The Chinese market economic system is led by the government to a great extent, which has impeded the transformation of the Chinese economy from a factor driven economy to an innovation driven one. The question of how to maintain and promote innovation has caused wide concern of the researchers and enterprises. Researchers have found that the curiosity and inspiration belong to subprocess and component of creativity and innovation. Moreover, inspiration has a dependent psychological construct and varied process, which can be influenced by conscious emotions. Based on these findings, this project started from the perspective of dual-process theory (cognitive and affect processes) to reveal the phenomenon of inspiration triggered by curiosity. The project intends to testify processing mechanism of inspiration on both behavioral science and cognitive neuroscience levels. This project can not only contribute to the development of inspiration theory, but also help to foster the creativity and innovation of entrepreneur and employees.
A debated issue in eye movement reading research concerns the extent to which readers preprocess words in the parafovea. There have been convergent findings that readers can extract visual and lexical (e.g., orthographic, phological) information from parafoveal words during reading. However, there is some controversy regarding whether readers can extract higher linguistic level (e.g., semantic and syntactic) information from the parafovea. We reviewed current findings in relation to parafoveal preview benefits during reading of alphabetic languages like English and non-alphabetic language like Chinese, mainly focusing on the processing of semantic and syntactic information of upcoming words in the parafovea, and how the current eye movement control models such as E-Z reader model and SWIFT model explain these findings. Finally, we discussed the implications of semantic and syntactic preview benefits for these models and considered future research directions in this field of eye movement control during reading.
A specific deficit in individuals with developmental dyslexia has been repeatedly found in many tasks that had one aspect in common, that was, the processing of multiple visual elements in parallel. This skill is regarded as the visual attention span. This paper reviews the relevant literature about the visual attention span of the dyslexics in the contexts of alphabetic languages and Chinese. Currently, the relevant findings have been still in debate, and the inconsistent results may be attributed to the differences in orthographic depth of the background language and the participants’ ages. Future studies can further explore the relationship between visual attention span and reading disability through the methods of the intervention study and cross-language comparison; meanwhile the neural mechanisms underlying the visual attention span of Chinese individuals with dyslexia could be investigated by the neuroimaging techniques.
The studies for body recognition processing often focus on inverted body. And the body inversion effect refers to the fact that the reaction time to identify the inverted body is longer and the correct rate is lower than that to the upright body. Recently, researchers have used a variety of techniques to examine the effect and its configural processing mechanism, in which there are still controversy about the role of head information. In addition, now available body inversion effect mainly concentrated on the configural processing theory and the configural processing continuum theory, however there are still some discrepancies between the two theories in terms of the subcomponents involved in the configural processing. Further researches, with more special populations involved, can focus on the improvements of relevant theories and the specific role of head information, through using materials of high ecological validity.
The rubber hand illusion is a perceptual illusion in which participants experience a fake model hand as part of their own body. Such an illusion could be induced by applying synchronous touches to a visible rubber hand and the hidden real hand. Rubber hand illusion has become an important paradigm of bodily sense of ownership, whose mechanism can be further divided into “bottom-up matching” and “top-down matching”. The former refers to the synchronicity of visual and tactile stimulations, while the latter refers to the participants’ pre-existed body image and body schema (including the modality of real and fake hand, similarity of spatial position). Based on above, body model theory and peri-personal space (PPS) have been proposed to explain the integration of two matching mechanisms of the arouse of body ownership. Rubber hand illusion is used to the exploration of the pathological analysis of schizophrenia, the relationship between illusion and psychological traits, the application in neurosurgery and postoperative recovery. Future studies should pay more attention to the development of paradigm itself, the enhancement of simulated effect by using virtual reality technology, as well as using the sensibility of sense of ownership to filter and predict body image related diseases.
Episodic memory (EM) is the collection of past personal experiences that have occurred at a particular time and place. Subjective decline in EM is reported in the elderly with subjective memory decline (SMD). The elderly with SMD have a faster rate of EM decline and a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) than do healthy controls. However, the brain mechanisms of episodic memory impairment in SMD are unclear. Previous studies suggest that even when memory performance has no observable deficits, the brain structure and function associated with EM have been abnormal in SMD. Two further studies are of vital scientific significance for understanding the pathogenesis of AD. One is to explore the abnormal key nodes and paths of memory neural circuits in SMD. The other is to reveal the changes in the neural circuits in the progression of AD. In addition, considering that the elderly with SMD are a special group with memory impairment, an in-depth investigation into the neural circuits in this group, will make a unique contribution to revealing the neural mechanism of human memory.
The rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) is located caudally to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which is rich in inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurons. The RMTg is an integrative modulator of the mesolimbic dopamine system. Its GABAergic neurons receive input from the lateral habenula (LHb) and then project to VTA dopaminergic neurons, which inhibits the release of dopamine. These three brain areas are an important part of the reward circuit, in which the RMTg plays a particularly important role in reward circuits activated by opioids. GABA neurons in the RMTg are strongly inhibited by opioids, and this is followed by disinhibition of VTA dopaminergic neurons, which activates the reward system. Therefore, the RMTg is a potentially important target for the treatment of drug addiction (especially opioid addiction). Furthermore, cholinergic feedback to the RMTg, acting on muscarinic receptors, can be inhibitory for an opioid-induced reward effect. Future studies should further explore the negative reward circuit regulated by the RMTg, which is of great significance for weakening drug-seeking motivation and promoting extinction and withdrawal.
Sleep problems are more common with the prevalence of digital media devices. Subjective and objective research has shown evidence of negative sleep impacts of digital media usages. The underlying mechanisms involve sleep displacement, hyperarousal and effects of screen light and electromagnetic radiation. Sleep education, restriction of digital media usage and blocking blue light from screen can be promising options to alleviate the undesirable effects of digital media on sleep. More effort should be devoted to the integration of theoretical models, causality establishment between digital media and sleep, objectivization and standardization of measurements, refined classification of digital media user behaviors and local research.
There are three aspects of controversy disputing whether Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) should be defined as an independent psychiatric disorder. Conceptually, it is difficult to clarify the differences between IGD and normal gaming behavior or other mental disorders, and it is not clear that the object of addiction is restricted to online games only, or contained offline games at the same time. With respect to the identification standards, the 9 criteria summarized by DSM-5 failed to depict the essential characteristics of IGD, and with inconsistent levels on content, diagnostic threshold etc. based on existing 18 diagnostic tools. Further, the research methods lack theoretical support, relaying too much on questionnaire data and ignoring the positive effects of video games. The contents of the controversies reveal that researchers lack an understanding of online gaming behavior. Therefore, it is difficult to distinguish normal and abnormal gaming behavior. Research in future should consider stepping back to study the online gaming behavior, exploring the characteristics of different types of internet games and analyzing factors which affect the behavior of Internet gaming and digging the positive contribution of video games, so as to define a clear description of the nature of Internet Gaming Disorder.
Recently, researchers have proposed to distinguish between adaptive narcissism and maladaptive narcissism. We reviewed the existing evidence that support this distinction, showing that two kinds of narcissism differ from each other in 1) constitutive components; 2) associations with intrapersonal and interpersonal adaptions; 3) personality nomologic networks; 4) developmental trajectories; 5) genetic and environmental bases. Distinguishing between adaptive and maladaptive narcissism may help us better understand the complexity of narcissism as well as narcissists on one hand; on the other hand, improve future research and intervention practice.
Relational aggression in romantic relationship refers to behaviors intended to hurt or harm one’s romantic partner through the damage or manipulation of relationships, including direct and indirect aggression, as well as proactive and reactive aggression. Relational aggression in romantic relationship, targeting at the relationship, can be seen as a kind of conflict resolution strategy and is usually reciprocal. Researchers usually use questionnaires to assess relational aggression in romantic relationship. Relational aggression in romantic relationship can decrease relationship quality and mental health level, and induce physical aggression and intimate partner violence. It can be influenced by sex, attachment, power in romantic relationship, and relational aggression in peer relationship. In the future, the researchers should pay attention to the motivation of relational aggression in romantic relationship, clarify the relation between the perpetration and victimization of relational aggression, and strengthen the researches on theorization and targeted intervention.
Understanding the characteristics of social judgments in helping and help-seeking is profoundly essential to facilitate efficient and satisfactory interactions among human beings. Potential helpers and help-recipients have asymmetric perceptions in several aspects, including likelihood of seeking or receiving help, efforts invested in helping, anticipated emotions, and preferred manners in which aid is given. In consequence, they frequently mispredict how others truly think, feel and behave, which may inhibit the occurrence of cooperation and the spread of prosocial behavior. We propose that such prediction errors are inevitable under the joint influence of individual cognitive limitations and social factors. To bridge the gap between helpers and help-recipients, individuals and organizations should take its causes into account. Future research is encouraged to investigate the manifestation of prediction errors in online helping, emotional assistance, and between close others.
The Theory of Dyadic Morality (TDM) suggests that interpersonal harm is a typical cognitive template regarding morality. The moral judgment is a combination of normative violation, negative emotion, and perceived harm. Through dyadic comparison and dyadic completion, moral judgment completes the bottom-up and top-down cognitive processing. Sometimes the moral dumbfounding phenomenon occurs if someone mistakes the perceived harm to the objective harm. The Trolley Problem is interesting but may not be in line with the prevailing moral perception as it strips away the typical cognitive template. We believe that moral judgments in different fields can be explained in the framework of TDM. Future moral judgments research adopting the TDM framework needs to consider the below aspects: seek more evidence supporting that intention and suffering affect moral judgements, conduct cross-cultural studies to generalize the dyadic moral cognitive template, inspect the unified cognitive system and the modular cognitive system dialectically, differentiate interpersonal and non-interpersonal harm, and test other related factors.
Social categorization is a subjective process in which an individual classifies others into groups based on perceived similarities. Social categories are often automatic, flexible and multifaceted, including dimensions of both natural cues (such as gender, age and race) and social cues (such as language, occupation and social status). In such multidimensional social categories (e.g., “rich old celibate bachelor”), some of the constituent categorical dimensions contribute disproportionately to the traits attributed to the category overall. This is termed the “dominant dimension effect,” and is influenced by the valence of the dimensions. Different dimensions will also interact with each other, resulting in a cross-categorization effect. We review these effects in the context of social categorization, and highly important questions that remain for social psychologists interested in processing mechanism of social categorization from the perspective of observer, actor and social situation.
This article reviews the research of the relationship between cognition and advice taking in recent years. The advisor, task characteristics and the situation will affect the adoption of advice through the cognitive process of decision maker. Firstly, this article briefly introduced antecedent variables. Based on previous research, we summarized cognitive factors which affect advice taking in four aspects-cognitive style, cognitive complexity, cognitive strategy and emotion. Then we tried to explain the mechanism of advice taking through four theories, which are attitude change theory, construal level theory, embodied cognition theory and cognitive dissonance theory. By analyzing the cognitive factors which mentioned above, we attempted to put forward the comprehensive model of cognitive mechanism. Finally, the article suggests that future research can enrich advice taking in following aspects, the effect of cognitive flexibility of decision makers, the need for cognitive closure on advice adoption and the cognitive mechanism of advice giving.
The Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is one of the most promising functional neuroimaging tools in recent years due to its high ecological validity, low cost, and less sensitivity to head motions. Experimental paradigms of instructed lies and spontaneous lies have been used to verify the feasibility and accuracy of fNIRS technology in previous lying researches, and provided an opportunity to explore the cognitive mechanisms involved in lying among children, and the neural mechanisms of lying in real interaction scenarios. Future researches should use multimodal methods and indexes to enhance the accuracy of lie detection, and could explore the brain networks and the neural development of lying behavior to enrich research perspectives.
Rater effects refer to the impact of different raters’ idiosyncrasies in their behaviors on the evaluation results in creativity assessment. Rater effects are due to the difference in raters’ cognitive process of the evaluation, which are externally reflected in the difference of their scorings. This article first summarizes the studies of rater cognition and other influencing factors on creativity assessment, including characteristics of raters, information of creators and socio-cultural factors. It further examines inter-rater reliability indexes and their limitations, as well as the applications of Generalization Theory and Many-Facet Rasch Model in quantifying and controlling of rater effects. Finally, this paper specifies directions of future research based on the existing limitations, including deepening the investigation on rater cognition in creativity assessment, integrating the studies of rater effects on different levels, and developing new methods and techniques of creativity assessment.
Comparing the latent factor means across groups need to test the comparability of the instrument. Researchers usually test the scalar invariance to achieve this goal but often get unsatisfactory results. The alignment is proposed under this background. It allows the comparison of the latent factor means by testing the approximate invariance of the configural model parameters and has become a significant complement to multiple-group CFA. This article gives a detailed description of the multiple-group CFA and alignment, summarizes the research procedures and points to which researchers need to pay attention when applying alignment, uses an undergraduates’ work value data to illustrate how to use alignment to do a research with Mplus. In the end, this article summarizes the advantages and limitations of alignment and reviews its research developments and empirical applications.