Intertemporal decision-making refers to the phenomena that people always give less weight to future gains and losses than recent gains and losses. Although controversial, Mischel and colleagues had demonstrated that children with higher delay gratification ability had higher academic achievement later in life through the famous “Marshmallow Experiment”. Both delay gratification and inter-temporal choice deal with the decision-making behavior over time. Previous studies had discovered three neural network systems that support intertemporal decision making in the adult brain, but few evidences had been reported in children. These brain network systems were mainly located in the frontal cortex, which developed rapidly in children and adolescents. The current study aimed to provide a comprehensive survey for understanding the dynamic development of inter-temporal decision-making in children and adolescents in mainland China within the critical period of the inter-temporal decision-making by cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. Neuroimaging data will also be collected to examine the relationship between intertemporal decision-making development and brain mutation, with a special focus on the prefrontal-striatum neural network. Finally, a model with multimodal neuroimaging and behavioral fusion would be proposed to predict the inter-temporal decision-making ability. These evidences would provide services for parents, schools, as well as the society to cultivate and improve the intertemporal decision-making ability in children and adolescents.
Team job crafting is critical for team effectiveness. Based on job design theory and team dynamic model, we develop a theoretical model about the antecedents and consequences of team job crafting, and aim to establish the nomological network of team job crafting. First, we clarify the conceptualization and measurement of team job crafting. We then propose a multilevel model that elucidates how factors such as leadership, job characteristics, team personality composition, and human resource management system influence team job crafting via team proactive motivation. Last, we explain the effect of team job crafting on team effectiveness and the underlying mechanisms.
Users being able to transit between social context and consumption context is a critical feature of social commerce. However, these transitions have been largely overlooked in the current research on social commerce adoption. In order to fill this research gap, a new concept called social-to-consumption transition which refers to transitions from social context to consumption context in social commerce networks or communities is proposed. Based on the boundary theory to explore antecedents and promotion mechanism of social-to-consumption transition will contribute to a broader and more comprehensive understanding of social commerce adoption, facilitate theory development in research on social commerce, and have important practical implications for promoting social-to-consumption transition. Specifically, there are four aspects of contents to explore: (1) the connotation and extension of social-to-consumption transition; (2) the potential influence of community integration supplies on consumers’ integrated social boundary creation and social-to-consumption transition; (3) the potential influence of boundary segmentation preference on integrated social boundary creation and social-to-consumption transition; (4) the moderating effect of community boundary customized climate on the relationship between integrated social boundary creation and social-to-consumption transition.
Pupils were found to exhibit consistent changing patterns in the same processing stage of different memory tasks, and the changes in pupil size reflect the activation state of the nervous system during information processing. During the pre-coding phase before the stimulus is presented, pupils contract as the individual's endogenous attention level increases. In the information encoding stage, the degree of pupil dilation is used as a bio-marker of the subsequent memory effect, which can predict the memory performance of the future information retrieval stage. In the retrieval phase, when the free recall task is used, pupils contract rapidly with the release of memory load, but the report of each item will cause a small pupil dilation; In the recognition task, pupil dilation is more pronounced when old stimulus is presented than that with new stimulus, producing pupil old/ new effect. Pupil size is a sensitive and stable bio-marker in memory processing. Pupil tracking measurement is an effective approach to explore the physiological mechanism of memory processing. In the future research, pupil tracking along with multiple research methods should be used to further explore the physiological mechanism of memory.
Human beings often make gestures when talking or thinking. Gestures are generated automatically during cognitive processing or communication, and as representations, they in turn affect human cognitive processing. Although researchers have different emphasis on the concept of gestures, it is generally believed that gestures are different from direct actions and have internal and external cognitive functions. Seminal theoretical models include Lexical Index Model, Information Packing Hypothesis, Image Maintenance Theory, Semantic Specificity Hypothesis and Embodied/Extended Perspective. According to the main independent variables, the research paradigms fall into three categories, namely, allow-and-limit gestures, the change of gesture patterns, and changes of situation. In addition to in-depth study of the neural mechanism of cognitive functions of gestures and their intervention research, this paper proposes a theoretical model with more explanatory power - the "Spatializing" Gesture Hypothesis.
Literature reading can not only improve readers' literary accomplishment, but also affect their psychological and cognitive states. However, although an increasing number of experimental studies have been carried out, the question of whether the literature exposure can improve reader's Theory of Mind (ToM) still remains unsolved. To this end, we review recent experimental studies of the relationship between literary reading and ToM, and analyzes the reasons underlying the inconsistency from the perspective of text genre and individual differences. On this basis, the potential mechanism underlying the influence of literary reading on ToM abilities is proposed: the Mirror Neuron system and the Default Network are possibly to be the crucial neural basis.
The early identification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) facilitates early diagnosis and appropriate intervention; that is crucial for ensuring positive developmental outcomes. Evidence from prospective longitudinal studies in high-risk infants (younger siblings of ASD children enrolled before 12 months old) has exhibited the influence of the early identification of ASD by demonstrating developmental trajectories and identifying early manifestations of core symptoms in high-risk ASD infants (who are diagnosed with ASD between 24 and 36 months old). It has been thereby suggested that more subjects, prolonged observation durations, and intensive time points should be adopted in future studies. Additionally, more attention should be paid to ASD-related disorders and early intervention for high-risk infants. In addition, the impact of genetic, environmental, cultural and social factors must also be considered. It is believed that prospective longitudinal studies in high-risk infants in China will assuredly make a distinct difference, both scientifically and clinically.
Postpartum depression is a complex phenomenon of severe depressive episodes that occur within a period of time after delivery. Evidences suggest that oxytocin is an important modulator of female reproductive functions including parturition, lactation and maternal behavior, while it also plays an important role in modulating the development of postpartum depression and the maintain of maternal behavior. In postpartum depression patients, the emotional and cognitive impairment might contribute to the impairment of maternal behavior. Oxytocin directly regulates maternal behavior through the mesolimbic dopamine system. Oxytocin acting on medial preoptic area (MPOA) to activate the pathway of ventral tegmental area (VTA)-nucleus accumbens (NAc) and thus modulate the secretion of dopamine in NAc. Finally, we point out that oxytocin mediates maternal behavior in postpartum depression is through its modulation of the serotoninergic system, and its interactions with other hormones. Future studies should focus on functional differences of oxytocin in the central nervous system and the effect of social support on oxytocin uses in postpartum depression.
Oxytocin is known as the "hormone of love" and is closely associated with attachment. Previous studies have proved that oxytocin from different sources has different effects on the interpersonal adaptability of individuals with insecure attachment, mainly shown in the following ways that the lower levels of endogenous oxytocin, the worse the interpersonal adaptibility among insecurely attached individuals; Exogenous oxytocin enhanced the interpersonal adaptability among avoidantly attached individuals, but reduced the interpersonal adaptability among individuals with high anxious attachment scores; A and G Alleles were associated with interpersonal adaptibility among insecurely attached individuals. In addition, attachment theory and the social salience hypothesis are also used to explain the above effects. Defensive exclusion, external contextual factors and individual differences are also play a regulatory role that cannot be ignored. We should compare the differences between the oxytocin receptor gene and the interpersonal adaptability among insecurely attached individuals in the future. Moreover, the effects of oxytocin may have gender differences on interpersonal adaptability among individuals with insecure attachment. However, till now there are few related study focused the above question, thus it deserved to be discussed more in the future. In order to enhance the ecological validity of oxytocin related researches, future researches focused on the effects of oxytocin on the interpersonal adaptability of insecurely attached individuals should be continued studying in the process of interpersonal interaction.
Due to the characteristics of internal fertilization, human fertilization, to a certain extent, is concealed. Meanwhile, adultery existed in early human society. Therefore, males suffer from the uncertainty that their putative children may not be their biological offspring, which is paternal uncertainty. To cope with this uncertainty, males are unconsciously looking for cues that might indicate a genetic similarity between them and their offspring. Among these cues, the facial resemblance is one of the indirect ways that males could infer if there is a biological connection in terms of fatherhood. Three methods are there to measure facial resemblance, including morph software synthesis, third-party rating, and self-rating. Previous studies have shown that the more similar the facial characteristics between a father and his offspring are, the more paternal resources the father would be willing to invest during parenthood. The less anxious and healthier a father is during parenthood, the higher sexual aversion a father would experience in the relationship with their children. The present research suggested three directions for future studies. First, it is valuable to look at the cultural differences in the impacts of father-child facial resemblance. Second, in order to enhance its internal and external validity, future work can adopt new methods to assess the father-child facial resemblance. Last, it would be an exciting direction to explore the relationship between the subjective assessments and the objective assessments of father-child facial resemblance.
With the development of the embodied cognition theory, studies on eating behavior have led to some novel and interesting findings based on the mental simulation approach. These findings provide a new perspective on solving overeating and obesity problems, as well as on improving food marketing performance. This article mainly focuses on discussing the effects of mental simulation on eating behavior and the factors which influence mental simulation. Based on the extant literature, first, we discuss the effects of mental simulation on eating behavior. Specifically, we conclude that, while on the one hand, mental simulation can promote eating, on the other hand, it may also inhibit eating. Second, we group factors of mental simulation into two major categories and refer to them as ease factors and motivational factors, and we elaborate on each of them. Third, we discuss the important potential applications on healthy eating behavior as well as on food marketing. Finally, future research issues are outlined.
A high level of corporate reputation is usually viewed as an intangible asset of the firm, which results in considerable competitive advantages. However, the existing research has also revealed that, possessing a high reputation can burden firms and individuals both under normal operation and crisis situations. The negative effects of a high reputation originate from its micro-foundations, which are the stakeholders’ cognitions and emotions. Under normal operation situation, a high reputation has negative influences on firms via cognitive mechanisms and on employees via emotional mechanisms; while in crisis situation, it impacts firms through cognitive mechanisms. In addition, the negative effects of a high reputation have multi-level moderators, including individual-, firm-, and market-level factors. Moreover, the correspondingly boundary conditions under the normal and crisis situations are different. Future research can focus on the multi-dimensionality of corporate reputation and delve into the unique mechanisms and the boundary conditions of different dimensions of a high reputation in terms of negative effects, while exploring the interactions between multiple dimensions. Researchers can also further study the negative influences on employees, expand upon the dynamic evolution of the negative effects of a high reputation, and consider a meta-analysis.
Mindfulness is a common attribute of individual, team, and organization. Cognition-oriented mindfulness is the processing of information at different levels of organization. Based on the information processing theory, the derivation process of mindfulness shows four stages, namely, stimulus, awareness, cognition, and response. Future research should explore the Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism traditional culture to develop psychological connotation of cognition-oriented mindfulness, test the effectiveness of derivation process and interventions at different levels of organization, and try to develop the progressive supplement and feedback mechanism of mindfulness.