In the event-related potential (ERP) studies of visual attention, there is a debate regarding whether the C1 component, originated in V1, is modulated by spatial attention. The majority view suggests that C1 is not directly modulated by spatial attention; however, there is a delayed-feedback in V1. The minority view, on the other hand, implies that the C1 component can be directly modulated by spatial attention at the early feed-forward processing stage. Recently there was a debate regarding this issue. In this review, we first summarize the main points and evidence for each side. Second, we listed the factors that may affect the C1 attentional effects. Third, we review and comments on the recent discussions on three aspects, including the repeatability of C1 attentional effect, the role of perceptual and attentional load in eliciting this effect, and the relationship between C1 polarity reversal and its V1-origin. Finally we proposed two points of view: the first is that we should be open and cautious towards the minority view, and the second, there are some techniques and methods that may help to reveal the potential C1 attentional effect. In conclusion, the majority view has been supported by many previous studies and the minority view needs more decisive evidence, and this debate will continue.
Impulsive buying is a common phenomenon in daily life. It is also an important sub-field of consumer behavior research. There have been many valuable research findings on consumers’ impulsive buying in the context of consumer shopping alone. However, the research on impulsive buying behavior in the context of shopping with others is obviously insufficient. On the basis of "desire-willpower" model and the theories of emotional contagion and attribution, this paper tries to find out the internal decision-making mechanism of consumers’ impulsive buying behavior from two aspects of desire and willpower through the methods of interview, experiment and questionnaire. The conclusions would enrich the current research contents of impulsive buying behavior happening in the context of shopping with others. The findings would also provide theoretical suggestions for enterprises’ marketing practice, the management of personal impulsive buying behavior, and consumer education conducted by governments.
The voluntary frontier settlement hypothesis proposed that voluntary frontier settlement leads to independent agency. The present work compared 538 college students from Shenzhen (an ongoing voluntary frontier settlement region) and Xiangfan. Controlling for resident status, the Singelis self-construal scale, the collectivist orientation scale, the triad task, the attribution task and loyalty/nepotism task were administered to examine the relationship between ongoing voluntary settlement and independent agency. As predicted, the results indicated that residents of Shenzhen scored higher in self-reported independent index, lower in self-reported collectivist orientation and holistic thinking, lower in rewarding honest friend and higher in punishing dishonest friend than those from Xiangfan. These findings indicate that Shenzhen as an ongoing voluntary frontier settlement is more independent than other regions of Mainland China such as Xiangfan. This implies that even in a generally interdependent culture in East Asia, ongoing voluntary frontier settlement leads to independent agency.
The McGurk effect is a typical audiovisual integration phenomenon, influenced by characteristics of physical stimuli, attentional allocation, the extent that individuals rely on visual or auditory information in processing, the ability of audiovisual integration, and language/culture differences. Key visual information that leads to the McGurk effect is mainly extracted from the mouth area of the talker. The McGurk effect implicates both audiovisual integration (which occurs in the early processing stage and is related to the activation of superior temporal cortex) and the conflict of the incongruent audiovisual stimuli (which occurs in the late processing stage and is related to the activation of inferior frontal cortex). Future studies should further investigate the influence of social factors on the McGurk effect, pay attention to the relationship between unimodal information processing and audiovisual integration in the McGurk effect, and explore the neural mechanisms of McGurk effect with computational modeling.
Face pareidolia refers to the compelling illusion of perceiving facial features on inanimate objects, such as an illusory face on the moon surface. Both top-down and bottom-up factors can modulate the occurrence of face pareidolia. In recent years, many studies using behavioral, brain imaging, as well as EEG techniques have been devoted to investigating its influential factors. It was found that the occurrence of face pareidolia depends on whether the stimuli contain face-like structures, whether the internal face template can match the current stimulus, and whether or not there are face related backgrounds. It was also influenced by individual differences and observers’ emotional states. Brain imaging studies suggest that information from the frontal and occipital vision regions can be infused at the fusiform face area (FFA) when experiencing face pareidolia. Future research should focus on exploring the behavioral and neural mechanisms of individual differences in face pareidolia, as well as the interactions and neural mechanisms between different types of top-down modulation.
The ability of recognizing ambiguous expressions is proposed to be a generally used social skill, which plays a crucial role in human social interaction. Emotion context information as a main factor which affects ambiguous expression recognition, including text description, emotional expression, color background, olfactory signal and personality factors, were reviewed in this paper. We aim to reveal the mechanisms underlying the process of ambiguous expression which was influenced by emotion context information. In the future research, the following topics should be considered: highlighting the dominant research status of ambiguous expression, defining emotional context information clearly, exploring new research paradigms and identifying brain regions that affect the transfer of valance, in order to broaden the research field of ambiguous expression recognition.
In task switching, a stimulus containing the features of the current task and the associated features of another task is defined as a bivalent stimulus. Exposure to bivalent stimuli affects the processing of univalent stimuli, slowing the response to all subsequent univalent stimuli. This phenomenon is called the bivalency effect. Researchers have found that the bivalency effect is generally and stably observed among various tasks. The theoretical explanation of the bivalency effect mainly comprises episodic context binding and the history-dependent predictive model. The generation of the bivalency effect is related to the extraction of additional visual features and top-down adjustment of cognitive control. The former is mainly related to activation of the temporal-parietal junction, while the latter is mainly related to activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and the pre-supplementary motor regions.
Inhibitory control is an important part of executive function. Studies have showed that inhibitory control is in connection with activities in the frontal lobe region. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a kind of non-invasive brain stimulation that can regulate activation intensity of the brain region. Studies have shown that tDCS on partial region of the frontal lobe can effectively interfere with the level of inhibitory control of the participants, and this intervention can be affected by changes in such conditions as location and type of the stimulation, and experimental tasks. At present, tDCS has been applied to the studies on inhibitory control of different populations, and can be better combined with other research techniques.
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder typically began in late adolescence or early adulthood. To date, the cause of schizophrenia remains largely unclear. The classical dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia is now thought to be sided. Meanwhile, the involvement of impaired Parvalbumin positive interneurons (PV+ neurons) in the pathological mechanism of schizophrenia has been realized and received increasing attention. Generally, PV+ cells is a kind of inhibitory, fast-spiking interneurons, which had been demonstrated to be involved in synaptic plasticity, excitation/inhibition balance and neurogenesis. In schizophrenia, abnormal PV+ neurons has been commonly found in patients and relevant animal models., In this article, we reviewed the roles of deficits of PV+ neurons in schizophrenic pathology combined its principal phenotypes including defective NMDA receptors, abnormal gamma oscillation and oxidative stress, hoping to contribute to further investigation and development of new drugs.
Previous studies have shown that structure and function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are particularly vulnerable to aging. On the other hand, recent studies have also indicated that the structural and functional plasticity of PFC is preserved in old age. For older adults, cognitive training attenuates reduction of cortical thickness in PFC, increases white matter integrity, improves intra- and inter-network functional connectivity, and also changes functional activation through modulation of dopamine activity in PFC and subcortical structures. Aerobic exercise improves cardiovascular fitness, preserves neuronal integrity and promotes neurogenesis, which would then lead to increased volumes in prefrontal gray and white matter, and altered functional activation patterns. Multimodal intervention, which combines cognitive training and physical exercise, has demonstrated better ecological validity, enhancing everyday cognition and life quality of older adults. We suggest that future studies should adopt various techniques, in order to better understand the prefrontal neuroplasticity in old age and its related mechanisms; separately analyze the various PFC related cognitive abilities; and lay stress on the more ecological multimodal intervention.
Body image disturbance mainly refers to the individual's negative perception of the body, negative emotional experience and the corresponding negative behavior regulation. The "looking-glass self" theory suggests that the attitude and reaction of others is a "mirror" from which we know ourselves. According to this theory, the main external reasons for body image disturbance include the negative real evaluations from the primary group and the diverse real evaluations from the secondary group. Meanwhile, the main internal reasons include the fear of subjective imaginary evaluation and the deviation of subjective perceptual evaluation. To alleviate the increasing disturbance and promote the benign transformation of disorders, further researches are needed to explore the sources of body image disturbance, improve the intervention strategy on social interest, and disclose the basic influence of the other-oriented under face culture.
Social identity is the individual’s knowledge that he belongs to certain social groups together with some emotional and value significance to him of this group membership. Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have gradually penetrated into people's daily life. Previous studies showed that SNSs had changed the traditional environment of social identity, which is mainly reflected in five aspects: extend personal relationship networks, improving information exchange, providing a new presentation platform, giving people more privacy choices. SNSs play a vital role in the construction, expression, management, reconstruction of social identity. Further, SNSs may help the individual to create a sense of belonging. More attention should be paid to the research methods, research contents, and practical applications in this area.
One of the most important findings on deception detection is that the accuracy rate is just slightly higher than the random level. Therefore, a number of researchers have paid attention to the impact of unconscious processing on deception detection. This article summarizes theories and empirical studies on unconscious deception detection. We presented three aspects of the empirical results: unconscious reception of information, unconscious thinking, and unconscious judgment. In view of the current findings, we proposed five approaches to studying unconscious processing in deception detection: proposing specific theories, exploring interactive deception situations, studying the cue-processing matching effect, examining effective physiological and brain activation indicators, and applying unconscious deception detection.
Role overload is one type of role stressors that is experienced by employees who lack the necessary competencies, skills or time to successfully perform a variety of role demands. High role overload has negative impact on the organizations, employees’ performance and health. Based on an extensive review of the current definitions of role overload and comparisons among the relevant concepts, we propose an integrated definition for role overload, and review studies on its structural dimension, measurements, antecedents, and consequences. Future research still needs to use more reasonable standards to explore dimension division and measurements, and look into the influencing factors and localization of role overload.
Knowledge sharing is typical public goods social dilemma, employees in organizations have to face to the cooperative game of knowledge sharing. However, there is still a dearth of research analyzing the characteristics, solutions, and the underlying mechanisms of social dilemma of knowledge sharing. To address the problem, relying on social dilemma theory, we intend to illustrate connotations and manifestations of the social dilemma inherent in knowledge sharing. Meanwhile, combining with research on social dilemma and knowledge sharing, we propose and classify three tactics to social dilemma of knowledge sharing, including strategic tactics, structural tactics and motivational tactics. We further integrate extant practices for facilitating knowledge sharing and clarify the underlying mechanisms by which they can help solve social dilemma of knowledge sharing. Finally, based on the theoretical analysis and literature review, we provide both theoretical and methodological implications for future research on social dilemma of knowledge sharing.
In this article, we reviewed the large body of research examining the impacts of social change on human psychology and culture. Our review revealed an increasing trend of individualism and, at the meantime, decreasing collectivism. This trend manifests on various societal and individual-level indicators, including relationship structures, first-person pronouns use, naming practices, value preferences, personality, sexual and religious attitudes, child-rearing goals and child development, cognitive styles and emotional experiences. Our review also demonstrated the complexities of cultural and psychological change, including the non-linearity of the change, endurance of traditional culture and emerging multi-cultural society. At the end, we pointed out some limitations of the existing research and highlighted some possible directions of future research.
Moral judgments and behaviors are highly sensitive to culture. The understanding and construction of the exact same moral issues can vary substantially across individuals who come from different cultural backgrounds or possess different levels of multicultural experiences. Social psychologists are increasingly interested in closely looking at human morality through the lens of culture, partly driven by a renaissance of cultural psychology in the 1980s and the broadening and deepening of globalization. Based upon the perspective of cultural psychology, we briefly summarize how particular cultural factors (e.g. geography, ecology, social class) influence individuals’ moral judgments and behaviors from three facets: between-culture variations, within-culture variations, and multiculturalism. Together, it is our hope that this review article will inspire future research to better understand how Chinese people’s moral patterns and value systems have changed and are changing in the context of rapid and deep cultural change in China.