situational factors in moral judgments, we may eventually be able to go beyond the dichotomy of emotion and reasoning to truly understand the mechanisms involved in human moral judgments.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    A Review of Debates within Political Psychology

    YIN Ji-Wu

    2011, 19 (11):  1713-1720. 
    Abstract ( 711 )   PDF (156KB) ( 1441 )  
    Bringing together political science and psychological science, Political Psychology has long been a source of interdisciplinary advances. Issues of debate in the history of Political Psychology theory include the relationship between rationality and the variables proposed by political psychology, the domain paradigm of Political Psychology or the decentralization problem, the selection problems of dispositionism and situationism, the balance problem of balance between political and psychological approaches, and the problem of how cultural variables influence variables of interest to political psychology. This author discusses in detail the controversies above and further gives a brief introduction to the cultural approach of Chinese political psychology research, such as focusing on cultural difference and the relationship between culture and rationality.
    Related Articles | Metrics