Public awareness of environmental issues and engagement in environmental protection has been greatly improved with the rapid economic development. As a result, the deployment of projects with potential impacts on environment and human societies faces substantial challenge from the public. To ensure the success of such projects, receiving only government approval and meeting legal and regulation requirements is no longer enough. Public acceptance becomes essential, that is to acquire a social licence to operate (SLO). Projects without the SLO can be faced with great risks and financial loss. Although having gained widespread attention in mining, chemical industries and other related fields, the concept of SLO has gained attention from psychologists quite recently. The present article reviews the origin and measurement of the concept of SLO, as well as the approaches to obtain and maintain a SLO. We further highlight the fundamental drivers of SLO and the implications for policy makers. Future directions are discussed to address the challenges regarding the measurement and acquisition of SLO.
There is accumulating evidence suggesting that stability of self-esteem, which refers to the magnitude of short-term fluctuations in an individual’s self-esteem, has important psychological functions. It can not only influence people’s feelings of anger, depression, and well-being, but also moderate the relationship between level of self-esteem and psychological health. However, knowledge about the neural mechanisms underlying stability of self-esteem is limited. Consequently, it is unclear what the difference or connection is between the stability and level of self-esteem, and how they modulate state self-esteem. To answer these questions, we first developed an integrated model to conceptualize the relationships between stability of self-esteem, level of self-esteem, and state self-esteem. Furthermore, we combined classical psychometry and neuroimaging techniques, stress induction, and physiological and biochemical tests to reveal the neural mechanisms underlying stability of self-esteem comprehensively and systematically. The current study will contribute to the understanding of the neural pathway underlying stability of self-esteem and thereby elucidate the nature of self-esteem, which has important theoretical and practical implications.
Drawing upon the conservation of resources theory, this study tries to uncover and reveal the cross-level mechanisms of servant leadership’s effects on thriving at work for individuals and teams, the boundary conditions and the reciprocal effects between servant leadership and subordinates. This study adopts a longitudinal design and reciprocal design and includes research methods such as literature analysis and longitudinal survey study. This study therefore aims to deepen the understandings of the mechanism of servant leadership, contribute to the understandings of the dynamic nature of leadership, expand the study of the antecedents of thriving at work, and provide guidance for various organizations to improve leadership styles, contribute to leadership effectiveness and boost employees’ thriving at work. We also expect that due to this study, talents selection and training in all kinds of organizations and the overall development of people can be benefited, the positive relationship between leaders and subordinates can be established, and organizational culture and the long-term development of the organizations can be improved.
This meta-analysis was designed to explore the relationship between gratitude and subjective well-being. Through literature retrieval, 62 cases and 167 independent effect sizes together with 31975 participants which met the inclusion criteria of meta-analysis were selected. Heterogeneity test indicated that random effects model was appropriate for the meta-analysis. TheSensitivity analysis showed that there existed a significant positive correlation between gratitude with subjective well-being, satisfaction with life, positive affect, yet there existed a negative correlation between gratitude and negative affect after progressively deleting the higher heterogeneity studies. The Subgroups analysis and Meta-regression analysis revealed that the relationship between gratitude and subjective well-being was moderated and influenced by gratitude measurement tools, type of participants, and culture background. The above results indicated that grateful individuals have stronger subjective well-being, meanwhile, the function of the gratitude measurement tool, the subjects and the cultural background is also taken into consideration.
Words are generally considered as the basic unit of language processing. Hence word segmentation is a vital step for language comprehension. In speech processing, cues for word segmentation may be phonological, grammatical or semantic. Phonological cues can be further classified as statistic, phonotactic and prosodic, while prosodic information involves stress, duration and pitch. Phonological cues are generally acquired at the initial stage of language learning, and they differ as the linguistic environment changes. Semantic and grammatical knowledge provide high-level cues which constrains word segmentation at later stage. It is suggested that future research focus on the trajectory of segmentation cues in a lifespan and the specificity of language in the process of word segmentation.
Within memory research, the relation between encoding and retrieval has been under the spotlight. Research in the past 37 years (1980-present) has demonstrated that there are differences between the neural mechanisms activated by subsequently remembered information and subsequently forgotten information during encoding, which are labeled as subsequent memory effects. Such effects indicate that it’s possible to predict retrieval according to the neural activities during encoding. In the past decade (2008~2017), researchers have opened new paths on subsequent memory effects inspired by previous studies in this field, such as focusing on the influences of processing levels and orientating tasks during encoding, comparing the effects among different retrieval tasks, exploring the similarities and differences among different age groups, and examining the impacts of emotional items and emotional contexts. In this sense, detailed reviews were made from these aspects. Furthermore, we pointed out several possible directions for future studies: (a) integrating previous results, (b) improving theoretical models, (c) exploring more social factors, (d) focusing on individual and group differences, as well as (e) extending applications.
“Sense of agency” refers to the sense of controlling one’s actions and the course of events in the outside world. It is based on the match between the expected action and the real sensory feedback. The first part of this article introduces a method for implicit measurement of sense of agency. The second part deals with the factors that influence the sense of agency from the aspects of intentionality and sensory feedback. Part three provides the conclusion. With an emphasis on the functions of the prefrontal and parietal lobes, this article provides evidence to explain the mechanism of sense of agency through the theoretical model and cognitive neuroscience.
Theories about dual processing in reasoning and judgment have gone through different stages of development, and the focus on the definition and characteristics of the two processing processes in the early stage has turned to the study of the cooperation and transformation mechanism between the two at present. This study sorts out the representative models of the collaboration and transformation mechanism and its related experimental support evidence in the dual processing process, and summarizes the following three models: serial processing model, parallel competitive model and hybrid model. This study proceeds to compare and discuss the problems faced by the three models respectively as well as the differences and similarities between the three models in their interpretations of the transformation and cooperation mechanism between the two processing processes, the processing mechanism of conflict detection, and bias response.
It is known that as a training tool, ZEN has an extensive influence on human’s mental processes. In terms of divergent thinking and convergent thinking, the two important, similar but different ways of ZEN show significant differences. Meditation improves divergent thinking mainly based on cognitive flexibility and other factors such as attention strategies, the unconscious activation, the problem-solving motivation and emotion regulation; in terms of convergent thinking, by means of regulating executive function and possible cognitive restructuring, mindfulness can promote the transformation of set or functional fixedness. In terms of the mechanism, enhancing effect of ZEN on creative thinking not only benefits from the unconscious associative processing when the mind wanders, but also is adjusted by emotion effect induced by ZEN. This article sorts out the above-mentioned questions systematically, then points out the deficiencies of previous studies and prospects several future research directions.
Recently, educational psychologists have paid much attention to the effect of emotional factors on multimedia learning, especially the induction of emotions which belongs to one of instructional designs. The effect of positive emotions in the learning process was mainly investigated through external mood induction and internal emotional design in previous studies which indicated that these two emotional induction methods both can induce positive emotions successfully. Nevertheless, the facilitation of positive emotions on multimedia learning performance had very small effect due to the diversity of the emotional induction method and the complexity of the multimedia learning process. In this article, results showed that the median effect sizes related to the effect of external mood induction on learning outcomes were dretention = -0.25, dcomprehension = 0.04, dtransfer = 0.30, respectively; the median effect sizes related to the effect of internal emotional design on learning outcomes were dretention = 0.27, dcomprehension = 0.36, dtransfer = 0.29, respectively. Induced emotions had little effect on subjective learning experience. According to cognitive affective theory of learning with media, the induction of positive emotions can improve learning through motivation. Cognitive load theory, however, predicts an opposite result of learning for the reason that the induction of positive emotions might bring about an increase of the learner’s extraneous cognitive load. Future studies should focus on the experimental manipulation and the effect evaluation of emotion itself, as well as the effect of the undiscovered moderator variables, etc.
Researches on positive psychology intervention is fruitful. Content-level and Mechanism-level are two main perspectives to define positive psychology interventions (PPIs). Strategies adopted in PPIs mainly focus on identifying and using positive strengths, noticing and appreciating positive feelings, training and acquiring positive thoughts, and establishing and maintaining positive relationships. Positive thoughts, positive feelings, positive behaviors, need satisfaction and neural evidences function as the possible active ingredients of PPIs. Features of activity, features of person and features of cultural background play the role as moderators which influence the efficacy and effectiveness of PPIs. Future study should integrate both Content- and Mechanism-level to define PPIs, apply both independent and packed PPIs, and follow effective and cost-effective principles.
Sleep-related problems are becoming increasingly severer for workers, which draw great attention from researchers. Based on important empirical researches in recent years, we finish a systematic summary of the conceptualization, measurement, antecedents and consequences of sleep in the workplace. In general, researches measure individual’s sleep from two dimensions including sleep duration and sleep quality. Objective records and subjective reports are both used to collect data. Antecedents of sleep problems can be classified as environmental factors, cognitive factor and behavioral factors. Unsatisfactory sleep also has a negative influence on the psychological state and behaviors of workers, which may lead to workplace deviance and accidents. Future researches can explore deeply the research methods of sleep and pay attention to longitudinal design and experimental design. Also, antecedents and relevant moderators deserve great concern and can be applied for the management policy setting. Besides, sleep problems of aged workers and the impact of work-family conflict on sleep are also meaningful topics.
It has been identified that physical exercise is able to enhance cognitive functions, attracting attention to the underlying brain mechanisms. The literature shows that the enhancing effects rely basically on two distinct mechanisms, on the microscale and macroscale levels, respectively. At the microscale level, physical exercise favored synaptogenesis and the survival of neurons through better nutrient supply and metabolism. At the macroscale level, physical exercise could enhance cognition through enlarging the volume of white and grey matter, and changing the brain activity and functional connectivity. Notably, multiple factors could influence the enhancing effects of physical exercise on cognition, such as individual differences, time, and the interaction between physical exercise and cognitive stimulations. These factors provide new directions to conduct deep and systematic investigations on the brain mechanisms of enhancing effects on the two levels.
Pre-commitment, as an effective self-control strategy, can reduce the impulsivity of decision- making primarily through precluding the options in advance that may prompt individuals to make impulsive decisions. Pre-commitment regulates the intertemporal choice primarily via activating the lateral frontopolar cortex (LFPC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC), which is also affected by self-control, value estimation, trait impulsivity, punishment sensitivity and other relevant psychological processes. This study proposes an integrated model, which contains cognitive mechanism and neural basis for the role of pre-commitment in reducing impulsive decision-making. The model provides theoretical foundation and important implications for reducing impulsive decision-making. Future research should continue to examine the psychological and neural mechanisms for the regulatory role of pre-commitment in intertemporal choice. Additionally, it is significant to investigate how pre-commitment impacts decision making in applied research.
Construal Level Theory considered that self-control was broadly conceptualized as making decisions and acting in accordance with global, high-level construal of the situation rather than local, low-level construal. Researches concerning temporal discount, persistence, healthy behaviors and prospective self-control showed that high construal level promotes self-control. Moreover, the effect of high-level construal on self-control was mediated by attitudes toward temptations and asymmetric temptation-goal. The effect is modulated by the characteristics of task and goal (e.g. goal value and difficulty, valence, response style, manifestation of goals) and presence of high level construal cue (explicit or implicit). In summary, the present approach, which considers self-control as a construal-dependent decision, extended self-control Dual-Model and Ego-Depletion Model and provided some more possible psychological mechanisms. Therefore, further research should focus on mechanisms of the positive construal level and self-control association, investigate effects of psychological distance on such association and look into this association from longitudinal perspective.
The indigenous research on Chinese management is emerging, but there is still a lack of proper indigenous theories to support such empirical studies. The theme of this paper is to extract cultivation thought from Confucianism mainly, and try to construct self-cultivation theory that rooted in Chinese traditional philosophy in order to provide a new explanation to those indigenous phenomena. Firstly, this paper tried to describe the background of constructing self-cultivation theory which could be generalized into two aspects, one is the difference and similarity of assumption about human nature and the other one is the distinction about external and internal control towards human’s behavior in western and Chinese society. Secondly, this paper analyzed pre-Qin’s cultivation-related discourse and then summarized their similarities to give a definition towards the thought of self-cultivation which refers to the process of a person pursuing ideal personality and high level of moral standard. Self-cultivation emphasizes self-conscious, initiative, selfless and includes self-reflection, self-discipline, self-study, self-improvement and self-dedication that reflects an ideal realm of “Chun Tzu”. Thirdly, a comparison between self-cultivation and social exchange paradigm was done to better understand self-cultivation thought on account of the widely use of social exchange paradigm in illustrating organization behaviors. Finally, the paper tried to make a list of the potential contributions and applications of self-cultivation in indigenous research of Chinese organization behaviors.