To achieve organizational goals, Internet companies often stimulate continuous innovation of employees by cultivating a happy and joyful work environment. However, the link between playful climate and employees’ innovative behaviors is still underdeveloped, primarily focusing on theoretical analyses and lacking empirical support. Building on the prior findings of playfulness in the field of organizational management, the present study explores three important issues. Based on the theory of organizational climate and the characteristics of playfulness, study 1 develops a scale to measure team playful climate in Chinese Internet firms. Standing on the team level study 2 discusses the cross-level mechanisms underlying the relationship between playful work environment and employees’ innovation from the perspective of Conservation of Resources Theory. Based on the Componential Theory of Individual Creativity, study 3 introduces individual thinking styles and multiple identities to explore the boundary conditions that stimulate employees’ innovative behaviors. Our findings have developed the concept of team playful climate in Chinese Internet companies, enhanced playful climate theory. And the implications for practice in the context of Internet companies are discussed.
Polarizing products are those that are liked by some but hated by others. With the advent of the individualized consumption era, it is increasingly common for products that meet individual needs to receive mixed reviews. How do consumers perceive polarizing products? What factors influence consumers’ preference for polarizing products? What is the mechanism and boundary condition? The answers to these questions are significant for firms to engage in effective marketing. Polarization of word of mouth will improve consumers’ perceived risk and lead to “conflict” association. It may also generate perceived uniqueness of the product. These product features correspond to the behavior differences in need for uniqueness, conflict resolution style, and regulatory focus between independent and interdependent self-construal from the self-construal theory. Therefore, self-construal is an important antecedent variable that influences consumers’ preference for polarizing products and the need for uniqueness, conflict resolution style, as well as regulatory focus mediate this relationship. In addition, level of shopping risk, shopping tasks (self-purchase versus other-purchase), public or private context, and product category are the boundary conditions of this mediating effect.
The method of meta-analysis was utilized to analyze the relationship between feedback-seeking behavior (FSB) and individual performance. Sixty-two primary empirical studies with a total sample size of 15141 participants were included in this study. Results of the meta-analysis showed that FSB were positively and significantly correlated with individual performance (r = 0.329), and it correlated with innovation performance (r = 0.409) stronger than contextual performance (r = 0.302) and task performance (r = 0.258); Moreover, Inquiry FSB correlated with individual performance and its dimensions stronger than Monitoring FSB. The cultural background and data collection method moderate the relationship between feedback-seeking behavior and individual performance. Such relationship is the strongest in East Asian cultural background (r = 0.393) and with cross-sectional homologous data (r = 0.433), and it is still positive and significant with longitudinal paired data (r = 0.154), which fully shows that feedback-seeking behavior can improve individual performance; while the moderating effect of measuring tools and source of feedback-seeking behavior and the attribute of non-self-evaluation performance and participants are not significant. The study results provided more accurate estimates for predicting individual performance by feedback seeking behavior and also the future research directions of feedback seeking behavior.
Feature-based attention (FBA) is the ability that observers can direct their attention to a specific feature dimension or value. In the attentional focus, FBA can modulate the response of neurons in visual cortex: it selectively increases the responses of neurons encoding attended features while suppresses the responses of neurons encoding distracting features. Many studies found that this attentional modulation can spread outside the focus of attention, but the underlying mechanism of the global modulation of FBA (enhancement or suppression) is still controversial. The global enhancement mechanism and the global suppression mechanism are different in time courses and may play distinctive roles in visual information processing. Compared to the global enhancement mechanism, the global suppression mechanism seems more likely to be influenced by experimental designs and parameters. Future studies are needed to investigate under what conditions the global suppression mechanism takes effect and to further disassociate these two global mechanisms in the process of feature-based attention.
Fear has been often given priority to effective processing for the need to evade threatening stimuli. Most of researches have probed the influence of high and low spatial frequencies on the processing of fearful faces from the perspective of the two-channel model. Low spatial frequency components of the fearful face can be processed preferentially in the subcortical pathway. The high spatial frequency mainly processes the fearful faces through the cortical pathway. On this basis, researchers have proposed multiple pathways. The purpose of this paper is to review the subcortical, cortical and multiple pathways from the physiological perspective, and then organize the effects that high/low spatial frequencies on the processing of fearful faces in the various pathways and propose the controversies. Finally, we suggested several focuses that could be studied in the future.
The final stage in the process of spoken production is articulation, which involves the integration of feedforward and feedback control in speech motor system. Specifically, feedforward control (top-down mechanism) refers to speakers’ ability to retrieve and execute the motor commands responsible for producing target speech sounds, while feedback control (bottom-up mechanism) refers to speakers’ ability to adjust speech movements based on the sensory feedback generated by articulation. Sensory goals and sensory predictions are important hubs linking feedforward and feedback control systems. Based on the neural computational model DIVA (directions into velocities of articulators), the cognitive and neural mechanisms of the integration between feedforward and feedback control are illustrated in the stage of speech acquisition and speech production. On the basis of previous studies, how speakers utilize auditory feedback to control online speech and update feedforward motor representations, and the cognitive significance of the P1-N1-P2 components in the ERP studies are especially discussed. Furthermore, various factors that influence feedforward and feedback control are summarized, including individual variabilities, training experience and task demands. Additionally, some suggestions are proposed for future investigation.
Metacognition refers to individual's subjective judgment about process of ongoing cognitive activities. As one of the indicators reflecting metacognitive sensitivity, confidence plays an important role in the individual's understanding and adjustment of one’s own behaviors. Studies have shown that the common task types in self-confidence indicators involve basic and advanced mental processing. In addition, the prediction of self-confidence on joint decision making gradually changes from confidence itself to exploratory prediction parameters based on computational models. Finally, neurophysiological research on confidence has verified the importance of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). In order to optimize the predictive function of confidence, future research should explore other complementary computational models related to confidence in decision-making process.
Children with behavioral inhibition are more likely to suffer from internalizing behavioral problems during mid-childhood and adolescence, and appear to be at higher developmental risk. Compared to children without behavioral inhibition, these children show more withdrawal motivation, longer anticipatory process and pre-attention process, less attention control, more attention bias to negative information, hyperactive error detection process and slower habituation process. These similar cognitive neurological processes are important links between behavioral inhibition and psychological disorders in children. It can be used as predictors to screen individuals with higher developmental risk. In addition to children's own characteristics, environmental factors can also influence children's developmental outcomes by shaping cognitive neurological processes. Therefore, in future studies, in order to identify protective factors for the children with behavioral inhibition from both temperamental factors and environmental factors, we may consider the differences of cognitive neurological processes between children's behavioral inhibition and psychopathology under different cultural conditions.
Traditional attachment theory suggests that an individual’s attachment-related psychological and behavioral patterns are relatively stable. However, from information processes or life-span development perspective, attachment patterns have trait-state duality, i.e. attachment patterns are both relatively stable and context-sensitive. An individual’s attachment pattern in a particular context is the consequence of his or her trait attachment and contextual feature interactions. The interaction patterns between trait attachment and attachment priming effects provide a window to understand the duality of attachment and their relationships. And the two-stages model of attachment activation offers a framework for integrating and understanding these patterns. Future studies should optimize the manipulation check of attachment priming, meanwhile, take the interaction between attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety in consideration. More attention should be paid to the individual differences in the high attachment anxiety group which may clarify the patterns of interaction between trait and state attachment. Moreover, the time course of how attachment coping strategies impact the effects of attachment priming should be concerned, which could reveal the mechanism of the interactions between trait and state attachment.
Viral marketing refers to the marketing approach through which marketers generate online contents on social networks and attract consumers to share them and make them viral. The paper develops a literature review on the factors that make online contents viral, including content characteristics, psychological motives, emotional responses, situational factors and individual traits. The framework can provide theoretical guidance for brands and We Media to increase sharing rate of their online contents. Future studies should focus on exploring the influential mechanism of specific emotions on sharing intention, identifying more situational factors in the context of Chinese culture, measuring the performance of viral marketing, investigating psychological and behavioral consequences of viral marketing and adopting multiple methods.
The slippery slope effect refers to the degree of the individuals’ immorality to increase gradually over time, namely, the immoral behavior is repetitive and progressive. It widely exists in the behaviors of the individuals and interpersonal interaction, which will affect the normal social interaction between individuals, and even hinder the harmonious development of society. The research methods of the slippery slope effect include experimenter manipulation and spontaneous deception. There are at least three psychological mechanisms: moral disengagement, implicit biases, and self-dehumanization. The ways to intervene in this effect are promoting preventive orientation motivation and shaping positive descriptive social norms. Future studies should further explore the scope of the slippery slope effect and its neural intervention from the perspective of psychological processes and physiological mechanisms.
The cultural competence of mental health services has gradually developed as increasing attention has been paid to the cultural diversity of Europe and North America. There exist two differing theoretical orientations with similar practice strategies. The content-oriented approach emphasizes static, structured cultural competence, while the process-oriented approach stresses dynamic, unstructured cultural competence. The similarities and difficulties of the two orientations are manifestations of a balance between cultural specificity and generality in the studies and practices of cultural competence. The paper finally explores how to promote cultural competence in China based on experiences abroad and Chinese realities within the context of improving the system of public psychological services.
Meta-regression is the most frequently used technique for identifying moderators in meta-analysis. In this study, main principles and basic models of meta-analysis and meta-regression were briefly introduced first. Then a Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to investigate the minimum number of the effect size required in meta-regression based on statistical power and estimation precision. The results showed that (1) the Wald-type z test was prone to type I error in meta-regression; (2) at least 20 effect sizes were needed to meet parameter estimation requirements; (3) and inclusion of proper moderators could reduce the number of effect size required. Therefore, it is suggested that (1) meta-analysts should be careful when using the CMA software and the Wald-type z test; (2) at least 20 or more effect sizes are generally needed based on different situations; (3) exploration of moderators is necessary; (4) reviewers can value a meta-analysis research according to the minimum number of effect size required.